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Homework 1 Topic of The Rover, Curiosity

Student : Tang Thi Khanh Vy Student ID: 2121215 Professor : FU, HO LING

Modified: 15/03/2014

SUBJECTS OUTLINE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Goal Curiosity s mission in MARS and Curiositys specifications The instrument of Curiosity Curiositys subsytems Conclusion

Goal
The rover, known as Curiosity that NASA sent to Mars, has recently landed successfully, much to the jubilation of everyone involved. It is a car sized robotic rover exploring Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission. This rover is doing its jobs on Mars now Its spacecraft has been lunched on November 26, 2011 It landed safely on August 5, 2012, after 560 million-km journey It took eight years of building and testing

Curiositys mission
The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth (Martian day about 24 hour and 35 min) Exploring existence of life and its constituents, which include: Searching of Water Study Martians chemical elements and geology Study the weather and radiation

Curiositys specifications
Weight: Curiosity is 10 times the of the previous Mars explorers Spirit and Opportunity, 3,893 kg Power source: Curiosity is powered by a radiosiotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) Computers: The two identical on-board rover computers, called Rover Computer Element (RCE) contain radiation hardened memory to tolerate the extreme radiation from space and to safeguard against power-off cycles Heat rejection system: The temperatures at the landing site can vary from 127 to 40 C (197 to 104 F) Communications: Curiosity is equipped with significant telecommunication redundancy by several means an X-band transmitter and receiver, and a UHF Electra -Lite soft-ware-defined radio. Mobility systems: Curiosity is equipped with six 50 cm (20 in) diameter wheels in a rocker-bogie suspension. The suspension system also served as landing gear for the vehicle

Curiositys instrument

Curiositys instrument
1. Mast Camera (MastCam): The MastCam system provides multiple spectra and true-color imaging with two cameras and each camera has eight gigabytes of flash memory. (Figure 1 )

2.

Figure 1 Chemistry and Camera complex (ChemCam): is two different instruments combined as one: a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and a Remote Micro Imager (RMI) telescope. + The LIBS instrument is to provide elemental compositions of rock and soil. + The RMI will give ChemCam scientists high-resolution images of the sampling areas of the rocks and soil that LIBS targets

Curiositys instrument
3. Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS): REMS comprises instruments to measure the Mars environment : humidity, pressure, temperatures, wind speeds, and ultraviolet radiation. It is a meteorological package that includes an ultraviolet sensor 4. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is fueled by 4.8 kg of plutonium-238 dioxide It is designed to produce 125 watts of electrical power from about 2000 watts of thermal power at the start of the mission, and less power over time as its plutonium fuel decays (at its minimum lifetime of 14 years, electrical power output is down to 100 watts) Unfortunately, thermoelectric generators are notoriously inefficient as their efficiency level is about 6.2%. However, RTG produces much more than the solar panels of the previous Mars Exploration Rovers

Curiositys instrument
5. Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): is a camera on the rover's robotic arm, and acquires microscopic images of rock and soil. MAHLI also has mechanical focusing in a range from infinite to millimetre distances. (Figure 3 )

6.

Figure 3 Figure 4 Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS): The device irradiates samples with alpha particles and map the spectra of X-rays that are reemitted for determining the elemental composition of samples. The APXS instrument takes advantage of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). (Figure 4)

Curiositys instrument
7. Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin): is the Chemistry and Mineralogy X-rays powder diffraction and fluorescence instrument. CheMin is one of four spectrometers. It can identify and quantify the abundance of the minerals on Mars (Figure 5a-5b)

8. 9.

Figure 5a Figure 5b Sample analysis at Mars (SAM):The SAM instrument suite analyzes organics and gases from both atmospheric and solid samples. Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN):A pulsed sealed-tube neutron source and detector for measuring hydrogen or ice and water at or near the Martian surface

Curiositys instrument
10. Radiation assessment detector (RAD): This instrument was the first of ten MSL instruments to be turned on. Its first role was to characterize the broad spectrum of radiation environment found inside the spacecraft during the cruise phase. 11. Mars Descent Imager (MARDI): take photo terrain of Mars and MARDI imaging allowed the mapping of surrounding terrain and the location of landing. (Figure 6 )

Figure 6

Figure 6

Curiositys subsystem
There are 7 subsystem in Curiosity 1. The landing system: is similar to a sky crane heavy-lift helicopter. After a parachute slows the rover's descent toward Mars, a rocket-powered backpack will lower the rover on a tether during the final moments before landing. This method allows landing a very large, heavy rover on Mars (instead of the airbag landing systems of previous Mars rovers). Other innovations enable a landing within a smaller target area than previous Mars missions.

Curiositys subsystem
2. Toolkit Curiosity will use 10 science instruments to examine rocks, soil and the atmosphere. A laser will vaporize patches of rock from a distance Another instrument will search for organic compounds Other instruments include mast-mounted cameras to study targets from a distance, arm-mounted instruments to study targets they touch. Deck-mounted analytical instruments to determine the composition of rock and soil samples acquired with a powdering drill and a scoop.

Curiositys subsystem
+ will help them design systems for entry into the Martian atmosphere that are safer, more reliable, and lighter weight. It is actually made up of two kinds of instruments. The two kinds of instruments are: MEADS (Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System) MEADS measures the atmospheric pressure on the heat shield. The MEADS pressure sensors are arranged in a special cross pattern. This cross pattern will allow engineers to determine the spacecraft's orientation as a function of time. MISP (MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs) MISP measures how hot it gets at different depths in the spacecraft's heat-shield material. Predicted heating levels are about three times higher than those of the Space Shuttle when it enters Earth's atmosphere.

Curiositys subsystem
2.1 Atmospheric Sensors in Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) MEDLI collected engineering data which data + will be invaluable to engineers when they design future Mars missions during the spacecraft's high-speed, extremely hot entry into the Martian atmosphere. + will help them design systems for entry into the Martian atmosphere that are safer, more reliable, and lighter weight. It is actually made up of two kinds of instruments. The two kinds of instruments are:

Curiositys subsystem
MEADS (Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System) MEADS measures the atmospheric pressure on the heat shield. The MEADS pressure sensors are arranged in a special cross pattern. This cross pattern will allow engineers to determine the spacecraft's orientation as a function of time. MISP (MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs) MISP measures how hot it gets at different depths in the spacecraft's heat-shield material. Predicted heating levels are about three times higher than those of the Space Shuttle when it enters Earth's atmosphere.

Curiositys subsystem
2.2 Environmental Sensors in Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station will measure and provide daily and seasonal reports on atmospheric pressure, humidity, and so on. A sensor inside the rover's electronic box will be exposed to the atmosphere through a small opening and will measure changes in pressure caused by different meteorological events.

Curiositys subsystem
3. Motion system Each of Curiosity's six wheels has an independent drive motor. The two front and two rear wheels also have individual steering motors. This steering allows the rover to make 360-degree turns in-place on the Mars surface. The wheels' diameter is double the wheel diameter on Spirit and Opportunity, which will help Curiosity roll over obstacles up to 75 centimeters (30 inches) high.

Curiositys subsystem
4. Power system A nuclear battery will enable Curiosity to operate year-round and farther from the equator than would be possible with only solar power. Curiosity is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), like the successful Viking 1 and Viking 2 Mars landers in 1976. Radioisotope power systems (RPSs) are generators that produce electricity from the decay of radioactive isotopes, such as plutonium-238, which is a non-fissile isotope of plutonium.

Curiositys subsystem
5. Structure frame:

Curiositys subsystem
5. 1) Thermo-electric cooler (TEC) is turned on to cool the detectors. 5.2) Functional Self-Test: an aliveness test initiated at the beginning of every ChemCam turn-on. It can be executed during the cruise and right after the first instrument turn-on following landing. This mode sets all subsystems in their default mode and checks basic interfaces between subsystems. 5.3) Laser warm-up: The laser operates best at -10 to 0 C. Normally the box holding the laser is at -40 C. Up to 15 minutes are needed to warm the laser before operations. The focus laser (continuous-wave laser, or CWL) is also warmed up.

Curiositys subsystem
5.4) Focusing: A laser pointer is turned on, illuminating the target with monochromatic light. The focus stage is scanned while the signal is monitored at the correct wavelength by a detector. The signal is checked for saturation, repeating the scan with less sensitivity if necessary. The focus position is determined by the maximum in the fitted data. 5.5) RMI Imaging: The imager software inherited from Rosetta includes autoexposure algorithms, with typically four different exposures made, and the best image is kept. For a typical rock analysis scenario a full 1024x1024 pixel image is taken prior to LIBS analysis, and an image of only the analysis spot (e.g., 128x128) is taken subsequent to analysis.

Curiositys subsystem
While LIBS and RMI will be used frequently together, there will be numerous times when RMI will be used separately, such as to provide close-up images to support arm-mounted experiments, or provide images of very distant objects. 5.6) LIBS Data Acquisition: The laser is fired in a rapid series of shots while the spectrometer collects spectra. The laser can operate at 1-10 Hertz, with a nominal repetition rate of 3 Hertz (shots per second). 5.7) Post-LIBS Image: Typically, an image of the laser spot will be taken subsequent to LIBS analysis, as mentioned above.

Curiositys subsystem
6. Navigation component It apply two instrument for Curiosity 6.1 Navigation Cameras (Navcams) The rover has two pairs of black and white navigation cameras mounted on the mast to support ground navigation The cameras have a 45 degree angle of view and use visible light to capture stereoscopic 3-D imagery These cameras support use of the ICER image compression format.

Curiositys subsystem
6.2 Hazard Avoidance Cameras The rover has four pairs of black and white navigation cameras called Hazcamstwo pairs in the front and two pairs in the back They are used for autonomous hazard avoidance during rover drives and for safe positioning of the robotic arm on rocks and soils The cameras use visible light to capture stereoscopic threedimensional (3-D) imagery The cameras have a 120 degree field of view and map the terrain at up to 3 m in front of the rover This imagery safeguards against the rover crashing into unexpected obstacles, and works in tandem with software that allows the rover to make its own safety choices

Curiositys subsystem
7. Addition subsystem: 7.1 Heat rejection system: The temperatures at the landing site can vary from 127 to 40 C (197 to 104 F); therefore, the thermal system will warm the rover for most of the Martian year. 7.2 Mobility systems: Curiosity is equipped with six 50 cm (20 in) diameter wheels in a rocker-bogie suspension. The suspension system also served as landing gear for the vehicle, unlike its smaller predecessors. . 7.3 Computer:On Mars, very high level of radiation and very low level of temperature take place, which can not be withstood by traditional processors In fact, Curiositys computer is virtually impervious to massive amounts of radiation and other environmental extremes.

Curiositys subsystem
7.4 Robotic arm:The rover has a 2.1 m (6.9 ft) long arm with a cross-shaped turret holding five devices that can spin through a 350-degree turning range. The arm makes use of three joints to extend it forward and to stow it again while driving. It has a mass of 30 kg (66 lb) and its diameter, including the tools mounted on it, is about 60 cm (24 in).

The turret at the end of the robotic arm holds five devices

Curiositys subsystem
7.5 Communications: Curiosity is equipped with significant telecommunication redundancy Telecommunication includes a small deep space transponder on the descent stage and a solid-state power amplifier on the rover for X band.

Conclusion
With Curiosity, Mars Science Laboratory will assess whether Mars ever had an environment capable of supporting microbial life. The Mars Science Laboratory mission and its Curiosity rover mark a transition between the themes of "Follow the Water" and "Seek Signs of Life." In addition to landing in a place with past evidence of water, Curiosity is seeking evidence of organics, the chemical building blocks of life.

REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curiosity_rover http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration_of_Mars http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Science_Laboratory http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brushless_DC_electric_motor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_drive#cite_note-5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MMRTG http://www.space.com/13699-nasa-mars-rover-curiosity-11facts.html http://science.howstuffworks.com/mars-rover1.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19342994 http://www.planetary.org/blogs/casey-dreier/20120809-curiositycomes-cheap.html

REFERENCES
http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/m2k4/driverover/frameset.html http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/mission/rover/ http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/news/newsroom/ http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2010-221 http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/multimedia/interactives/learncuriosity/in dex-2.html http://marsrover.nasa.gov/mission/spacecraft_rover_wheels.html http://www.space.com/16849-mars-rover-curiosity-ford-raptortruck.html http://www.spaceflightnow.com/atlas/av028/111117mmrtg/ http://www.quora.com/What-is-the-cost-breakdown-in-building-aspace-probe-such-as-the-Mars-Exploration-Rover http://money.cnn.com/2012/08/06/news/companies/mars-curiosityjobs/index.htm