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Human Communication

THIRD EDITION
Judy C. Pearson Paul E. Nelson Scott Titsworth Lynn Harter
C H A P T E R
Listening and
Critical Thinking
F I V E
McGraw-Hill 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc. All rights reserved.
McGraw-Hill 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 5 Objectives
Describe the listening process
Differentiate between hearing and
listening
Discuss the importance of listening
Define and discuss types of listening
Analyze barriers to effective listening
McGraw-Hill 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 5 Objectives
Use strategies for critical thinking
Describe gender-based differences in
listening behaviors
Demonstrate effective listening
behaviors in specific situations
Engage in ethical listening behavior
McGraw-Hill 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc. All rights reserved.

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What is Listening ?
The active process of
receiving, constructing
meaning from, and
responding to spoken
and/or nonverbal
messages
Link to ILA Website
McGraw-Hill 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc. All rights reserved.

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What is Listening?
Not the same as hearing
Involves the ability to:
Retain information
React empathically and/or appreciatively
An active process
Involves construction, retention, and reaction
to meanings we assign to information
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The Listening Process
Stimulus/Sound
Attention
Selective Attention
Automatic Attention

Working Memory

Short-Term Memory

Long-term Recall/Memory

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What is Listening?
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The Importance of Listening
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Four Types of Listening
Active Listening
Listening with a purpose
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Four Types of Listening
Active Listening
Empathic Listening
Listening with a purpose and
attempting to understand the other
person

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Four Types of Listening
Active Listening
Empathic Listening
Critical Listening
Evaluating the accuracy,
meaningfulness, and utility of the
speakers message

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Four Types of Listening
Active Listening
Empathic Listening
Critical Listening
Listening for Enjoyment
Hearing and processing
relaxing, fun, or
emotionally stimulating
information

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Barriers to Listening
Noise
Physical distractions

Mental distractions

Factual distractions

Semantic distractions

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Barriers to Listening
Perception of Others
Status

Stereotypes

Sights and Sounds

McGraw-Hill 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc. All rights reserved.

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Barriers to Listening
Yourself
Egocentrism
Defensiveness
Experiential Superiority
Personal Bias
Pseudo Listening

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Gender Differences in Listening
Purpose for listening
Listening preferences
Listening awareness
Nonverbal listening behaviors
Interrupting others

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Becoming a Better Listener
Listen and think critically

Use verbal communication effectively

Use nonverbal communication
effectively
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Listening in the Workplace
Be self-aware
Monitor your nonverbal
behaviors
Minimize interruptions
Ask nonaggressive
questions
Summarize what the
other says to assure
you understand
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Listening in the Classroom
Use lecture listening
Find areas of interest
Remain open
Work at listening
Avoid distractions
Listen for and note main ideas

Take effective notes
Listen for lecture cues

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Listening to Media
Become a critical consumer
of media information
Develop information literacy
Recognize when you need
information
Know where to find the
information you need
Check your perceptions of
electronic messages

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Listening in a Second Language
Develop vocabulary comprehension
Learn to recognize sounds and associate
them with their meaning

Develop metacognitive skills
Decipher meanings by drawing inferences
from the context
Draw parallels between English and the
native language

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Be an Ethical Listener
Recognize the sources of
your own conversational
style habits
Monitor your
communication
Apply general ethical
principles to your
responses
Adapt to others