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Prepared by: Mohamad Izzat bin Rozali

Training Guide: Mr Rengaraj C.


Manager: Mr Gokul Jothiraman
Setpoints of
Individual Steps
Batching steps that require
setpoints
Pressure tests
Sterilization-in-Place (SIP)
Empty SIP
Full-Vessel SIP
Media Sterilization
Disinfection
Pressure Test
Initial Pressure Test, Vessel Pressure Test I (VPI) &
Vessel Pressure II (VP II)


Test SP 1.40 bar
Test Time 30 min
Dep SP 0.1 bar
Air Flow SP 30 LPM
Test Hyst 0.1 bar
Sterilization
ESIP and FSIP

Heating 1 90 C
Heating 2 121 C
Cooling 1 90 C
Cooling 2 30 C
Holding Time 1 (FSIP) 30 min
Total Holding Time (FSIP) 60 min
Sterilisation Time (ESIP) 60 min
Back Pressure SP 1.3 bar
Air Flow SP 30 LPM
Dep SP (ESIP) 0.1 bar
Heating Hyst 0.1 C
pH, Temperature,
Pressure and Level
Transmitter Basic
Principles of Operation
pH Transmitter
Probe consists mainly of measuring
electrode and reference electrode
The measuring electrode develops
a potential (voltage) directly
related to the hydrogen ion
concentration of the solution.
The reference electrode provides a
stable potential against which the
measuring electrode can be
compared.
Both electrode contain KCL buffer
solution that has constant H
+

concentration
pH Transmitter (contd)
If:
H
+
conc. inside solution > H
+
conc. inside
electrode
Potential difference = Positive
Acidic
H
+
conc. inside solution < H
+
conc. inside
electrode
Potential difference = Negative
Basic
H
+
conc. inside solution = H
+
conc. inside
electrode
Potential difference = Zero
Neutral


Temperature Transmitter
Using a thermocouple
consists of two wires of dissimilar
metals or alloys joined at their
ends, with a potentiometer (or
a voltmeter) connected in one
side of the circuit.
Measuring junction
Reference junction
measuring junction
in the environment whose
temperature is to be measured.
reference junction
kept at a fixed, known
temperature

Temperature Transmitter
(contd)
Works by the difference in the conductivities of
the two wire materials at a measured
temperature
Difference of the temperature between the
measuring junction and reference junction will
create an electric current
Increase in temperature increase voltage
Decrease in temperature decrease voltage
Temperature of the medium can be determined
from the current voltage strength.

Pressure Transmitter
Via a pressure transducer
device which converts an applied
pressure into a measurable
electrical signal
2 main parts
elastic material which will deform
when exposed to a pressurized
medium (diaphragm)
a electrical device which detects
the deformation.
Pressure Transmitter (contd)
Types of transducers:
Resistive pressure transducer
strain gauges bonded to the
surface of the diaphragm
any change in pressure will cause
a change in the electrical
resistance of each strain gauge

Variable capacitance pressure
transducer
capacitive plate bonded to one
side of the diaphragm and
another capacitive plate bonded
to an unpressurized surface.

Level Transmitter
Using principal of RF signal
applied to capacitance circuit
An insulated electrode acts as
one plate of capacitor and
the tank wall acts as the other
plate.
Capacitance is dependent on
the amount of product inside
the tank:
an empty tank has lower
capacitance
a filled tank has higher
capacitance.
Level Transmitter (contd)
Measures by applying an RF signal
between the conductive probe and
the vessel wall.
The RF signal results in a very low
current flow through the dielectric
process material in the tank from the
probe to the vessel wall.
When the level in the tank
drops/increase, the dielectric
constant drops/increase causing a
drop/increase in the capacitance
reading.
The capacitance reading will then
be translated into a certain level
unit.

DO Transmitter
Probe has thin organic membrane
covering a layer of electrolyte and
two metal electrodes.
Oxygen diffuses through the
membrane at a rate proportional to
its partial pressure
Higher oxygen partial pressure will increase
the diffusion rate
Oxygen is reduced at the cathode
and the current is measured
converts measured current into
concentration units.
Diffusion current is directly
proportional to the concentration of
dissolved oxygen
References
http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/pressure-
sensors-types-working?page=2
http://www.sensorsone.co.uk/pressure-measurement-
glossary/pressure-transducer.html
http://www.sensorland.com/HowPage037.html
http://enggyd.blogspot.in/2011/01/ph.html
http://coep.vlab.co.in/?sub=33&brch=91&sim=449&cn
t=1
http://www.endress.com/eh/home.nsf/#products/~le
vel-measurement-principle-capacitive
http://www.smartec.nl/pdf/SPDprinciples.pdf
http://en-
co.wika.de/upload/OI_A_10_en_de_fr_es_6240.pdf
https://controls.engin.umich.edu/wiki/index.php/Temp
eratureSensors