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Module 9

TCP/IP Protocol and

IP Addressing

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History of TCP/IP
• The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) created the TCP/IP
reference model because it wanted a network that could survive
any conditions.

• The TCP/IP model has since become the standard on which

the Internet is based.

• In 1992 the standardization of a new generation of IP, often

called IPng, was supported by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF). IPng is now known as IPv6.

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TCP/IP Model

The TCP/IP model has four layers: The Application layer,

Transport layer, Internet layer, and Network Access layer.

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Application Layer
• The application layer of the TCP/IP model handles
high-level protocols, issues of representation,
encoding, and dialog control.

• The Application layer of the TCP/IP model has

protocols to support file transfer, e-mail, and remote
login, and many other applications.

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Application Layer

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Application Layer
• File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
• Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) – TFTP is a connectionless service
that uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
• Network File System (NFS) – NFS is a distributed file system protocol
suite developed by Sun Microsystems that allows file access to a remote
storage device such as a hard disk across a network.
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) – SMTP administers the
transmission of e-mail over computer networks.
• Terminal emulation (Telnet) – Telnet provides the capability to remotely
access another computer.
• Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) – SNMP is a protocol
that provides a way to monitor and control network devices, and to
manage configurations, statistics collection, performance, and security.
• Domain Name System (DNS) – DNS is a system used on the Internet for
translating names of domains and their publicly advertised network nodes
into IP addresses.
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Transport Layer
• The transport layer provides transport services from the source
host to the destination host.

• The transport layer constitutes a logical connection between the

endpoints of the network, the sending host and the receiving

• End-to-end control is the primary duty of the transport layer

when using TCP.

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Transport Layer

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Transport Layer
Transport services include all the following services:
• TCP and UDP
– Segmenting upper-layer application data
– Sending segments from one end device to another end
• TCP only
– Establishing end-to-end operations
– Flow control provided by sliding windows
– Reliability provided by sequence numbers and

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Internet Layer
• The purpose of the Internet layer is to select the best path
through the network for packets to travel.
• The main protocol that functions at this layer is the
Internet Protocol (IP).

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Internet Layer
The following protocols operate at the TCP/IP Internet layer:
• IP provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of
packets. IP is not concerned with the content of the
packets but looks for a path to the destination.
• Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) provides
control and messaging capabilities.
• Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) determines the data
link layer address, MAC address, for known IP addresses.
• Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) determines
IP addresses when the MAC address is known.

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Network Access Layer
• The network access layer is also called the host-to-
network layer.
• It includes the LAN and WAN technology details

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Comparing OSI and TCP/IP
Both have application layers, TCP/IP combines the presentation
though they include very different and session layer into its
services application layer Combines the
Data Link and Physical layer into
the Network Access Layer
Both have comparable transport TCP/IP appears simpler because it
and network layers has fewer layers

Packet-switched, not circuit- TCP/IP transport layer using UDP

switched, technology is assumed does not always guarantee reliable
delivery of packets as the transport
layer in the OSI model does

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Comparing OSI and TCP/IP

The OSI model is used as a guide for

understanding the communication process.

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• Each computer in a TCP/IP network must be given a
unique identifier, or IP address.

– This address, operates at Layer 3

• All computers also have a unique physical address, known

as a MAC address. These are assigned by the
manufacturer of the network interface card.

– MAC addresses operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model.

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IPv4 Addresses
• An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s and 0s
• Every IP address has two parts
– The network portion
– The host portion
• An IP address is an hierarchical address
• IP addresses are divided into classes to define the large,
medium, and small networks
– Class A
– Class B
– Class C

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IP Classes of Addresses

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IP Classes of Addresses

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Reserved IP Addresses

• Certain host addresses

are reserved and cannot
be assigned to devices on
a network

– Network address – Used

to identify the network itself
– Broadcast address – Used
for broadcasting packets to
all the devices on a network

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Private Addresses
• With the rapid growth of the Internet, public IP addresses
were beginning to run out.
• Solutions to expand the number of IP addresses available
for public use include:
– classless interdomain routing (CIDR)
– IPv6
– Private IP addresses

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Private Addresses
• Internet requires translation of the private addresses to
public addresses.
• This translation process is referred to as Network Address
Translation (NAT)

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• To create a subnet address, a network administrator
borrows bits from the host field and designates them as
the subnet field
• The minimum number of bits that can be borrowed is two
• The maximum number of bits that can be borrowed can be
any number that leaves at least two bits remaining, for the
host number

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IPv4 and IPv6

• IPv6 uses 128 bits rather

than the 32 bits
• Provides 640 sextrillion
• IPv6 addresses are 128
bits long, written in
hexadecimal form, and
separated by colons. IPv6
fields are 16 bits long.

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Assigning IP Addresses

• Network administrators use two methods to

assign IP addresses.

– Static
• Administratively assigned

– Dynamic
• Automatically assigned

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Static IP Addresses

• Static assignment works best on small, infrequently

changing networks
• Good recordkeeping is critical to prevent problems which
occur with duplicate IP addresses
• Servers should be assigned a static IP address so
workstations and other devices will always know how to
access needed services
• Other devices that should be assigned static IP addresses
are network printers, application servers, and routers

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• Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) associates

a known MAC addresses with an IP addresses
• A network device, such as a diskless workstation, might
know its MAC address but not its IP address. RARP
allows the device to make a request to learn its IP address
• Devices using RARP require that a RARP server be
present on the network to answer RARP requests

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• The bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client-server
• BOOTP packets can include the IP address, as well as the
address of a router, the address of a server, and vendor-
specific information
• One problem with BOOTP is that it was not designed to provide
dynamic address assignment.
• With BOOTP, a network administrator manually creates a
configuration file for every host on the network that contains a
BOOTP profile along with an IP address assignment in it

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• Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) is the successor to
• Unlike BOOTP, DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address
dynamically without the network administrator having to set up
an individual profile for each device
• A range of IP addresses must be set-up on a DHCP server
• As hosts come online, they contact the DHCP server and
request an address. The DHCP server chooses an address and
leases it to that host
• The major advantage that DHCP has over BOOTP is that it
allows users to be mobile

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• Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
– Automatically maps IP to unknown MAC address
• For TCP/IP communications, a datagram on a local-area
network must contain both a destination MAC address and
a destination IP address. These addresses must be
correct and match the destination MAC and IP addresses
of the host device
• For communications between two LAN segments TCP/IP
has a variation on ARP called Proxy ARP that will provide
the MAC address of an intermediate device for
transmission outside the LAN to another network segment
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•Some devices will keep tables
that contain MAC addresses and
IP addresses of other devices that
are connected to the same LAN.

•These are called Address

Resolution Protocol (ARP) tables.
•ARP tables are stored in RAM
memory, where the cached
information is maintained
automatically on each of the

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