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A disease is an abnormal
condition that affects the
body of an organism. It is
often construed as a medical
condition associated with
specific symptoms and signs.
It may be caused by factors
originally from an external
source, such as infectious
disease, or it may be caused
by internal dysfunctions, such
as autoimmune diseases.
Indian Major Infectious
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea,
hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue
fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: leptospirosis

Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious
respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It
can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can
lead to death. The best way to prevent the flu is by
getting a flu vaccination each year.

Complications of influenza can include bacterial
pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections,
dehydration, and worsening of chronic medical
conditions, such as congestive heart failure,
asthma, or diabetes.
What is Influenza?
The flu is caused by influenza virus types A, B, and C.
Both type A and type B flu viruses are responsible for
the seasonal outbreaks of flu.
Type A flu viruses are found in many different animals,
including ducks, chickens, pigs, and horses.
Influenza B viruses circulate widely only among
Flu viruses spread mainly from person to person,
through coughing or sneezing by people infected with
Sometimes people may become infected by touching
a contaminated surface and then touching their mouth
or nose.
Healthy adults may be able to infect others beginning
one day before symptoms develop and up to seven
days after becoming sick. This means a person may
be able to pass on the flu to someone else before
ever knowing they are sick.
Causes of the flu
Symptoms of the flu include fever, headache,
fatigue, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy
nose, body aches, diarrhea and vomiting
(more common among children than adults).
If you develop flu-like symptoms and are
concerned about your illness, especially if
you are at high risk for complications of the
flu, you should consult your health care
Those at high risk for complications include
people 65 years or older, people with chronic
medical conditions, pregnant women, and
young children.
Flu symptoms
The most important step in flu prevention is
getting vaccinated each year with a flu
Avoid close contact with people who are
sick, stay home when you are sick, cover
your mouth and nose when you cough or
sneeze, wash your hands, avoid touching
your eyes, nose or mouth, get plenty of
sleep, and drink plenty of fluids.
In certain situations, antiviral drugs can be
used to prevent seasonal influenza.
Preventing the flu
If you get the flu, there are some actions you
can take at home, such as getting plenty of rest,
drinking plenty of liquids, avoiding alcohol and
tobacco use, and taking medication to relieve
the symptoms of flu.
Using aspirin or ibuprofen can also help to treat
the fever, headaches and muscle aches
associated with the flu.
Aspirin should never be used to treat flu-like
symptoms in children.
Antiviral drugs may also be prescribed for
treating the flu, depending upon the duration of
illness, severity of symptoms, and your medical
Treating the flu
Common cold
The direct result of the loss of body
heat due to an obvious drop in the
temperatures leads to cold.
However, one is more likely to catch
cold even one keeps switching over
warm and cool environment owing to
air conditioners. Its important to
keep ACs at an even temperature
during winter. Dryness in India due to
dusty roads may also lead to
common cold most likely during
Colds are the most common reason
that children miss school and
parents miss work. Parents often
get colds from their children.
Children can get many colds every
They usually get them from other
children. A cold can spread quickly
through schools or daycares.
Colds can occur at any time of the
year, but they are most common in
the winter or rainy seasons.
1. A cold virus spreads through tiny, air
droplets that are released when the
sick person sneezes, coughs, or
blows their nose.
2. You can catch a cold if:
3. A person with a cold sneezes,
coughs, or blows their nose near
you touch your nose, eyes, or
mouth after you have touched
something contaminated by the
virus, such as a toy or doorknob.
4. People are most contagious for the
first 2 to 3 days of a cold. A cold is
usually not contagious after the first
Most colds go away in a few days. Some things
you can do to take care of yourself with a cold
Get plenty of rest and drink fluids.
Over-the-counter cold and cough medicines may
help ease symptoms in adults and older children.
They do not make your cold go away faster, but
can help you feel better.
Over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold
medicines are not recommended for children
under age 4.
Antibiotics should not be used to treat a common
Many alternative treatments have been tried for
colds, such as vitamin C, zinc supplements, and
Echinacea. Talk to your doctor before trying any
herbs or supplements.
Symptoms mostly affect the nose.
The most common cold symptoms are:
Nasal congestion
Runny nose
Scratchy throat
Adults and older children with colds generally have a low
fever or no fever. Young children often run a fever around
Depending on which virus caused your cold, you may also
Decreased appetite
Muscle aches
Postnasal drip
Sore throat
Malaria is a serious
disease that causes a high
fever and chills. You can
get it from a bite by an
infected mosquito. Malaria
is rare in the United
States. It is most often
found in Africa, Southern
Asia, Central America, and
South America.
What is malaria?
Malaria is caused by protozoan of the genus
Infection begins with a bite from an infected mosquito.
The parasite travels from the mosquito to your liver,
where the parasite begins to reproduce.
There are four species of Plasmodium that infect
P vivax - Most common in India and Central and South
America but found worldwide. It has an incubation
period of 8-13 days.
P ovale - Rarely found outside Africa. This form of
malaria has an incubation period of 8-17 days
P malariae - Found worldwide but less common than
the other forms.
P falciparum - Common worldwide, this is the most
life-threatening form of malaria. This parasite has an
incubation period of 5-12 days.
Malaria causes
Many infections do not show this classic pattern
of returning fevers at all. In many people the
infection will seem more like a flu with high fever
and body aches.
People also will complain of headache, nausea,
shaking chills (rigors), sweating and weakness.
As the infection progresses the fevers get less
severe and you seem to recover. However, the
infection can remain in many people for several
years, particularly for those with a long history of
exposure to malaria.
These people can develop some immunity and
may be infected for many years while only rarely
having symptoms.
Malaria symptoms
Your doctor will prescribe a
medicine or a combination of
medicines straight away,
depending on the type of strain
and where you were infected.
In much of the world, malaria is
treated at home with oral
medication and fluids.
Severe infections require IV drug
The most important aspect of
home care is to make sure you
drink lots of fluids and not to
become dehydrated.
Malaria treatment
Seek advice well before you travel, because some
medications need to be started before you travel.
DEET, or diethyltoluamide, is one of the most
commonly used repellents which the NHS says is
effective in sprays, roll-ons, sticks and creams.
Several medications are used to prevent infections
during foreign travel. The pattern of resistance to
these medications is constantly changing.
Before travelling visit the Fit for Travel or NaTHNaC
(The National Travel Health Network and Centre)
websites to determine if you need to take
antimalarial medicines while in the country youre
planning to visit.
Use of mosquito nets and insect repellents can
decrease the chance of getting infected.
Dengue, also known as break bone fever,
due to the extreme pain caused in bones
and muscles, is a mosquito-borne infection
transmitted through the bite of an infected
female Aedes aegypti mosquito.
The mosquitoes which acquire the virus
from already infected humans also known
to be the primary host of the virus are
capable of transmitting the virus for the rest
of their life after 4-10 days of virus
These mosquitoes breed in tropical and
sub-tropical climates worldwide.
Dengue Causes
Prevention is the only way to combat the
mosquito-borne disease. Prevent measures
These mosquitoes breed in accumulated
water and unhygienic conditions.
The best way is to eliminate all the possible
breeding grounds for the mosquitoes
Regular cleaning, emptying and covering of
water storage containers
Using mosquito repellents, nets Wear long-
sleeved clothes)
Active monitoring and surveillance of vectors
There is no known vaccine to treat dengue
prevention is the only way to keep away from
the virus.
Hospitals offer only supportive care in order to
maintain the body fluid levels and platelet
transfusion in case it drops to extremely low.
(A normal platelet count in a healthy individual
is between 150,000 and 450,000 per microliter
of blood).