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Whos Who?

Who you are


Your company and role
One thought on/a view about
safety (either a positive or a
negative aspect)

Aim is to achieve a step change in safety
performance?
What does your Company say about Safety?
Have you achieved it?
Safety Auditing
How Things Have Got Betterso Far.
Behavioural Safety Auditing: Learning Outcomes
Understand the wider consequences of accidents
Recognise the impact of our attitudes and behaviours on safety
performance
Recognise how routine day-to-day activities cause harm,
Develop key skills to assist in the conduct of the behavioural safety
auditing technique - changing/promoting safe behaviours
Role Play
(On site visit)

Why all this effort for safety?
How we get Business Success
Definitions
Auditor- One who hears, a listener
Auditing-
Test (what people know)
Verify (what people do)
Correct (self correction most effective)
Commend
People must be involved
What does auditing mean to you?
How do we measure Safety?
Major 3-Day Source: H&S Statistics 98/99
Fatal
(Non-fatal)
Total
Falls from a height 82 5558 8279 13919
Struck by moving vehicle 47 929 2830 3806
Stuck by moving object (inc flying/falling) 42 4280 17650 21972
Contact with moving machinery 20 1715 5584 7319
Contact with electricity/electrical discharge 17 215 458 690
Trapped collapsing/overturning 15 226 511 752
Drowning or asphyxiation 10 57 106 173
Exposure to an explosion 6 60 134 200
Injured by an animal 4 171 849 1024
Slips, trips or falls, on same level 3 8767 25801 34571
Exposure to fire 3 59 259 321
Injuries not classified by type 3 37 231 271
Injured while handling, lifting or carrying 2 2826 47188 50016
Exposure to/contact with a harmful substance 2 832 4020 4854
Acts of violence 1 602 4376 4979
Other kind of accident 1 434 2978 3413
Strike against fixed or stationary object 1337 6834 8171
Totals:
Note: Reflects reported accidents only, Does not include ill-health/diseases etc
Does not reflect first-aid only or less than 3-day injuries, Does not reflect near-misses
258 28114 127988 156360
Approx 700 reported injury-accidents per working day
A Lottery
Top Prize?
Accident Rates at Work
Unsafe Acts and Safety Auditing
SAFETY AUDITING
Why Do People Take Risks?
It Wont happen to me!
Wrong Motivation
Mistakes
Dont Know
Why Do People Take Risks?
Essential Principles & Values
Where Do We Do Audits?
Reality
That is where the
accidents happen.
We can test what
people know and
verify what people
do.
Person will feel more
comfortable
We Walk the Talk
Audits take place at the work site!!
Essential Principles & Values
Go Out in Twos
Better balance
See each others blind spots
Accountability
Gives confidence
Coaching during evaluation


Essential Principles & Values
How do we have a successful meeting?
Agenda Item Action
Tell
Barrier
Discuss
Can you?
Do you?
Will you?
Questioning Technique
- Open Questions
Seeking Information
Six questioning friends:
What
How
Where
When
Who
Why*(use caution)


80%Listening : 20% Asking
Questioning Technique
- Closed Questions
Clarifying and Confirming Information
Reaching Agreements (usually yes/no answers)
Closed Questions
Have you read it?
Can you get it?
Will you do it that way from now on?
Questioning Technique - Practise
At School
Out of School
In Work
Out of Work
Life and Times
Find out, through open style questions, about
my time:
The Risk Assessment Model
Task Description
Hazard
Risk
(Probability x Effect)
Controls
What can you do to
Prevent that from
happening?
What can I do?
What can the
organisation do ..?
Hazard
Risk
(Probability x Effect)
Controls
Task description
What job are you doing?
How long have you been doing this job?
What stage are you at?
Safety Audit
How can you
get Hurt?
How else can you get hurt doing this Job?
What would that
be like for you?
What would your
Injuries be?
Risk Assessment Model
HIP
Use your senses that are safe to use, but dont
put yourself in danger!
Sight
sound
Smell
Touch
... but not taste!!
Experience
Gut Feel
Check lists
How can we detect danger?
Advanced Safety Audit Report - Categories
There are 6 categories to assist us in determining unsafe
acts and controls:
Reactions of people
Positions of people
Personal protective equipment
Tools and equipment
Procedures
Orderliness/tidiness
Mechanical
Manual
Handling
Energy
source
Product
Escape
Work site
Material/
Chemical
Exposures
How can they get hurt?
1
2
3
4
5
6
Priorities for Control


Remove the hazard or stop the job

Engineering & Design

Tools & Equipment

Procedures (inc Emergency Procedures)

Orderliness at the work site

Personal Protective Equipment
C
o
m
p
e
t
e
n
t

p
e
o
p
l
e


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Logical And Creative Thinking
L R
Cerebellum
(Old brain)
Logic cReative
Fight or
Flight?
Combining Logic and Creativity leads to Synergy:
An order of magnitude greater
How We Raise Risk Perception
Time
P
e
r
c
e
p
t
i
o
n

S
a
f
e
t
y

A
u
d
i
t
s

Tears to your eyes!!
Actions
Commend
Actions
Agreement, to Correct an Unsafe Act
What agreement/s can be made to
stop people getting hurt?
Ensure agreement is made by:-
You
The Person
Others in the Organisation
Score out of 10, a confidence level
Step by Step
1. Get Ready
2. Consider Safety
At a distance
Closer look
3. The Audit - Listening
Introduction
Agenda
Summary
4. Evaluate
5. Record
6. Follow-up & Review

Setting the Agenda - The Office
Setting the Agenda - Using the Staircase
Setting the Agenda - Tea Break
Setting the Agenda - More Stairs
Setting the Agenda - Forklift
Setting the Agenda - Pallet Load
Observe people before meeting
Look for any
change of
behaviour >>
But dont jump to
conclusions!
Look for no change
of behaviour
The Audit - Introduction
Introduction
Introduce yourself
Ask for their first names
Explain what you are doing and why
Show respect
Friendly
Eye Contact
Smile!


The Audit
Ask about the job they are doing
Go through the agenda of hazards
Ensure you close out each agenda
item
commend for good safety practices
commitment to action to correct
unsafe acts
Audit Role Plays
Hedge Cutting
Basket (half-height
container) Walking
Handling Loads and
Negotiating Stairs
Fork Lifts and
Unstable Loads
Office Stairs

1
2
3
4
5
Close
Post Audit Actions
Unfavourable
Responses
Broken Agreements
BSA or Discipline

The Audit - Summary
Get the person to summarise his/her actions
You summarise your actions to support
improvement
Thank them for their time and involvement
Arrange time to call back to review actions
Evaluate - The Audit
The Audit:
Actions and agreements made
Missed anything significant?
Organisations standards and practices
Evaluating the Audit:
Plan, Perform, Measure, Improve
Evaluate - Yourselves
Yourselves:
How well did we do?
What have we learnt?
Make a Record of Audit
Faintest of ink is better than the strongest of
memories
Brief
No names of people from work site (unless to
commend)
Record names of auditors
Record unsafe acts
Record of actions
The record is primarily for you, but a copy is
sent to Safety Advisor for analysis
Review & Follow up
Your responsibility to ensure agreed
actions are implemented

At the work site

Revisit until behaviour has changed
The Behavioural Safety Auditing
Technique
As well as using for BSA, the technique (ask, dont tell) is
equally valid for:
Toolbox talks/Pre-job talks
Normal supervisory activity
Time out for Safety
Other issues:
Production
Costings
Quality
Environment, etc
The Results
Promotes the elimination
unsafe acts
Find out whats happening
before it turns into an
incident
Ability to evaluate true
safety performance
TRUST
Will you.
commit to undertake an audit within the
next 2 weeks
commit to frequent, quality, Safety Audits?
.remember that the highest of standards
that we can expect from others, are those
that we demonstrate ourselves?
Your Organisation Needs You
Linked Slides
and
Individual Options
How can they get hurt?
Energy
Source
Electricity
Gas
Radiation
Falling objects
Temperature extremes
Noise
Steam
Compressed air
Next
Linked to How do we detect danger:
Button 1
Work site
Trip hazards
Fall from height
Confined space
Poor lighting
Other people above, below or
adjacent
Blind corners
Waste material
Escape routes blocked
How can they get hurt?
Next
Linked to How do we detect danger:
Button 2
Product
Escape
How can they get hurt?
Leak
Spill
Overflow
Wrong mix
Next
Linked to How do we detect danger:
Button 3
Manual
Handling
Pushing
Pulling
Lifting
Repetitive movements
Overexertion
How can they get hurt?
Next
Linked to How do we detect danger:
Button 4
Material/
Chemical
Exposures
Inhalation
Absorption
Swallow (Ingestion)
How can they get hurt?
Next
Linked to How do we detect danger:
Button 5
How can they get hurt?
Mechanical
Crushing
Shearing
Cutting
Entanglement
Impact
Stabbing
Friction
Vibration
Linked to How do we detect danger:
Button 6
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 1
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Engineering
Protection of moving
rotating parts
No access to
dangerous areas
Handrail in position &
good condition
Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 2
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Tools & Equipment
Right for the job
In good condition
Used correctly

Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 3
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Procedures
Do they exist?
Do people know about them?
Are they being used?
Are they kept up to date?
How could they be improved?


Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 4
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Emergency Procedures
What if something goes wrong?
Do emergency
procedures exist?
Do people know and
understand them?
Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 5
Orderliness
A place for everything,
everything in its place
Safe
Secure

Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 6
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Head to toe
Consistency with fellow workers
Matches the hazard
Is it in good condition?
Personal Protective Equipment
Next
Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 7
Controls or what can be done to stop
people from getting hurt.
Selection
Experience
Skill
Knowledge

Competency and Training

Linked to Hierarchy of Controls:
Button 8
Stair Safety
Link from Audit Role Plays:
Button 5
Hedge Cutting
Next
Link from Audit Role Plays:
Button 1
Hedge Cutting (2)
Audit - Hedge Cutter:
Use slide if props (cutter) not available
Deck Supervisor
Next
Link from Audit Role Plays:
Button 2
Unfavourable Responses
Did my approach/questions promote an unfavourable
response?
Did the individual understand my question?
Was the timing for the Audit appropriate?
We may need to adapt our approach:
What If?
Get the person to mentally substitute him/herself for
someone else.
What is the safest way to do this job?
If danger is not imminent it may be appropriate to call back
at a later time.
Next
Link from Basket - Dealing with difficulties:
from previous slide
Broken Agreements?
This question confirms understanding.
If there has been no misunderstanding
the next question is..
What agreements
did we make when
we met last time?
Dont jump to conclusions, be
friendly and ask questions first.
What is the reason
for breaking
your agreement?
Next
Link from Basket - Dealing with difficulties:
from previous slide
Safety Auditing and Discipline
Two totally different behavioural change tools
Positive strikes most effective way of bringing
about change
May at times be necessary to use discipline
but if that is the case it ceases to be safety
auditing

But when?
Well established rule is broken
High risk of injury as a result
The person is not willing to learn
Link from Basket - Dealing with difficulties:
from previous slide
Pallet Load
Link from Audit Role Plays:
Button 3
Handling Loads
Link from Audit Role Plays:
Button 4