Está en la página 1de 34

Actual Shell Side Pressure Drop :

Bell-Delaware Method

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi

Five corrections to Cross Flow


Pressure Drop..

Tube Side Calculations


Gr. No.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

DN

di, mm

Ret

htube,
W/m2K

Ntubes

Dshell

(m)

B/Ds

Shell Side Calculations


Gr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

Dshell,
m

Reshell

hs,
W/m2.K

Uclean
W/m2.K

Udirty
Ldirty, m
W/m2.K

Ds/L
0.0670.2

Hydraulic Analysis for Tube-Side


The pressure drop encountered by the fluid making Np
passes through the heat exchanger is a multiple of the
kinetic energy of the flow.
Therefore, the tube-side pressure drop is calculated by

ftube 1.58 ln Ret 3.28

Shell-side pressure drop, ps


For a shell-and-tube type heat exchanger with bypass and
leakage streams, the total inlet nozzle-to- exit nozzle pressure
drop is calculated as the sum of the following three
components:
The combined pressure drop of all the interior cross flow
section .
The pressure drop in the window
The pressure drop in the entrance and exit sections.
The total shell-side pressure drop, excluding nozzles, is

The pressure drop in the nozzles must be calculated separately and


added to the total pressure drop.

Friction coefficient for Ideal Cross Flow

1.33
b2
f i b1
Re s
PT
do

Where

b3
b
b4
1 0.14 Re s

Pressure drop in Ideal Interior Cross Flow


The pressure drop in an equivalent ideal tube bank in one
baffle compartment of central baffle spacing a is calculated
from:

where fi is the friction coefficient,


Gs is the mass velocity of the shell-side fluid,
s is the shell-side fluid density,
s is the shell-side fluid viscosity,
s,w is the viscosity of shell-side fluid evaluated at wall surface
temperature, and
Ntcc is the number of tube rows crossed in one cross flow section.

Pressure drop in the interior cross flow


By considering the pressure drop in the interior cross flow
section (baffle tip to baffle tip), the combined pressure drop of
all the interior cross flow section is:

where
Nb is the number of baffles,
Rl is the leakage correction factor (A and E streams)
Rb is the bypass correction factor .
Typically, Rb= 0.5 to 0.8, depending on the construction type and
number of sealing strips, and
Rl = 0.4 to 0.5

The leakage correction factor, Rl

Where

Correction factors for bundle bypass pressure drop, Rb

with the limit of , Rb =1 at rss1/2, &


Cbp=4.5 for laminar flow, Res 100,
Cbp=3.7 for turbulent and transition flow.

The pressure drop in the window


For turbulent flow, Res > 100:

m w

m s m s

S m Stw

ds sin ds
ctl sin ctl 2
Stw D

Nt
d o
4
2
2 4
360
360

2
s

Pressure Drop for Laminar flow through the


Window
For laminar flow, Res< 100:

Dw

4Stw

d o N tw Ds

ds
360

Pressure Drop in Window for Res=100


Comparing the results of laminar and turbulent
calculations at the break point of Res=100, it is found that
the values are not equal.
Because they are based on different principles.
In such cases, the larger value should be taken as a
safety factor.

Special Features of Flow Region of the End Zones


The number of tube rows crossed includes the tube rows in the
entry or exit window.
The leakage streams have not yet developed (entry) or just
joined the main stream (outlet) in the end zones, and therefore
the leakage correction factor is not applicable.
The baffle spacing in the end zones may differ from the central
spacing, especially for U-tube bundles.
An end zone correction factor, Rs is therefore used.
The pressure drop in the two end zones is

Leakage Flow Streams


There are two different shell side leakage flow streams in
a baffled heat exchanger
Stream A is the leakage stream in the orifice formed by
the clearance between the baffle tube hole and the tube
wall.
Stream E is the leakage stream between the baffle edge
and shell wall.

Pressure drop correction for unequal baffle


spacing at inlet and/or outlet, Rs

n is the slope of the friction factor curve,


For laminar flow, (Res < 100); n =1
for turbulent flow, n 0.2

Pressure Drop Caluculations


Group Ntube
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

ptube

pbi

pc

pw

pe

pshell

Pumping Power

Ptube

m hot oil ptube

p hot oil

Pshell

m crudeoil pshell

p crudeoil

Parametric Study and Thermo-economic


Optimization of STHE

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi

Need for Heat Transfer Area Vs Baffle Spacing

AHT

B/Ds

Normalized pumps power consumption vs dimensionless


baffle spacing

B/Ds

Baffle cut can vary between 15% and 45% of


the shell inside diameter.

Thermo-economic Optimization
Objective Function: The total annual cost

CT topcex E D a1CHEX
Where
top is the period of operation per year,
cex is the unit cost of the exergy,
ED is the exergy destruction,
a1 is the capital recovery factor and
CHEX is the capital cost of the heat exchanger.

The Exergy Destruction Rate : A Measure of Running


Cost
The thermal component of the exergy destruction rate

The pressure component of the exergy destruction rate

The totalexergy destruction rate

E D E D,T E D,p

Effect of Baffle Spacing on Total Cost