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Suraj Kumar

About the paper:

The paper tries to deduce the possible origin of particles and evolution of their Intrinsic Properties through Spiral Dynamics. The idea to use the approach of Spiral Dynamics comes from several observations experienced by scientific communities around the globe.

Earlier Observations:
The Logarithmic Potential and Exponential Mass Function for Elementary Particles. by Klauss Paasch, PROGRESS IN PHYSICS, Vol. 1, P39, 2009;

The Logarithmic Potential and Exponential Mass Function for Elementary Particles.
In this paper, they tried an approach of fitting parts of elementary particle mass involving logarithmic potential and with a constant energy pc resulting in points on a logarithmic spiral lining up under a polar angle and separated by a factor .

Exponential Mass Function

Our elementary particle mass tends to line up in a sequence on the logarithmic spiral, = 0ek where =
1 log 2

One turn of spiral corresponds to multiply by i.e. . = + 2

Plot for Exponential Mass Function

Fig A: The masses of elementary particles placed on the spiral and listed for each resulting sequence starting from the centre. The solid lines are separated by 45. The red dot in the centre is the electron at 0. The outer limit of the spiral at 135 is about 2 GeV in first figure and at 80 is about 6.5 GeV in second figure. Particles allocated on a sequence, but with masses too large for this scale are marked red in the attached listings of sequence particles. The top for example is far outside on S6 at 317. 6

This pattern of distribution along a straight line is achieved with only a specific value of as 1.53158 which provides symmetric and precise result. The existence of unique is an indication of possible constituent moving in a logarithmic potential resulting in the observed exponential quantization of elementary particle mass. The constituent of electron has already been observed in our next reference paper.

Earlier Observations (Cont.)

Spin-Orbital Separation in the Quasi 1D Mott Insulator Sr2CuO3. by Thorsten Schmitt (2012)
Not quiet so elementary, my dear electron. by Zeeya Merali Spinon and Holon were observed in an experiment by C.L. Kane and Matthew Fisher (1996)

Fig B: Energy Spectra observed for the constituent of electron i.e. Holon, Spinon and Orbiton. Here Excitation Energy is the amount of energy required to be incident through X-Ray for the particle to get into the state where it could break into constituents. Energy Transfer represents the amount of energy emitted along with constituent particles.

Combining the three observations we get that electron divides at photons energy loss of 0.8 eV, 1.5 eV and 3.5 eV. These quasi particles can move in different directions with different speed in the material independent of each other.



Mathematical Approach:
From the Reaction-Diffusion mathematical model which explains the local reaction which transforms the substance and diffusion which spreads out the substance over a surface in space, we have = + ()

where = , , describes the concentration of energy fluxes and is the diffusion constant of medium.

Since fluxes in potential well have associated direction, in terms of Vector Laplacian we have Reaction- Diffusion equation as:
= [( ) (())] + ()

Considering the Laplacian term at first, we have ( ) provides the required potential to produce the elementary particles, (()) is the work performed to produce the spiral structure for the elementary particle and ( ) (()) is the remaining potential after the formation of particles spiral structure which contributes in the intrinsic behaviour of elementary particle.

Since the spiral emerges in excitable medium as the result of wave break. Open ends of broken wave evolve because of dependence of velocity, () on curvature /, by Eikonal equation: () = / where is velocity of wave in medium and is diffusion constant of excitable medium.


What is excitable medium for Elementary Particles?

For the spiral structure of elementary particles the excitable medium has the following properties:
Has Diffusion constant =1 which provides the free flow to respective fluxes of potential. Waves can travel in the medium at the speed of light i.e. at . This makes our Eikonal equation as: () = /

Also the Rate of Autocatalysis for such system is: ( ) = 2 The spiral system of elementary particles are isolated and no reaction occurs from outside, but only the diffusion of potential flux takes place. Thus,
= = ( ) (())


Structure of Spiral:
A Spiral is described by a periodic function of phase as = + + () where = potential function of spiral.
= frequency of spiral. = number of arms. In spiral structure of elementary particles, we have () = () Thus, = + + ()

The distance between two successive arms is the wavelength of Spiral given as: = ( ) ( ) =
We also have a definition for wavelength as:

Since, [

+ ()


+ [ ()


where = number of arms. Solving above equation with = 1 gives us the relation:

() =

1 ()


Deducing the behaviour of particle, with growth in angle by or with adding an arm, the mass and consecutively the frequency increases by factor , minimizing the wavelength and consecutively the radius of spiral arms by factor 1 / . Hence, =


Finally, we know that keeping the radius of the complete spiral constant, if we curl up to produce an additional arm with angle preserved, we have a growth in mass by factor .

The term () gives the variation in the potential required to increase the number of arms of a spiral.

Let us assume to have a wave of constant wavelength equal to Plancks length i.e. p = 1.616199e-35 meter. Thus we have frequency also conserved along with wavelength. Distributing it along the length of spiral we have a well stable architecture of the distribution of particles and anti particles. The frequency here is conserved by increase in angular velocity of rotation of the spiral since the wavelength is constant. It is well reflected through the decrease in spiral wavelength i.e. .


Possible Constituent Configuration of Electron:

Relation between the Spectra Map and Spiral Structure:
Spin (0.8 eV) : Determined by count of tip of the Spiral. It provides details of portion of waves considered in Spiral. Different particle families of Standard Model as:

We have integer spin bosons represented along the wavelength of stationary wave with wavelength/ having two tips, unlike fermions which are represented by half of the boson wavelength i.e. / having single tip.

Orbit ( 2 - 3.5 eV) : The orbit of the particle is determined by the mass-energy quantisation of particle determined in Spiral by

as discussed earlier.

Charge ( 4.3 5.6 eV) : The charge of the particle is determined by the direction of

curl provided by the potential i.e. basis of angle of curl.

Charge 0

. Its quantisation is done on the

Angle of Curl (in ) 0

1/3 2/3

60 120


Character Antiparticle Particle

Behaviour Source Sink

Structure Spiral Antispiral

Fig : Representation of charge deviation of particle. If the particle is positive charged it takes clockwise rotation and if its negatively charged it takes anti-clockwise direction. The horizontal separation divides among the Particles and Antiparticles.

Characteristics of particles in different quadrants above:

Particle annihilates with diagonal quadrant. Particle adjacent horizontally attract each other. Since they are both of same structure i.e. either Particle or Antiparticle with having opposite direction, they attract each other and can exist closer by. Particle adjacent vertically repel each other. Since they are both of opposite structure with having same direction, they repel each other and because of this we dont have annihilation.


In the spiral dynamics of particles, the excitation energy absorbed by the particle tends to increase the length or thickness of spiral. Conserving the quantity which represents the main structure of spiral and also the length of the spiral, the absorbed energy is emitted out in the form of photon or transfer energy in concerned experiment.


Concluding the Physical Approach:





This is because the mass of quark is more than that of electron and neutrino and mass of electron is more than that of neutrino, as Mass is inversely proportional to


Illustration of Acceleration of Particles in Spiral System:

Some of the basic facts which we know for particle accelerators are:
The mass increases with velocity. The velocity in any case cant reach the speed of light i.e. particle can never become photon. In Spiral System, as we increase the velocity of particle closer to speed of light, the core of the spiral curls around the axis of acceleration and tip coincide with the axis of acceleration.

Fig : Representation of structure of Antispiral when accelerated with velocity closer to speed of light.

Once the spiral is completely curled up on the axis of acceleration, further increase in velocity decreases the quantity

Hence, increases the mass of the particle.

Also this phenomenon never allows particle to attain a straight waveform free from curl to behave as photon, since from observations we know that the acceleration also preserves the curls in the waveform at some extent and can never get free from it.


It is interesting to note that the dynamics of spirals for galaxy structure can also be used for elementary particles. Further study tries to fit the structure of these micro spirals of elementary particles into the macro spirals of cosmos, which can give us the explanations for the dark potentials. This can also be the basic ingredient for the Unified Theory.