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Vibration Isolation System

BY
Naziya I. Ghanchi.
Roll No.-03
M. E.- Structures
Saraswati college Of Engineering.

6
th
January 2014.
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What Is Vibration?
Vibration is the physical movement or oscillation of a
mechanical part about a reference position.
OR
Vibration are time dependent displacements of a
particle or a system of particles w.r.t an equilibrium
position.
The structure undergoes vibration when it is
disturbed from its static equilibrium position and to
allow it to vibrate. This motion that vibrates the
building could be resulted from the wind or
earthquake-induced force or due to any other reason.




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Why do we care about vibration?

Vibration control of civil structures is more recent as
compared to machines & aerospace vehicles.
Earthquakes and wind loads - main sources of
structural vibrations.
Control vibrations by: changing rigidity, mass,
damping, shape, or applying passive or active control
forces.
High strength may result in high acceleration levels,
so increasing strength alone wont always work.


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Why do we care about vibration?
In some instances, vibration can be the main cause
of serious damages that can destroy a
structure/machine or can lead to a humans
discomfort.
Because of these issues, there are always many ways
to provide vibration isolation, that is to lesser the
impact of the vibration or to provide vibration control
so that damage is minimized.

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What is isolation?
Isolation units are the basic elements of a vibration
isolation system which are intended to provide
the decoupling effect to a structure or machine.
Effectiveness of an isolation is measured in terms of
minimum force or motion transmitted to supports or
surroundings
Materials used for isolation have elastic and damping
properties.
Materials- cork, rubber, felt, metal springs etc.
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Why vibration isolation system?
Vibration isnt always easy to predict, which is why
engineers must both design systems to eliminate
vibrations and also use vibration isolation to control
the problem after a system is designed to the best of
the engineers ability.
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What is Vibration isolation system?
Vibration isolation is the process of isolating an
object, such as a part of a structure or piece of
equipment, from the source of vibrations.

Vibration isolation concerns means to bring about a
reduction in a vibratory effect.

A vibration isolator in its most elementary form may
be considered as a resilient member connecting the
superstructure/equipment and foundation.
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Function of Vibration isolation
The function of an isolator is to reduce the
magnitude of motion transmitted from a vibrating
foundation to the superstructure/equipment.
or
To reduce the magnitude of force transmitted from
the equipment/superstructure to its foundation.


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Function of Vibration isolation
The essential features of an isolator are resilient
load-supporting means and energy dissipating
means.
In certain types of isolators, the functions of the
load-supporting means and the energy-dissipating
means may be performed by a single element, e.g.,
natural or synthetic rubber.
In other types of isolators, the resilient load-carrying
means may lack sufficient energy-dissipating
characteristics, e.g., metal springs; then separate
and distinct energy-dissipating means (dampers) are
provided.
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Difference between vibration
damping and isolation
Vibration damping is a termed used to reduce the
amount of energy thats produced by the system.

A vibration damper takes energy out of the system.
When you increase the damping in a mechanism or
structure there will be a reduction in vibration and
noise and the dynamic stresses applied will be
reduced with a resulting benefit to the fatigue life
among many other benefits.
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Difference between vibration
damping and isolation
Vibration isolation is a termed used for preventing
the vibration from being communicated from one
part of a structure to another. Isolators will often
have some inherent damping (like rubber mounting
feet.)
A good vibration isolation system will lower the
natural frequency of a mechanical system below the
excitation frequency. This keeps the natural and
excitation frequency out of sync which in turn
reduces the amount of vibration and potential
problems.

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Classification of Control Methods
Passive isolation.
Active isolation.
Hybrid control.
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Classification of Control Methods

Active/Feedback control:
External source of power drives actuators (i.e., provides
input voltage) .
Voltages required are computed by controller using
certain algorithms with inputs from sensors.
Sensors measure motion (strains, displ, vel, accl.)
Actuators apply forces to structure, thereby adding or
dissipating energy.
Examples of sensors are acceleromters, strain gauges.
Examples of actuators are tendons, solenoids,
piezoelectric stacks, active mass dampers (AMD).
Destabilization possible.
External power may not be available during
earthquake.
Classification of Control Methods

Passive control:
No external power required.
Passive control device (TMD, Base Isolator) imparts
forces that are developed directly as a result of motion
of structure (i.e., no actuator involved).
Total energy (structure + passive device) cannot
increase, hence inherently stable.
Relatively inexpensive.
Reliable during earthquake
Not as effective as active, hybrid, semi-active control.

Classification of Control Methods

Hybrid control:
Uses active & passive devices.
Advantages of both active and passive systems are
present and their limitations are reduced.
Essentially an active control system
Examples: viscous damping with AMD, base isolation
with actuators, TMD+AMD).

Passive control
Passive vibration isolation refers to vibration isolation
or mitigation of vibrations by passive techniques such
as rubber pads or mechanical springs.
Passive vibration isolation is a vast subject, since
there are many types of passive vibration isolators
used for many different applications.
A few of these applications are for isolation of civil
engineering structures from earthquakes like base
isolation.
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Passive control: Base isolation
Fig. 2: (a) Schematic of base isolated building, (b) Model, (c) Rubber bearing
Passive control: Base isolation
Base isolators for seismic isolation of
buildings, bridges, etc.
Structure mounted on a suitably flexible base such
that the high frequency component of ground motion
is filtered out and the fundamental vibration period is
lengthened. This results in deformation in the
isolation system only, thus keeping the structure
above almost rigid. However, if the earthquake
excitation contains a major component of this
fundamental period, there will be large sidesway
(albeit almost rigid) motions.
Not suitable for tall slender buildings (subject to high
wind loads). For these auxiliary dampers (viscous,
viscoleastic) are deployed
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Passive control: Tuned Mass Damper
Fig. 3: (a) TMD schematic, (b) Response
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Passive control: Tuned Mass Damper
TMD, usually having mass about 1% that of
structure, fitted to top of building. It is tuned to
reduce vibration for given frequency range.
Absorber mass takes up vibratory energy, leaving the
main mass (building) almost static.
Not very useful for earthquake excitations which
occur over wide frequency range.
Main system properties (stiffness-k1, mass-m1)
known, absorber system properties (stiffness-k2,
mass-m2) to be designed such that absorber
frequency equals excitation frequency (w2=w).
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Active Control
Fig. 5: Schematic of an active control system
Active control
First full scale application of active control to a
building was done on Kyobashi Seiwa building
(Japan) in 1989. Two AMDs were used. Primary one
weighs 4t and damps transverse motion. Secondary
one weighs 1t and damps torsional motion.
Can also use Magnetorheological fluid dampers
(semi-active), active tendons, etc.

Active control with TMD


Fig. 8: AMD on Kyobashi Seiwa building
Active control with TMD


Fig. 7: Schematic of AMD applied to building
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Thank you :)
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