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Introduction to

Kingdom Animalia

Animals are multicellular. heterotrophic eukaryotes. 2. Animal cells possess a number of unique cellular structures. e. gap junctions . Most animals reproduce sexually.g.Defining Animals 1. Animals possess special tissues that are responsible for impulse conduction (nervous tissue) and movement (muscle tissue).. Animals generally store their carbohydrate reserves as glycogen 3. 5. with the diploid stage dominating the life cycle .intracellular junctions that allow the passage of materials between cells 4.

virtually all known animal phyla had evolved from the first animals of the late Precambrian .Animal Phylogeny • Origin of most animal phyla and major body plans took place in Precambrian era and early Cambrian period of the Paleozoic era (circa 500-600 mya) • Most systematists agree that the animal kingdom is monophyletic • By the early Cambrian period (about 550 mya).

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a body plan in which the right and left sides of the body are mirror images of each other.a circular body plan having a central axis from which structures radiate outward • Bilateral symmetry .Trends in Animal Evolution 1. The first trend was a shift from a body plan called radial symmetry to a body plan referred to as bilateral symmetry • Radial symmetry . central longitudinal plane divides the body into 2 equal but opposite halves .

2.the development of a series of body units. which has associated with it a brain and various kinds of sensory structures 3.the development of a distinct head. blood vessels. An increase in body segmentation . A change from a tube enclosed in solid tissue toward suspension of the tube in a fluid filled space 5. each containing similar sets of muscles. . elongated body containing a tube called the "gut" with openings at both ends 4. A trend toward increasing cephalization . etc. nerves.Trends in Animal Evolution cont. A change from a simple sac-like body with a single opening at one end to a more complex.

Major Events in Animal Phylogeny .

Sponges B.g. The Parazoa-Eumetazoa Split Two basic kinds of animals evolved early in animal evolution..g. . e.Major Events in Animal Phylogeny cont. essentially all other animals.animals with well defined tissue layers. 1. Parazoa ("beside the animal") animals that lack true tissues. Eumetazoa . A. e..

The Radiata-Bilateria Split • The eumetazoa are divided into 2 major branches depending on the type of body symmetry •Some organisms exhibit radial symmetry. and are called the Radiata • Other eumetazoa exhibit bilateral symmetry. 2. and are called the Bilateria .Major Events in Animal Phylogeny cont.

2. • Endoderm .two germ layers form • Ectoderm .inner most germ layer. in addition to the ectoderm and endoderm they produce a third germ layer.covering the surface of the embryo. the mesoderm • Mesoderm . • The Radiata-Bilateria split is also defined by the differences in the number of germ layers that are formed in the embryo during gastrulation • The Radiata are referred to as diploblastic . gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and associated organs. Radiata-Bilateria Split cont.germ layer between the ectoderm and the endoderm. lines the primitive gut. such as the liver and lungs of vertebrates • The Bilateria are triploblastic. gives rise to muscles and to most other organs . gives rise to the epidermis and in some phyla the nervous system.

The Acoelomate-Coelomate Split A. a fluid filled sac separate the gut from the outer body wall.Major Events (Branch Points) in Animal Phylogeny con’t 3. Acoelomates . there is no body cavity between the gut (endoderm) and the outer body wall. • The other 2 body plans are often referred to as a tube within a tube body plan. • A second important difference between acoelomates and animals having a body cavity is that animals with a body cavity have some sort of blood vascular system .animals with solid bodies.

• This kind of body cavity is called the coelom . B.animals that have a fluid filled body cavity that is completely lined with tissue that is derived from the mesoderm.3. Acoelomate-Coelomate Split cont. Pseudocoelomates animals in which the body cavity is not completely lined with mesodermal tissue • The body cavity is called a pseudocoelom C. Coelomates .

and coelom formation .Animal Phylogeny cont. They are distinguished based upon fundamental differences in early development. 4. can be divided into 2 distinct groups: protostomes and deuterostomes. including cleavage. The ProtostomeDeuterstome Split Coelomates. fate of the blastopore.

indeterminate cleavage . Cleavage Protostomes .Spiral. determinate cleavage Deuterostomes .4. The ProtostomeDeuterstome Split con’t A.Radial.

B. Fate of the Blastopore • During gastrulation.the blastopore becomes the mouth •Deuterstomes .4. it has a single opening called the blastopore • A second opening forms later at the opposite end of the archenteron to produce a digestive tube with a mouth and anus • Protostomes . the rudimentary gut or archenteron forms. The Protostome-Deuterstome Split cont.the blastopore becomes the anus .

coelom formation is called schizocoelous development. C. The Protostome-Deuterstome Split cont. Coelom Formation • Protostomes . coelom forms as outpockets from the endoderm .coelom formation is called enterocoelous development. coelom forms by splitting of mesoderm • Deuterostomes .4.