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BERNOULLIS EQUATION

Bernoullis equation states that the sum of


all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along
an enclosed path is the same at any two
points in that path.
Assumptions:
Flow is steady
Density is constant (incompressible)
Friction losses are negligible

BERNOULLIS EQUATION
By conservation of energy,
(Energy)
1
= (Energy)
2

(Energy) = 0

{A (Press. forces) + A (Kinetic Energy) +
A (Potential Energy)} = 0

Pressure forces = F S
Kinetic Energy = m v
2
Potential energy = m g h
Pressure forces @ 1 are given by,

t v A p S F A =
1 1 1 1 1

1
1 1
p m
S F =
t p v A A - =
1 1 1

t p
t
m
A
A
=
1

t p
m
A =
-
1

Sub. all the values in the energy balance


equation:

2
2
2 2 2 1
2
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
mgh mv S F mgh mv S F + + = + +
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
mgh mv
p
m mgh mv
p
m + + = + +

2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
gh v
p
gh v
p
+ + = + +

t cons gh
v p
OR tan
2
2
= + +

Applications of B.Eqn:
B.E often combined with continuity
equation to find velocities & pressures in
the flow connected by a streamline
Orifice meter; venturi meter
Flow in pumps etc.,
Fluid friction
Fluid friction is defined as any conversion of
mechanical energy into heat in a flowing stream
Denoted by the letter h
f
(J/kg)
h
f
represents all the friction generated per unit
mass of fluid bet (1) & (2)
B.E becomes..

f
h gh v
p
gh v
p
+ + + = + +
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

Pump work.
If a pump is used during flow, then the term work
done by the pump should be added to B.E

2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
gh v
p
W gh v
p
p
+ + = + + +

Prob 1
A fluid of density 960 kg/m
3
is flowing
steadily thro a tube as shown in the fig:
The sections diameters are d
1
=100mm &
d
2
=80mm. The press p
1
=200kN/m
2
;
u
1
=5m/s. The tube is horizontal. What is
the pressure at section(2)?
By continuity equation:

v
2
= 7.8125 m/s

From B.E.


p
2
= 182.703 x 10
3
N/m
2





2 2 2 1 1 1
A v A v m = =
-
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
gh v
p
gh v
p
+ + = + +

Prob 2
Gasoline(680 kg/m
3
) flows from a 0.3m dia
pipe in which the pressure is 300kPa into
a 0.15m dia pipe in which the press is
120kPa. If the pipes are horizontal &
viscous effects are negligible, determine
the flow rate:
By continuity equation:

v
2
= 4 v
1


From B.E.

v
1
= 5.94 m/s

Flow rate, Q = A
1
v
1
= 0.4199 m
3
/s


2 2 2 1 1 1
A v A v m = =
-
Prob 3
Water flows steadily thro the pipe shown
in fig. such that the press @ sections 1 & 2
are 300kPa & 100kPa respectively.
Determine the dia of pipe @ section 2, if
the velocity at section 1 is 20m/s and
viscous effects are negligible:
From B.E.

v
2
= 42.2 m / s

By continuity equation:


D
2
= 0.0688m



2 2 2 1 1 1
A v A v m = =
-
Prob 4
Water with a density of 998 kg/m
3
is flowing at a steady
mass flow rate through a uniform-diameter pipe. The
entrance pressure of the fluid is 68.9 kN/m
2
in the pipe,
which connects to a pump which actually supplies 155.4
J/kg of fluid flowing in the pipe. The exit pipe from the
pump is the same diameter as the inlet pipe. The exit
section of the pipe is 3.05 m higher than the entrance, and
the exit pressure is 137.8 kN/m
2
. The Reynolds number in
the pipe is above 4000 in the system. Calculate the
frictional loss h
f
in the pipe system.

From B.Eqn:



Since dia of pipe is same.v
1
= v
2
hf = 56.44 J/kg




f p
h gh v
p
W gh v
p
+ + + = + + +
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

Prob 5
A pump draws 69.1 gal/mm of a liquid solution
having a density of 114.8 lb
m
/ft
3
from an open
storage feed tank of large cross-sectional area
through a 3.068ID suction line. The pump
discharges its flow through a 2.067ID line to an
open overhead tank. The end of the discharge
line is 50 ft above the level of the liquid in the
feed tank. The friction losses in the piping
system are 10.0 ft-lb
f
/lb
m
. What is the
horsepower of the pump if its efficiency is 65%?
What pressure must the pump develop?

= 114.8 lbm/ft
3

=114.8 (0.454) / (0.3048)
3

Therefore, = 1840.6 kg/m
3

h
f
= 10 ft-lb
f
/ lb
m
=10(0.3048m)(4.4482N) / (0.454)

Therefore, h
f
= 29.864 J/kg
Apply B.Eqn bet (1) & (2)


Since p1 = p2 (open to atmosphere)
h
1
h
2
= 50 = 15.24m
v
2
= 2.0315 m/s (for 2.067)
Since tank dia is very high..v
1
<<v
2
{ v
1
/v
2
=
A
1
/A
2
}
v
1
= 0

Sub all values in B.Eqn.W
p
= 2239.057 J/s
Or Wp = 3.005 HP {1HP = 745 W}






f p
h gh v
p
W gh v
p
+ + + = + + +
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

The press. developed in the pump (ie bet 3 & 4)





Since h
f
is only for piping system..here for
pump..h
f
= 0
h
3
= h
4
and v
4
= v
2
= 2.035 m/s
v
3
= 0.91395 m/s (for 3.068)
Sub all the values in the B.Eqn.
(p
3
p
4
) = 330.833 kPa..pressure developed
by the pump

f p
h gh v
p
W gh v
p
+ + + = + + +
4
2
4
4
3
2
3
3
2
1
2
1

Time for emptying a tank


Consider a steady flow of water from a
tank of height H
H
i
and H
f
are initial & final height of water
in the tank

Applying B.Eqn.







2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
gh v
p
gh v
p
+ + = + +

gH v 2
2
=
We know, Q1 = Q2




2 2
v A
dt
dH
A
t
=
|
.
|

\
|

}
=
f
i
H
H
f t
t A
gH
dH
A
2
2
( )
f i
t
f
H H
g
A
A
t = 2
2
1
2
Prob 6
Draining Cotton Seed Oil from a Tank
A cylindrical tank 1.52 m in dia and 7.62 m high
contains cotton seed oil having a density of 917
kg/m
3
. The tank is open to the atmosphere. A
discharge nozzle of inside diameter 15.8mm and
cross-sectional area A
2
is located near the bottom of
the tank. The surface of the liquid is located at
H = 6.1 m above the center line of the nozzle. The
discharge nozzle is opened, draining the liquid level
from H=6.1 m to H=4.57 m. Calculate the time in
seconds to do this.
We know,



A
t
= CSA of tank = (t/4)D
2

Therefore, t = 1387 sec
( )
f i
t
f
H H
g
A
A
t = 2
2
1
2