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Push and Pull Factors for Destinations

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Key Terms
• • • • • • • • • Push and Pull factors Aspirational group Attitude Belief Cognitive dissonance (perceptive inconsistency) Culture Family life cycle Learning Lifestyle

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Key Terms
• • • • • • • • Membership groups Motivations Opinion leaders Personality Reference groups Role Self-concept Social classes

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“To be a bullfighter, you must first learn to be a bull.”
-Anonymous

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• These two factors together affect tourist behaviors.Push and Pull Factors • Push and Pull factors are accepted as basic tourist motivations in tourism marketing. 5 . while pull factors dictates or imposes a specific destination motivating potential visitors to the place. decisions and they are important for destination selection. • Push factors are independent and they force an individual to escape from usual place.

• This is based on the distinction between factors which encourage individuals to move away from their home setting through tourism (push factors) and those attributes of a different place which attract or 'pull' them towards it. • Push factors are evident at the individual or social level.Push and Pull Factors • An early paradigm for understanding tourist motivation is the push-pull model. or as a combination of both while pull factors refer to the qualities of the destination area 6 .

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9 . as factors that motivate or create a desire to travel. • Two basic motivational dimensions of leisure or tourism behaviour. which simultaneously influence people's leisure behaviour. • That is.Push and Pull Factors • Push factors have been considered as motivational factors or needs that arise due to a disequilibrium or tension in the motivational system. escaping and seeking.

‘adventure or friendship building’).. • Thus.g.Push Factors • A tourist may want to make a trip to escape from his/her personal or interpersonal environment (e. destination or activity they want. these motivational factors explain why tourists make a trip and what type of experience. ‘escape from routine everyday life’) and to seek out psychological rewards in the personal or interpersonal dimensions (e.. 10 .g.

• ‘social interaction’. • “adventure”. • ‘novelty’.The common push factors found in most studies were found as . • “social interaction” and • ‘prestige’ 11 . • “excitement ”. • “enjoyment ” . • ‘escape from everyday environment’. • “relaxation”.

have been conceptualised as relating to the features. or attributes of the destination itself. • ‘historic and cultural resources’. • ‘beaches’ and ‘water/marine-based resources’.Pull Factors Pull factors. in contrast to push factors. • ‘mountains and beautiful scenery’. attractions. such as. 12 .

‘infrastructure. and friendly people’. • ‘physical amenities and recreation activities’ and “entertainment’ were found as main pull factors in most studies 13 . foods. ‘natural and cultural amenities’. ‘accommodations and transportation’.Pull Factors (cont ’d) • • • • social opportunities and attractions’.

what to see or what to do (relating to the specific destinations). the external forces of the destination itself simultaneously pull them to choose that particular destination. 14 .Relationship between push and pull factors • Push and pull factors have generally been characterized as relating to two separate decisions made at two separate points in time— one focusing on whether to go. • In particular. while the internal forces push people to travel.

such decision making may be virtually simultaneous. however. • For analytical purposes. In practice. 15 . since the decision whether or not to travel is prior to a specific choice of destination.Relationship between push and pull factors • Potential tourists in deciding “where to go” may also take into consideration various pull factors which correspond adequately to their motivational push. push factors precede pull factors both logically and temporally.

can be matched with novel and exotic experiences in far away places 16 . for instance.Relationship between push and pull factors • It follows from the above that the most effective forms of tourism promotion are those which attempt to match the pull factors of the destination with the push factors in the client (matching supply and demand. • Thus the urge to satisfy curiosity in the potential tourist. including target marketing).

Tourist behaviors and related individual motivations 2. There is an intense competitions among the destinations to attract more tourist in tourism markets using effective marketing tools 17 . Tourism attractions that pull the visitors to specific places and destinations. 1.Push and Pull Factors In this lecture both motivations are examined in detailed under two different headings.

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A Typology of Motivators in International Tourism Push Factors 19 .

Push and Pull Factors 20 .

Pushes 21 .

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Motivations 24 .

thirst) 25 .Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Needs (self-esteem) (sense of belonging. love) Social Needs (security. protection) Safety Needs Physiological Needs (hunger.

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Psychological Factors • Perception – Selective Attention • Consumers are constantly bombarded with information and will screen out stimuli – Selective Distortion (çarpıtma) • Messages to do not always come across in the same way the sender indented. – Selective Retention (alıkoyma) • People will forget much that they learn but will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs 30 .

Types of Hospitality Customers • • • • • • • Business travelers Pleasure travelers Package market Mature travelers International travelers Free independent travelers (FIT) Members of private clubs 31 .

Business Travelers • • • A customer who purchases hospitality products or services because of a need to conduct business in a particular area One of the most desirable market segments for the hospitality marketer The largest major segment and least price sensitive Business traveler needs – Convenience. price 32 • . reputation.

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and Fraternal organizations 34 . Educational. Religious. Military.Group Business Markets • • • • • Conventions Association Meetings Corporate Meetings Incentive Travel SMERFs – Social.

it comes ultimately from the demand for consumer goods or services 35 .The Organizational Markets • Market Structure and Demand – Organizational demand is derived demand.

The Organizational Markets • Organizational buying decisions tend to be more complex than consumer decisions • The organizational push factors tends to be more formal than the consumer process 36 .

Organizational Buying Process Users DecisionMaking Unit of a Buying Organization is Called Its Buying Center. Attitudes Influencers Deciders Roles Include Unexpected Situational Factors of Others Ethical Approvers Gatekeepers Buyers 37 .

Pleasure Travelers • • • • • • • Customer who purchases hospitality products or services for leisure or other non-business purposes Business and pleasure travelers combine both in one trip More relaxed and casual Eat and socialize High growth potential market Major part is family travelers People traveling to visit friends 38 .

Package Market • • Customers who purchase a combination of services for an allinclusive price Normally packages designed to boost occupancy during low-demand periods Not the same as discounting Need to provide all aspects of the promised package 39 • • .

age and physical limitations play a role in needs Some hotel chains aggressively pursue this market Restaurants cater to this segment 40 . have resources and interest in travel Like to visit new places and visit friends and family Not homogenous.Mature Travelers • • • • • • Hospitality customer who is older than 55 Is increasing as people are living longer.

personal or pleasure purposes Most tourism to/from Europe is from/to the same destination – 48 % in total 950 million travel outside their home country every year Marketing to this group is expensive and risky.International Travelers • • • • • A person who travels and visits outside his or her own country for business. usually done via an intermediary Overall marketing goals are the same for this group as for other groups 41 .

Free Independent Travelers • Traveler not affiliated with an organized travel group and does not fit into other defined market segments Includes wholesalers and retail agents Normally willing to pay higher rates than the group customers 42 • • .

Members of Private Clubs • – – – – – Includes Country City Yacht Tennis Military • • Rely on word-of-mouth Look for customization of their experience 43 .

how does the information in this section differ from their consumer site? If they do not have a separate site. go to another organisation until you find one that has a separate site for group or organisational purchases. Do they have a separate section for group or organisational purchases? If so.Discussion Questions • Go to the internet site of a travel organisation. 44 .

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