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Chapter 2
Three Phase
System
Prepared by
Mr. Lim Cheng Siong
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

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Contents
AC Generation, Transmission and Electric Tariff
Electrical
Three-Phase System
Balanced Load
Power Measurement
3
Basic AC Generation

If a conductor is placed in a magnetic field, and either the
field or the conductor moves, an electromotive force (e.m.f.) is
induced in the conductor.

This effect is called electromagnetic induction.
4
5
Electrical Power
Transmission

Electric power transmission, a
process in the delivery of electricity
t o consumer s. Typi cal l y, power
transmission is between the power plant
and a substation near a populated area.

Due to the large amount of power
involved, transmission normally takes
place at high voltage (110 kV or above).
Electricity is usually transmitted over
long distance through overhead power
t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s .
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Electrical Power Distribution
A distribution system consists of all the
facilities and equipment connecting a
transmission system to the customer's
equipment.

A typical distribution system
consist of:
Substations
Distribution Feeder Circuits
Switches
Protective Equipment
Primary Circuits
Distribution Transformers

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Electric Tariff

Electric Tariff : Charges of using electricity.

The major cost components associated with generation,
transmission and distribution of electricity from the power stations
to end-users are:

- fuel;
- power purchase from independent power producers;
- operation and maintenance;
- procurement of parts and equipment; and
- capital for new infrastructure including finance costs.
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Electric Tariff

According to Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB),

Most consumers used 30% more electricity than they actually
need.
The more electricity you used, the more you have to pay.
Therefore the simplest way to reduce your electricity bill is to
use electricity efficiently.
However, this does not mean that you need to compromise
your standard of living or to cut down your comfort level.




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Electric Tariff

How can I reduce my electricity bill?
The simplest way to reduce your electricity bill is to use
electricity efficiently. Follow these quick and easy tips:
-
Switch off appliances and electrical equipment such as lights,
TV, air-conditioners, etc. when not in use.
-
Operate your washing machine at full load without overloading.
-
Iron all your clothes at one time.



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Domestic tariff applies to consumers occupying private dwellings,
which are not used to carry out any business.
See below for details.
TARIFF CATEGORY
UNIT

RATES

1. Tariff A - Domestic Tariff

First 200 kWh (1 - 200 kWh) per
month
sen/kWh 21.80

Next 800 kWh (201 - 1,000 kWh)
per month
sen/kWh 28.90

Over 1,000 kWh (1,001 kWh
onwards) per month
sen/kWh 31.20

The minimum monthly charge is
RM3.00

Electric Tariff

11
Contents
AC Generation, Transmission and Electric Tariff Electrical
Three-Phase System
Balanced Load
Power Measurement
12
Three-Phase System

In a three phase system the source consists of three
sinusoidal voltages. For a balanced source, the three
sources have equal magnitudes and are phase displaced
from one another by 120 electrical degrees.

A three-phase system is superior economically and
advantage, and for an operating of view, to a single-phase
system. In a balanced three phase system the power
delivered to the load is constant at all times, whereas in a
single-phase system the power pulsates with time.
13
Generation of Three-Phase
Three separate windings or coils with terminals R-R, Y-Y and B-
B are physically placed 120
o
apart around the stator.
14
It has 3 conductor loop
that is R (red), Y (yellow)
and B (blue).
The conductor loop will
move in circle and then cut
off the magnetic flux.
It will produces the
electromagnetic force e.m.f.
in the conductor.
Maximum e.m.f. is when
the conductor loop is 90
with magnetic flux line.
15
v(t)
120
et
v
R
240
o
v
Y
v
B
The instantaneous e.m.f. generated in phase R, Y and B:
v
R
= V
R
sin et
v
Y
= V
Y
sin (et -120
o
)
v
B
= V
B
sin (et -240
o
) = V
B
sin (et +120
o
)

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Phase sequences : RYB and RBY
120
o
-120
o
120
o
V
R
V
Y
V
B
e
o
) rms ( R R
0 V V Z =
o
) rms ( Y Y
120 V V Z =
o
) rms ( B
o
) rms ( B B
120 V
240 V V
Z =
Z =
V
R
leads V
Y
, which in turn leads V
B
.

This sequence is produced when the rotor rotates in
the counterclockwise direction.
(a) RYB or positive sequence
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(b) RBY or negative sequence
o
) rms ( R R
0 V V Z =
o
) rms ( B B
120 V V Z =
o
rms Y
o
rms Y Y
V
V
120
240
) (
) (
Z =
Z = V
V
R
leads V
Y
, which in turn leads V
B
.

This sequence is produced when the rotor rotates in
the clockwise direction.
V
120
o
-120
o
120
o
V
R
V
B
Y
e
18
Connection in Three Phase System

Star Connection (Star )

Also known as Y connection (wye)

Usually been used in system that need high line voltage

There are two type of Y connection, i.e:

i) 3 wire star connection
ii) 4 wire star connection
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3 wire star connection

Use 3 line wire, that are R, Y and B.

All of the conductor loop source is connected in similar reference
point S.
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4 wire star connection

Use 4 line wire, that are R, Y , B and N.

N wire is connected to reference point S.
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Delta Connection ()

Usually been used in system that need high line current.
Connect all the conductor in series.
No neutral line
Generator
Load
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Line Voltage (V
L
) : Potential different between two lines.

Phase Voltage (V
P
) : Potential different between two
phases or voltage across load in each phase.

Line Current : Current flow in each line.

Phase Current: Current flow in each phase or load.

3 phase system definition
23
Balance 3 phase system
In balance three phase system:

The system will have same value of load in
each phase.

Each phase voltage will have same magnitude
and phase
different 120.

Each phase current will have same magnitude
and phase
different 120.

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Star connection
Line Voltage
VRY : Line voltage between R
& Y
VYB : Line voltage between Y
& B
VBR : Line voltage between B
& R

Phase Voltage
VRN : Phase voltage R
VYN : Phase voltage Y
VBN : Phase voltage B
25
Star connection
VRN is take as the reference point in positive rotation



120 120
120 120
0 0
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
P BN BN
P YN YN
P RN RN
V V V
V V V
V V V
From Kirchhoff Law:
( )



30 3
120 1 0 1
120 0
Z =
Z Z =
Z Z = =
P
P
P P YN RN RY
V
V
V V V V V
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Star connection
With the same method ;

150 3
90 3
Z = =
Z = =
P RN BN BR
P BN YN YB
V V V V
V V V V
As conclusion :

30 3 Z =
P L
V V
For a balance star
connection.
Line voltage (V
L
) has magnitude \3 V
P
and is leading phase voltage
(V
P
) with 30.
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Star connection
Phasor diagram for phase voltage and line voltage;
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Line Current = Phase Current

Current flow in each line is:
I
R
: Line current R.
I
Y
: Line current Y.
I
B
: Line current B.

Phase current : Current that flow
through each phase loop or load.

For star connection;
For star connection
current) (Phase current) (Line
P L
I I =
29
Delta Connection
Line Voltage,
VRY Voltage across conductor
RR.
VYB Voltage across conductor
YY.
VBR Voltage across conductor
BB.

In delta connection, Line voltage is also
the phase voltage , So:
voltage) (Phase voltage) (Line
P L
V V =
Delta Connection
30



120 120
120 120
0 0
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
Z = Z =
P BR BR
P YB YB
P RY RY
I I I
I I I
I I I


30 3
120 0
: load At the
Z =
Z Z =
=
P
P P
BR RY R
I
I I
I I I
Phase current , I
RY
, I
YB
dan I
BR

Current flow through each conductor
loop in each phase.
And I
RY
always be taken as the
reference current, so ;
31

90 3
150 3
; Then
Z = =
Z = =
P YB BR B
P RY YB Y
I I I I
I I I I
Line Current (I
L
) lagging current phase (I
P
) with 30.
Magnitude I
L
= \3 I
P
.

30 3 Z =
P L
I I
For balance delta
connection
Conclusion :
32
Delta Connection
33
Contents
AC Generation, Transmission and Electric Tariff Electrical
Three-Phase System
Balanced Load
Power Measurement
34
V
RN
V
BN
V
YN
Z
1
Z 2
Z
3
R
B
N
Y
I
R
I
Y
I
B
I
N
B Y R N
I I I I + + =
3
BN
B
2
YN
Y
1
RN
R
Z
V
I
Z
V
I
Z
V
I
=
=
=
Wye-Connected Loads
For balanced load system,
I
N
= 0 and Z
1
= Z
2
= Z
3
Z =
Z =
Z =
240 V
120 V
0 V
phase BN
phase YN
phase RN
V
V
V
35
B Y R N
I I I I + + =
3
o
BN
B
2
o
YN
Y
1
o
RN
R
Z
120 V
I
Z
120 V
I
Z
0 V
I
Z
=
Z
=
Z
=
BN YN RN phasa
phasa BN
phasa YN
phasa RN
V V V V where
120 V V
120 V V
0 V V
= = =
Z =
Z =
Z =
Wye-Connected Balanced Loads
For balanced load system,
I
N
= 0 and Z
1
= Z
2
= Z
3
Four wire system
V
RN
V
BN
Z
1
Z 2
Z
3
R
B
N
Y
V
YN
I
R
I
Y
I
B
I
N
36
R
Y
B
Z
1
Z 2
Z
3
I
R
I
Y
I
B
V
RY
V
YB
V
BR
S
Three wire system
BS YS RS phasa
phasa BS
phasa YS
phasa RS
V V V V where
240 V V
120 V V
0 V V
= = =
Z =
Z =
Z =
0 I I I
B Y R
= + +
3
o
BS
B
2
o
YS
Y
1
o
RS
R
Z
120 V
I
Z
120 V
I
Z
0 V
I
Z
=
Z
=
Z
=
37
Delta-Connected Balanced Loads
3
o
BR
BR
2
o
YB
YB
1
o
RY
RY
Z
120 V
I
Z
120 V
I
Z
0 V
I
Z
=
Z
=
Z
=
YB BR B
RY YB Y
BR RY R
I I I
I I I
I I I
=
=
=
line B Y R
phasa BR YB RY
I I I I and
I I I I where
= = =
= = =
Phase currents:
Line currents:
Z
1
Z
3
Z
2
R
Y
B
V
RY
V
YB
V
BR
I
R
I
RY
I
BR
I
YB
I
B
I
Y
38
Contents
AC Generation, Transmission and Electric Tariff Electrical
Three-Phase System
Balanced Load
Power Measurement
39
Power Calculation
The three phase power is equal the sum of
the phase powers
P = P
R
+ P
Y
+ P
B
If the load is balanced:
P = 3 P
phase
= 3 V
phase
I
phase
cos

Wye connection system:
I
phase
= I
L


P = 3 V
phase
I
phase
cos

phase LL
V 3 V =
W I V 3
L LL
u = cos
40
Reactive power:

Q = 3 V
phase
I
phase
sin


Apparent power:

S = 3 V
phase
I
phase




or S = P + jQ
VAR I V 3
L LL
u = sin
VA I V 3
L LL
=
41
Delta connection system:


V
LL
= Vphase

P = 3 V
phase
I
phase
cos
phase L
I 3 I =
W I V 3
L LL
u = cos
42
Example 1
A 345 kV, three phase transmission line delivers
500 MVA, 0.866 power factor lagging, to a three
phase load connected to its receiving end terminals.
Assume the load is Y connected
and the voltage at the receiving
end is 345 kV, find:

The load impedance per phase.

The line and phase currents.

The total real and reactive power.
43
Example 2
Repeat example 2 assuming the load is Delta
connected.
44
Power measurement
In a four-wire system (3 phases and a
neutral) the real power is measured using
three single-phase watt-meters.

In a three-wire system (three phases
without neutral) the power is measured
using only two singlephase watt-meters.
- The watt-meters are supplied by
the line current and the line-to-line
voltage.
45
Three Phase Circuit






Four wire system, Each phase measured separately
A
A
V
W
W
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
V
AN
I
A
I
C
V
A
V
W
I
B
V
BN
V
CN
Neutral (N)
P
A
P
B
P
C
46
Three Phase Circuit






Three wire system,
A
A
V
V
W
W
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
V
AB
= V
A
- V
B
V
CB
= V
C
- V
B
I
A
I
C
P
AB
P
CB
The three phase
power is the sum of
the two watt-meters
reading
CB AB T
P P P + =