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MEDIA AND TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

There are various media available to send and receive


information.

Selection of the media depends on:


1. Content of message
2. Type of audience
3. Number of audience
4. Organizational hierarchy
1.WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Everything that is written and transmitted falls


under the category of written communication e.g.
letters, memos, circulars, manuals etc .
Characteristics of written communication
Requires a lot of imagination and effort.
Creative activity
Time consuming
Plan out the message
Written feedback
Fewer cycles of communication
Advantages of written communication

Wide access
Precision
Repetition
Mechanical efficiency
Aids control
Permanent record
Legal Evidence
Lengthy message
Fixed responsibility
Convenience
Limitations

Time consuming
Costly
Lack of secrecy
Rigidity
Impersonal
Delayed feedback
2. Oral communication
Oral communication is spoken communication, can be
face to face , telephonic, public speaking etc.

Advantages of Oral Communication


1. Immediate feedback
2. Time saving
3. Economical
4. Personal touch
5. Flexibility
6. Secrecy
7. Group communication
Limitation if Oral Communication

1. Poor retention
2. No record
3. Time Consuming
4. Misunderstanding
5. Cannot communicate lengthy messages
6. Lack of responsibility
7. Imprecise
How to make Oral Communication
effective?
Clarity
Brevity
Precision
Right words
Avoid clichés
Understand the listener
Natural voice
Logical sequence
Conviction
Comparison
Oral Written
1. With personal touch 1. Without personal touch
2.Fast speed 2. Slow speed
3. Flexibility High 3. Flexibility Low
4. No record
4.Permanent
5. Cost Low
5. Cost High
6.Gestures can be used
6. Gestures cannot be
7.Immediate feedback
used
8. For short and simple
message 7. Feedback delayed
8. For Lengthy messages
3. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Nonverbal communication includes all


unwritten and unspoken messages,
both intentional and unintentional.
IMPORTANCE OF NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION

7 % of communication happens through


words
93% of communication happens through
non-verbal cues of which:
55% through facial expressions
38% through vocal tones
“Action speak louder than words”
“Words can deceive but body cannot”
Non verbal communication is passing on your intended or
unintended message through body language, gestures,
facial expression, vocal characteristics, etc
Characteristic of non verbal communication
Detects deception or affirms honesty
Can also be given unintentionally
Can also be registered unintentionally
Learned and practiced unconsciously
Can build or ruin relationships
Interpreted according to the culture and background of the
receiver
Unorganized
Interesting facts about non verbal communication:
Dance of honeybee
Use of pyrotechnical communication by squids
Different cultures have different understanding

“He who has an ear to hear and eye to see can tell
that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are
silent he chatters with his fingers, betrayal oozes
out of him at every pore.”
Why do we use non verbal communication?
Words have limitations
Non verbal signals are powerful
Non verbal signals are likely to be more genuine
Non verbal signals express feelings.
It is the separate communication channel to send
complex messages
Functions of Nonverbal
Communication
• To complement and illustrate
• To reinforce and accentuate
• To replace and substitute
• To control and regulate
• To contradict
Forms of Nonverbal
Communication
• Time

• Space
• Territory
• Appearance of documents
How can these nonverbal forms be used to send
positive messages?
Forms of Nonverbal
Communication
• Eye contact

• Facial expression
• Posture and gestures
• Appearance of people
CATEGORIES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

Physical : This is personnel communication and


includes facial expression, tone of voice, sense of
touch etc
Aesthetic : Communication through creative
expression, playing instruments, dancing etc
Signs : This is mechanical communication includes
flags, gun salutes, sirens, horns etc
Symbolic: Religious or status building symbols
Para language: Voice, speaking speed, pitch,
volume, pause, fluency, word stress
Non verbal communication is important for managers:

1.To function effectively as a team leader


2. To understand the attitude and feelings of the team
members that they communicate through nonverbal
communication
INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT
BODY LANGUAGE
It has no words or sentences, but it does send
bits of information that combine into messages.

Those messages, which are sometimes clear


and sometimes fuzzy, are mostly about your
feelings.

People can learn to read those messages with a


fair degree of accuracy.
INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT
BODY LANGUAGE
You cannot not have body language- you are sending
messages nonverbally all the time. Especially when you
are trying not to!

Your preferred body positions and movements do say


something about the kind of person you are.

If your words say one thing and your body another then
people will believe your body, not your words.

You can change how you’re feeling by consciously


changing your body language.
Types of non verbal communication:
1. Distance or PROXIMIES
Horizontal Distance
a) Intimate distance: Actual touching to 18’.
b) Personal Distance: From 18’ to four feet.
c) Social Distance: Four feet to twelve feet
d) Public Distance; Beyond twelve feet
e) Fixed and semi fixed space
Vertical Distance
Shows degree of dominance
Body language - figure

Figure includes:
– Your posture
– Your demeanor and gestures
– Your clothes and accessories such as jewelry

What message are you sending if you are dressed


casually at an important meeting?
2. Postures:
Postures delegate degree of
formality and relaxation.
Used to indicate
attentiveness, learning,
dullness etc
Body language includes…
Face
Figure
Focus
Territory
Tone
Time

Each of these is described in the following slides…


Body language - focus
Focus is your eye contact with others

The perception of eye contact differs by culture. For most Americans…


– Staring makes other people uncomfortable
– Lack of eye contact can make you appear weak or not trustworthy

What message are you sending if you are looking at other things and
people in a room when someone is speaking to you?
Body language - face

Face includes:
– Your expressions
– Your smile or lack thereof
– Tilt of the head; e.g., if your head is tilted
to one side, it usually indicates you are
interested in what someone is saying

What message are you sending if someone is


presenting a new idea and you are frowning?
3. Facial Expression

“A PICTURE IS WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS”


well describes the meaning of facial expression.
It can be voluntary and involuntary like smile, frown,
raised eyebrow etc.
4. Gestures
Gestures are most frequently used and the least
understood type of non verbal communication.
They function to confirm, contradict, or replace verbal
message.
Open Gestures Closed Gestures
1 Open hands Hands covering mouth
2 palms up Making fists
3 Smile Glancing at exit
4. Leaning forward Frown
5 Hands away from face Leaning back
6 Standing straight Rigid
7 Feet apart Looking at floor
8 Shoulders square Moving away
9 Touching Patting Legs crossed
10 Rubbing palms Fidgeting
11. Affirmative head nods Head lowered
12 Seating arrangements with no Lack of eye contact
barriers
5. Eye Contact
Eyes are the most expressive feature of the face.
Ocular dialect needs no dictionary, and is understood all
over the world. Also called Oculesics
6. Tactile Communication
Communication through touch.
Don’t invade personal space until reciprocal.
Includes handshake, pressure, temperature, etc
7. Paralanguage :
There are various paralanguages like:
a) Voice
b) Speaking speed
c) Pitch variation
d) Volume variation
e) Pauses
f) Non-fluencies
g) Word stress
PARALANGUAGE

Cues one can pick up from an individual’s


voice:
Tone
Rate of speech
Accent
Pronunciation
Not WHAT you say but HOW you say it!!
Body language - tone

Tone is a factor of your voice


– Pitch is the highness or lowness of voice
– Volume is how loud your voice is
– Emphasis is your inflection

What message are you sending if during a


disagreement you start speaking very loudly?
Advantages of paralanguage:
1. Completes oral communication
2. Shows educational background
3. Indicates hierarchal structure
4. Helps in communication
5. Paralanguage continuously upgraded

Limitations of Paralanguage
1. Just like a language and not a language
2. Speaker should be open minded
8. Dress:
A dress is a desire to confirm, self esteem,
aesthetic satisfaction.
It adds to prestige value, physical comfort, social
participation and economical status.
9. Surrounding and Time
It refers to the physical environment we are living in.
It comprises of color and layout of your environment.
Everything conveys meaning.
A tastefully done space creates good energy and
impression.
Body language - time

Time focuses on how you use time. It


is also called chronemics.
– Pace is how quickly you speak
– Response is how quickly you move
– Punctuality is your timeliness

What message are you sending if you are


consistently late for meetings?
Tips for improved nonverbal communication
Comfort
Relaxed as well as attentive
Eye contact
Nod of approval
Smooth and unobtrusive gestures
Tame the rate of speech
Audible voice
Body language
Smile
Alert
“With all the means and methods of

communication (verbal and non verbal, internal-

external, etc) at our disposal why is it that most of

the time we misunderstand each other.”