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Digital Signal Processing

Instructor: Prof. Peng Yu


Tel 15904510911
Emailpony@163.com
OfficeRoom 523, Bldg. 2A, Science Park
Automatic Test and Control Institute 53
School of electrical engineering and automation
Harbin Institute of Technology
2008
2014/7/14 2
Three Questions about Digital Signal Processing
Q1: WHAT is DSP?
Q2: WHY is DSP?
Q3: HOW to DSP?
How to understand the concept of digital signal processing? What
is the relationship between other courses, signal and system, etc.
WHY we need DSP? Its advantages and disadvantages?
General procedure of DSP. How to implement DSP algorithm.
Introduction
1 Basic Concepts about Signal
Definition
A Signal carries information and can be described as a
function of independent variables in mathematics.

sin 2 500 y t t

, I B x y

y f t
Classification of Signal
Analog Digital VS
Time continuous discrete
Amplitude continuous discrete
ADC
So, the signal is discrete-time signal in a strict manner.
In undergraduate course, we only consider time discretization problem.
In postgraduate course, amplitude quantization problem will be learned.
Signal Processing
Computer, Semiconduct and Information Science
1960s-1970s
Representation, transformation and manipulation
of signals and the information they contain.
Signal operation include:
(1) Transform, filter, inspection, spectrum analysis;
(2) Modulation and coding;
(3) Analog Signal Processing;
(4) Digital Signal Processing.
IMAGE PROCESSING
Pattern recognition
Robotic vision
Image enhancement
Satellite weather map
animation
INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL
Spectrum analysis
Position and rate control
Noise reduction
Data compression
SPEECH & AUDIO
Speech recognition
Speech synthesis
Text to speech
digital audio
MILITARY
Secure communication
Radar processing
Sonar processing
Missile guidance
TELECOMMUNICATION
Echo cancellation
Adaptive equalization
Video conferencing
data communication
Biomedical
Patient monitoring
Scanners
ECG (Electrocardiograph)
X-ray storage/enhancement
Consumer applications
digital, cellar mobile phones
universal mobile telecommunication system
digital television
digital camera
internet music, phones and video
digital answer machines, fax and modems
voice mail system
interactive entertainment systems
2 Basic concepts about system
(1) System
Device or technology of signal processing.
(2) Analog system
System with analog input and output.
(3) Digital system
System with digital input and output.
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Signals and Systems
Basic model:

Input: x Output: y
System: h
DSPFPGASOPCSoCAlgorithm Codes
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x y
Given x and h, find y analysis
Given h and y, find x control
Given x and y, find h design or synthesis
h
Three Problems
3 Processing of analog signal with digital methods
(1) Digitalized process for analog signals
Sample Quantizer Coder
x
a
(t) x(n)
(2) Digital processing method
A/D DSP D/A x
a
(t) y
a
(t) Filter
x(n) y(n)
Filter
4 Feature of Digital System
(1) High accuracy: Floating point-8,16,32,64 bits
(2) High reliability: VLSI (analog: drift, calibration)
(3) Flexible: DSP, Software, FPGA, VHDL
(4) Easy to integrate
(5) Deal with high dimensional signals
(6) Low costs: reusable, reconfigurable
Advantages
(7) Data logging
(8) Adaptive capability
Disadvantages
Complex: cost and speed

K
Xa(t) Ya(t)
Analog Signal Processing
A/D DSP D/A x
a
(t) y
a
(t) Filter
x(n) y(n)
Filter
Digital Signal Processing
5 Study Case
current
Signal
Conditioning
voltage
freq
temp
humidity
Analog
Switches
CPU
A/D MEMO DISP
PC
Printer
Electrical/non-
electrical
measurement
Automatic test system
Analog/Digital
Circuits
Digital Signal Processing
Environment monitoring System
When you
speak, your
voice is picked
up by an
analog sensor
in the cell
phones
microphone
An analog-to-digital
converter chip converts
your voice, which is an
analog signal, into digital
signals, represented by
1s and 0s.
The DSP
compresses the
digital signals and
removes
background noise.
In the listeners
cell phone, a
digital-to-analog
converter chip
changes the
digital signals
back to an analog
voice signal.
Your voice
exits the
phone through
the speaker.



MORE APPLICATIONS
A MP3 Player
(3) Noise process Digital filter
(1) Selective of A/D Signal representation - Sampling
(2) Manipulation and transform feature extraction and analysis
6. Objective of Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signals
Manipulation Digital filter
Measurement
Digital Signals
Spectrum analysis
Frequency division
Disturbance attenuation

7. Research objectives
1-dimentional DSP, multi-dimentional DSP
and the realization of DSP system
1D DSP: 1D discrete-time signals and system
multi-D DSP: 2D or 3D image processing, etc.
Realization of DSP system:
Realization of theoretical algorithm and system
(filter) on software and hardware: including
system architecture, chip selective, development
of the software and hardware, etc.
8. Theory of digital signal processing
Sampling of analog signals
A/D conversion, sampling theory, analysis of quantization
errors;
Discrete-time signal analysis
Time-domain and frequency-domain analysis, Fourier
transform, z - transform, Hilbert transform;
Discrete-time system analysis
System representation, causality and stability, time-invariant
system, convolution, frequency response, digital filter design;
Fast algorithm for signal processing
FFT, fast convolution and correlation;
Special algorithm for signal processing
Interpolation, singular value analysis, deconvolution.
9. Implementation of DSP system
General-purpose computer;
Micro-control unit;
General-purpose DSP chip;
Specific-design DSP chip;
TI (leading manufacture, 70%)
AD, Motorala, Lucent, NEC

10. Objectives of our learning
Understand the concept:
Main idea: solve the problem of analog signals
with digital method
Sample
Transform: time-domainfrequency domain
Spectrum analysis
Filter design
Important tools: Method to design digital filter
11. Proposed syllabus for the course
Total period: 50; Class: 40
Experiment: 10
Discrete-time signals and system
Discrete Fourier transform
FFT and its applications
Design of IIR digital filters
Design of FIR digital filters

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How to Learn ?
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Curriculum in Signal Processing
Mathematics
Signals and Systems
Signal processing theory and systems
Communications theory and systems
Control theory and systems
Applications and research
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Mathematics for Signal Processing
Algebra, calculus, differential equations
Linear algebra, matrices, vector spaces,
functional analysis
Probability, statistics, random processes
Computational mathematics, numerical
analysis, algorithms
Computer Science and Engineering
Math now has an experimental laboratory
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Modern Engineering is Design
Science studies and describes what nature
created, what already exists
Engineering creates and builds what
society wants and needs, what does not
already exist
Engineering uses mathematics in a
different way from science
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History of Teaching and
Learning Engineering
Engineering was first a trade which was
learned through apprenticeship

Next, it was a profession which was
learned through training

Now it is a discipline which is learned
through education. Modern liberal arts
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Training vs. Education
Old Engineering: How do I build a
bridge across the river?

New Engineering: How do I satisfy
peoples desire to interact across the
river?
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Training vs. Education
Old system: Learn enough in the university to last
your professional lifetime
New system: In the university, learn the methods
to continue to learn all of your life.

Old: study, work, then retire.
New: study and work and retire without boundary

Transition from old to new system occurred
around 50 years ago but education has not
changed
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Research in the New World
In the old system, research was done by a
small number of specialist in laboratories
and graduate school

In the new system, research will be done
by everybody in all levels of school and
work

Same true for Design
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Education in the New System
Shift emphasis from
Training to education
Teaching to learning (teacher to student)
Passive to active (and interactive)
Process to concept (concept inventory)
Understand to discover

Need research in learning technical material
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Technology for Education
Matlab, Mathematica, Maple, LabView

OCW, Connexions, Wikipedia, Google

Desktop, laptop, hand-held, mobile phone
plus Internet; social software systems
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Open Educational Resources
The Open Educational Resource (OER)
movement was inspired by the Open Source
movement in software.

Open Course Ware OCW (MIT)
Connexions Cnx (Rice)
Wikipedia (Wikibooks, etc.)
Creative Commons CC (Stanford, Duke)
Curriki, PLoS, EOL, Shuttleworth's Siyavula
Project, CK-12 Project, OSI, etc.
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Interactive, Dynamic Virtual Lab
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Multimedia
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Matlab
www.mathworks.com
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Connexions Now
Usage
Repository: 7300 modules, 20,000 revisions, 405 courses or
books, 7200 author accounts, 147 countries, print-on-demand
books
In Oct. 2008: 17M hits, 1.0M pages views, 520K unique users
from 157 countries

Globalization
Europe: Germany, Norway, England, etc.
Asia: China, India, Pakistan, Japan, Vietnam, Korea
Africa: South Africa
LACCEI: (conversation with Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile,
and Uruguay started)

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Signal Processing Web Sites
DSP an Rice: http://www-dsp.rice.edu/
DSP at MIT: http://www.rle.mit.edu/
Connexions at Rice: http://cnx.org/
OCW at MIT:
Georgia Tech, Univ. of Illinois,
University of Texas, Princeton, Stanford
Curriculum schedule
Class:
06011040601201060120266 students
Lectures
226 4th-14th week,
Mon: 5~6; Wen: 7~8;
Experiments:
12th-13th week, G601, Thu, 5~6
Examination:
42, 17th week, Thu, 10:00~12:00
12 Student Commitment
Assignment
Attendance in classes is mandatory !
Scores
Assignment + Experiment + Report: 10%
Examination: 100%
Presentation Project3~5 points
Subject is assigned by teacher
Discuss with instructor 3 days before presentation
Criterion
Content, Clear and fluent, Team works
NEW STUFF
LIMITED TIME
LOTS OF WORK
PRESSURE
METHODOLOGY
PLAN
EXECUTE

TEAM WORK HAVE TO SHARE
NEW BEGINNING FOR YOURSELF !
FOR YOUR FUTURE LIFE!
HOW TO
GET
WHAT YOU WANT ?
WANTED !
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Emule P2P
ICQ,AOL Instant Messenger,Yahoo
Pager, MSN Messenger,
Tencet QQ-most popular P2P.
REVIEW
What is DSP ?
Why DSP ?
How to ?
BRIEF INTRODUCTIONS
References
1 Discrete-time Signal Processing. A.V. Oppenheim, R.W.Schafer.
Pearson Education2005,1
2 Digital Signals Processingusing MATLAB. Vinay K. Ingle,John
G. Proakis. ISTE Publishing Company, 2008
3 Real-time Digital Signal Processing Implementation, Application
and Experiments with the TMS320C55X. Sen M. Kuo, Bob H. Lee.
WILEY, 2003,12
4 Introduction to Signal Processing. Sophocles J. Orfanidis.
Prentice Hall, 1998,12
5 Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing. Joyce Van de Vegte.
Prentice Hall, 2003,1