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Permanent Anterior Teeth Incisors

Chapter 16

Central Incisor (Facial view)

Maxillary Incisors
Location anterior Teeth #s 7, 8, 9, and 10 Eruption 7-9 years

7 8

9 10

Maxillary Central Incisor

Location most anterior tooth on maxilla Teeth #s 8 & 9 Eruption 7-8 years Shape - Shovel

Labial View
Perikymata (imbrication lines)

Horizontal lines on the enamel surface of newly erupted teeth

Mamelons (tubercles or scallops)

Rounded scallops or tubercles near the incisal edge of newly erupted teeth

Woelfel and Scheid. Dental Anatomy. 6th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002, p. 92.

Labial View

Developmental grooves
Mesiolabial Distolabial

Brand and Isselhard. Anatomy of Orofacial Structures. 7th Ed. Mosby, 2003, p. 120.

Labial View
Incisal edge over root

Labial View
Wide mesiodistally
Sharper mesioincisal line angle than distoincisal line angle

Distocervical part of crown elevates.


Labial and Lingual Height of Contour

HOC: Widest portion viewed from the proximal (mesial and distal) views

Cervical 1/3

Mesial and Distal View

CEJ more curved on mesial than distal

Lingual View
Cingulum (4th growth center) swings to the distal Shovel shaped Distinct mesial marginal ridge and distal marginal ridge Prominent lingual fossa

Mesial marginal ridge

Distal marginal ridge

Cone shape

Plaque Retention
Labial depressions Near cervical line Lingual fossa

Maxillary Lateral Incisor

Maxillary Lateral Incisors

Location Distal to central incisors, mesial to cuspid Teeth #s 7 & 10 Eruption 8-9 years
7 10

Lateral Incisor Compared to Maxillary Central Incisor

Smaller Rounder line angles Similar in that the mesioincisal line angle is sharper than distoincisal line angle Oblong Labial depressions do not appear

Lingual View
Distinct marginal ridges Mesiomarginal ridge is longer and straighter than distomarginal ridge Deep lingual fossa Distinct lingual pit Cingulum prominent and centered

Mesial and Distal Views

Mesial CEJ is curved more than distal CEJ dips closer to incisal on the mesial than the distal

Height of Contour
Labial and lingual height of contours in cervical 1/3

Root Anatomy
Longer and thinner than central incisor Apex curves distally (90% of the time) Oval in cross-section


Mandibular Incisors
Anterior teeth Teeth #s: 23, 24, 25, 26
262625 24 26 23

Eruption of Mandibular Incisors

Central: 6 7 years Lateral: 7 8 years Roots complete: 9 10 years Generally after 1st permanent molars

Mandibular central occludes with maxillary central incisor
Lateral incisor occludes with maxillary central and lateral incisor

Mandibular Central Incisor

Mamelons on newly erupted teeth Cingulum is not as prominent as maxillary Developmental grooves not prominent Marginal ridges not distinct

25 24

Labial View of Mand. Central Incisor

Smallest tooth in the mouth Symmetrical difficult to tell left from right Distoincisal angle slightly more round than mesioincisal angle

25 24

Mandibular Central Lingual View

Lingual surface narrower than labial surface Relatively smooth shallow lingual fossa Small centered cingulum

Mesial View
Incisal edge lingual to root axis line, otherwise bilaterally symmetrical over the root Mesial CEJ more curved than distal CEJ

Incisal View
Incisal angles equal sharpness, approximately 90 Broad (wider) labiolingually than mesiodistally Labial surface flat and lingual surface convex due to cingulum Cingulum centered
90 mesioincisal and distoincisal angles

Height of Contour
Labial and lingual height of contour in cervical third

Contact Areas
Mesial and distal contact areas in incisal 1/3 Distal contact area slightly more cervically located

Root Anatomy
Mesial and distal root depressions, BOW shaped root Crown centered over the root apex may bend slightly to the distal

Plaque and Calculus Retention

May have plaque or calculus accumulation


Distal to central incisor and mesial to cuspid

Mandibular Lateral Incisor - Labial View

Not as symmetrical as central incisor Larger than central incisor in same mouth Distoincisal angle more rounded than mesioincisal angle Distal surface convex Crown tilts to distal looks bent at cervix

Lingual View of Mandibular Lateral Incisor

Mesial marginal ridge

Mesiomarginal ridge is longer than distomarginal ridge Shallow lingual fossa Distal surface bulges from the incisal view

Distal marginal ridge

Incisal View
Distolingual twist Cingulum twisted (off-center) to the distal

Mesial View
Incisal edge lingual to root axis line CEJ is curved more on the mesial than the distal Root depressions possible

Distal View
Root depression or concavity always present on the distal surface, known as a KIDNEY SHAPE

Height of Contour
Labial and lingual HOCs in cervical 1/3

Contact Areas
Mesial and distal contact areas in incisal 1/3



Root Anatomy
Mesial and distal root depressions Apex may curve slightly to the distal