Está en la página 1de 19

REFRACTORIES

REFRACTORIES
Refractories are heat-resistant materials that
constitute the linings for high-temperature
furnaces and reactors and other processing units.

REFRACTORIES
Must withstand high temperatures (above
1000F)
Must be able to resist thermal shock

Must be chemically inert


Must withstand physical wear and corrosion by
chemical agents

What are refractories made of???


From natural and synthetic materials
nonmetallic
combination of compounds and minerals
( alumina, fireclays, bauxite, chromite, etc.)

CLASSIFICATIONS OF
REFRACTORIES
Based on chemical composition
Based on method of manufacture
Based on fusion temperature

Based on chemical composition

Acidic refractories
Consists of mostly acidic materials
Not affected by acidic materials
Easily affected by basic materials
Silica, alumina, fire clay brick refractories

Based on chemical composition

Neutral Refractories
Chemically stable to both acida and bases
Raw materials belong to the R2O3 group
Alumina, chromia, carbon

Basic Refractories
Stable to alkaline materials but could react
with acids.
Raw materials belong to the RO group

Based on method of manufacture

Shaped
Standard shapes are usually firebricks
(9 4.5 2.5)

Unshaped
"Monolithic refractories"
Given shape upon application.

Based on fusion temperature

Normal Refractory
Fusion temperature of 1580C to 1780C
Ex. Fire clay

High Refractory
Fusion temperature of 1780C to 2000C
Ex. Chromite

Based on fusion temperature

Super Refractory
Fusion temperature of more than 2000C
Ex. Zirconia

HISTORY
Bronze and Iron Ages
- Refractories in some form were necessary for metal processing.
1638
- first recorded use of refractories
- For glass pots in the glassworks
- Salem, Massachusetts

1645
- first commercially blast furnace at Saugus, Massachusetts

17th and 18th Century


- firebricks were imported from England

HISTORY
18th Century
- progress of glassmaking which also gave rise to refractory production to
supply them.

1793
- fireclay was being shipped from New Jersey to Boston and used as
firebricks

19th century
- More firebrick manufacturers sprang up in New England, Pennsylvania
and other parts in America.

History
After Civil War
- Refractory manufacturing became an industry
- Some of the companies still operating today were founded during that
period ( Harbison-Walker Refractories Company)

After WWI
- Aluminum, glass, hot metals industry expanded

Important Developments
Silica Refractories

1842

Chrome Refractories

1896

Magnesite Refractories

1886 - 1940's

Dolomite Refractories

1965

High-Alumina Refractories

1888

Insulating Refractories

Mid-1920's

Plastics and Castables

1920's

Ceramic Fiber

1940s

Refractory Fiber

1980s

MANUFACTURE OF
REFRACTORIES

Raw material processing


Crushing and grinding raw materials
Size classification
Raw materials calcining and drying
May be dry-mixed with other minerals

MANUFACTURE OF
REFRACTORIES

Forming
Raw materials are mixed.
Formed into desired shapes
Occurs under moist conditions

Firing
Heats the refractory material to high
temperatures
Gives the product its refractory properties.

MANUFACTURE OF
REFRACTORIES

Final processing stage


Milling
Grinding
Sandblasting of finished product

USES
Structures subjected to high temperatures
Ex. Fireplace brick linings
To line boilers and furnaces of all types
Ex. Reactors, ladles, kilns, etc.