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Prepared & Presented by

Sohail imran

Software Estimation Techniques
Software Estimation
Size Estimation
Cost Estimation
Effort Estimation
Size Estimation
Based upon known system requirements
Two methods for size estimation:
1. LOC
2. Functional Points
By using some constants functional points are
converted into LOC.
Techniques for Size estimation
Developers opinion

Experts estimation

-Guessing based on experience
Techniques for Size estimation

Previous years experience

Using the Size Estimating Template:
help to make estimates of how big a
new software project will be or how long
it will take to create the project (seize
and time estimation)
Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain
Techniques for Size estimation
Functional Point analysis:
-Instead of counting the lines of code that make
up a system, count the number of externals
(inputs, outputs, inquiries and interfaces) that
make up the system.
Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain
Functional Point analysis
1. external inputs - data or control inputs (input
files, tables, forms, screens, messages, etc.) to
the system.

2. external outputs - data or control outputs from
the system

3. external inquiries - I/O queries which require a
response (prompts, interrupts, calls, etc.)
Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain
Functional Point analysis
4. external interfaces - libraries or programs
which are passed into and out of the system
(I/O routines, sorting procedures, math libraries,
run-time libraries, etc.)
5. internal data files - groupings of data stored
internally in the system (entities, internal control
files, directories)
Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain
Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain
Software cost components
Hardware and software costs.
Travel and training costs.
Effort costs (the dominant factor in most
The salaries of engineers involved in the project;
Social and insurance costs.
Effort costs must take overheads into account
Costs of building, heating, lighting.
Costs of networking and communications.
Costs of shared facilities (e.g library, staff
restaurant, etc.).
Prepared and presented by Shashank Jain
To introduce the fundamentals of software costing
and pricing
To describe three metrics for software productivity
To explain why different techniques should be
used for software estimation