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CHIP BREAKERS

In operation at high cutting


speeds, when a large quantity of
inconvenient and hazardous steel
chips is produced in a short time,
the problem of curling or breaking
the chip into small pieces becomes
one of primary importance.

Chip Curling and Breaking


methods
(a) by means of grooves formed on the
tool face;
(b) By means of steps or shelves ground
on the tool face;
(c) by means of separate chip breakers
fastened to the tool point; and
(d) by the kinematic method.

Chip breaker grooves


Grooves and
depressions formed
on the tool face by
abrasive grinding or
electrospark erosion,
curl the chip into a
tight spiral or break it
into small pieces

Depressions on the tool face

Depressions on the tool face

Along with the in-creased use of


cemented carbide, a disadvantage of
grooves is that they are difficult to make
since they are ground with thin wheels
that wear rapidly, lose their form and
require frequent truing.
The electrospark erosion method of
forming grooves with the use of a
copper or brass electrode is quite
complicated.

These
shortcoming
s were
eliminated in
tools with a
shallow chipbreaker
groove

These
grooves are
made on the
face of
cemented
carbide tips
by lapping
with a bronze
or cast iron
disk charged
with boron
carbide.

Sep Type Chip Breakers

Steps are made on


the tool face by
grinding or
electrospark
erosion.
As the chip flows
against the
shoulder of the
step or ledge it is
curled into a tight
spiral and breaks
into short lengths

Separate Chip breakers Fasten


to the Tool Point
The main advantages of a separate
chip breaker is that it can be
readily adjusted to achieve
dependable action.
It requires no additional grinding of
the cemented carbide tip of the
tool.

A Separate Chip breakers

on tool face 1 is chip breaker 2


made of steel and having a
curvilinear working surface
which is hard-faced with a layer
of stellite 2 or 3 mm thick to
improve wear resistance.

The chip breaker has a milled slot


through which fastening screw 3
passes.

Universal Chip Breaker

In addition to
swivel about a
vertical axis, head
1, fitted into stem 2,
can be tilted about
a horizontal axis as
well (after
loosening screw 3).

This allows the head


to be set at various
angles .

Head 1 can be easily


replaced if it is
worn or has been
damaged.

Kinematic Method of Chip


Breaking
Chips can be broken into short pieces
if a supplementary reciprocating
motion is imparted to the tool in the
direction of the feed motion. This has
been called kinematic chip breaking.
Owing to tool reciprocation, the chip
will vary in thickness and breaks easily
at the thinner places.

Kinematic Method of Chip


Breaking
1- work
2- tool
3- lever
4- spring
5- cam
6- pusher

Ceramic Tipped Tools

A slot with sides at angles of 70 and


80 is shaped at the front end of holder
1.
Ceramic insert 2 is forced against the
holder by wedge 3 which is drawn up by
screw 4.

This method of clamping the insert


from the sides is expedient since,
owing to the high brittleness of the
ceramics, the insert can be easily
broken if clamped from above.

The insert is backed up by screw 6


which is screwed into pin 5. This pin
is press-fitted in the holder.

Each time the insert is


sharpened, it becomes shorter
and is advanced by screw 6 to
maintain an overhang which
should not exceed 0.5 to 0.8 mm.

DIAMOND TOOLS

Speeds, Feeds and Depths of Cut for


Single-Point Diamond Tools

Boring Bit with a Brazed Diamond


(The weight of diamonds used in single-point tools ranges from
0.5 to 0.8 carats)

The tool bits of diamond boring tools


are usually of round cross section ,
from 6 to 20 mm in diameter.
The bits and holders of turning tools
may be round, square or rectangular in
cross section (16x16, 20x20, and 16x25
mm).

In the
manufacture of
tools with a
brazed diamond
tip a slot is milled
in the bit.
The facetted
diamond is fitted
in the slot in
which it is brazed
with silver filler
metal.
The brazing
method enables
diamonds of small
size to be
employed.

Drawbacks are the difficulty in dismounting


the tool (removing the diamond) and the
danger of overheating the diamond which
acquires defects at temperature over 720 C
that lower its strength and shorten its service
life.
For these reasons, brazing should be
resorted to only when the small size of the
diamond does not allow it to be clamped
mechanically.

Mechanically Clamped Diamond


(Boring Bit)

1- tool bit
2- insert
3- clamp
4- screw
5- diamond

Mechanically Clamped Diamond


(Lead-angle Tool)

1- holder
2- clamp
3- diamond
4- insert
5- screw
6- pin

The provision
of the pin 6
enables the
clamp to bear
more tightly
against the
face of the
diamond
which
projects
slightly from
insert 4.

The diameter
of pin 6
should be
selected in
accordance
with the
amount by
which the
diamond
projects
above the
insert.

A mechanically clamped diamond can


be easily removed from the bit or
holder, examined, reground (if
necessary) and replaced for further
operation.
There is no danger of overheating the
diamond.
The main shortcoming of mechanical
clamping is that larger diamonds must
be used.