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Ths.Trn Ph Tn 1.L Hu Thnh 2.Trng Cng Li 3.Nguyn nh Gip 4.Nguyn Hong Vit DHDT8ALT
17/ 10/ 2013

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Ni dung chnh
I. Tng quan IPv6 II. Cu trc IPv6 III.Cu trc trng header trong gi tin IPv6

IV.nh tuyn trong IPv6


V. Giao thc ICMPv6

VI. Bo mt trong IPv6

I. Tng quan
1. S cn kit ca IPv4 & nguyn nhn pht trin IPv6:
Ngun cung cp a ch mi cho IPv4 cn kit (theo phn tch ca cc t chc qun l ti nguyn khu vc RIR) S pht trin nhanh chng ca cc dch v IP, nhu cu ti nguyn tng cao (di ng, ADSL) Cc gii php k thut nh NAT (Network Address Translation) v Private IP l khng .
PC
Server Cell phone

IPV4

cupper

wireless

Others

Hnh 1: M hnh s dng di a ch IPv4

1. S cn kit ca IPv4 & nguyn nhn pht trin IPv6 Cc dch v khng ngng pht trin: Ngy cng gia tng nhu cu kt ni internet: bng rng, VoIP, cell phone, thit b cm tay IPv4 khng p ng cho cc nhu cu ny.
PC
Server

Cell

Car

TV

Sensor

Home

IPV6
cupper
wireless

Fiber

PLC

Hnh 2: M hnh s dng cc dch v trn IPv6

2. u im ca IPv6
1. Khng gian a ch gn nh v hn. IPv6 c chiu di bt (128 bt = 2128 = 3.3*1038 a ch). Mt s nh phn tch cho rng, chng ta khng th dng ht a ch IPv6. 2. Kh nng t ng cu hnh (Plug and Play). 3. Kh nng bo mt kt ni t thit b gi n thit b nhn (u cui u cui).

IPv4

IPv6 5

u im ca IPv6
4. Qun l nh tuyn tt hn. IPv6 c thit k c cu trc nh a ch v phn cp nh tuyn thng nht, da trn mt s mc c bn i vi cc nh cung cp dch v. Cu trc phn cp ny gip trnh khi nguy c qu ti bng thng tin nh tuyn ton cu khi chiu di a ch IPv6 ln ti 128 bt. 5. D dng thc hin Multicast.

u im ca IPv6
6. H tr cho qun l cht lng mng
Nhng ci tin trong thit k ca IPv6 nh: khng phn mnh, nh tuyn phn cp, gi tin IPv6 c thit k vi mc ch x l tht hiu qu ti thit b nh tuyn to ra kh nng h tr tt hn cho cht lng dch v QoS. 7. Kh nng m rng tt. Ipv6 c kh nng m rng tt bng vic s dng phn header m rng ngay sau phn Ipv6 header. Khng ging nh Ipv4 phn la chn ch c 40 byte i vi Ipv6 th phn header m rng ch b hn ch bi kch thc gi tin IPv6. 7

u im ca IPv6
8. Hiu sut:
Gim thi gian x l header & thi gian x l nh tuyn Tng n nh cho cc trng Gim Broadcast Gii hn multicast Khng c checksum

II. Cu trc a ch IPv6


IPv6 c tng cng l 128 bit c chia lm 2 phn: 64 bit u c gi l network, 64 bit cn li c gi l host

Hnh 5: Cu trc IPv4 v IPv6

II. Cu trc a ch IPv6


Cch vit a ch IPv6 :
Ta chia 128 bit ra thnh 8 nhm, mi nhm chim 2 bytes,

gm 4 s c vit di h s 16, v mi nhm c ngn


cch nhau bng du hai chm : V d: FEDL:8435:7356:EADC:BA98:2010:3280:ABCD n gin a ch ny mt cch d nhn v ngn gn ta

c th rt gn theo quy tc sau :

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II. Cu trc a ch IPv6


Quy Tc :
Trong dy a ch IPV6, nu c s 0 ng u c th loi b. V d 0800 s c vit thnh 800, hoc 0008 s c vit thnh 8. Trong dy a ch IPv6, nu c cc nhm s 0 lin tip, c th n gin cc nhm ny bng 2 du :: ( ch p dng khi dy 0 lin tip nhau v khng p dng 2 ln).

V d : 1088:0000:0000:0000:0008:0800:200C:463A
Sau khi rt gn :1088::8:800:200C:463A
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II. Cu trc a ch IPv6


Chia 5 lp A, B, C, D, E Bao gm 3 loi chnh:
Unicast address: a ch n hng Anycast address: a ch theo hng bt k Multicast address: a ch a hng

a: Unicast

b: Anycast Hnh 6:

c: Multicast

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1. Unicast address
Unicast:
Dng nhn dng tng node Node l im tp hp cc thit b chuyn mch (Router). Gi tin gi ti unicast address c chuyn n mt interface.

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1. Unicast address
Bao gm 4 nhm :
Link-local: Address: nhn dng ng kt ni ni b 10 bit 54 bit 64 bit
1111111010 000000000 Interface id

Site-local Address: dng cho ni b v c th dng cho nhiu nhm. 10 bit 38 bit 16 bit 64 bit
1111111011 0000..000 Subnet ID Interface id

Global Unicast Address: a ch ny c s dng h tr cho cc ISP.

Unique Local Address: l a ch nh tuyn gia cc subnet trn mt private network

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2. Anycast address
c im:
a ch mang hng bt k. Dng nhn bit tp hp cc node. Mt gi tin gi ti a ch Anycast s c chuyn n mt node gn nht trong tp hp node .

Cu trc: Tng t nh Unicast (Nu a ch ny c


phn pht cho nhiu node th n l Anycast address).
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3. Multicast address
a ch a hng. Dng nhn dng tp hp cc node (nhm node) Tng node trong mt nhm c a ch nh nhau. 8 bit 4 bit 4 bit 112 bit
11111111 Flgs Scop Group ID

8 bit: Nhn dng kiu a ch a hng. 4 bit: Nhn dng c hiu. N c dng 000T.
T = 0 dy a ch c NIC cung cp c nh T = 1 dy a ch tm thi.

4 bit k: c gi tr t 0 F (hexa)
Scop = 1 Node local Scop = 2 Link local Scop = 5 Site local Scop = 8 Organizition local Scop = E (global scop a ch ton cu)

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Cc dng a ch IPv6 khc


IPv6 cn quy nh 1 s loi a ch c bit khc : a ch ko xc nh ::/128 : a ch ny ko c gn cho interface no. Host khi mi khi to c th s dng a ch ny nh a ch ngun ca n trc khi n c a ch. a ch loopback 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 : mt node c th s dng a ch ny gi gi tin IP cho chnh n. N ko c s dng nh a ch ngun a ch IPv4 trong IPv6

Hnh: Cu trc a ch IPv4 trong IPv6


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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6


Cu trc gi tin IPv6 c dng nh sau :

Header ca gi tin IPv6 bao gm 8 trng (40bytes), IPv4 c 12 trng (20 bytes- khng c trng option) hoc (60 bytes - c trng option). Do cu trc ca trng header ca IPv6 n gin hn nn vic x l thng tin s nhanh hn.
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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6

Vertion: 4 bit, ch th phin bn giao thc s dng, c gi tr l 6 ch Ipv6. Traffic Class: 8 bit, ch mc u tin ca gi tin Ipv6.

Trng ny ng vai tr tng t nh nh trng Type of


Service ca Ipv4.
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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6

Flow Label: 20 bit, ch ra gi tin ny thuc v mt tp cc gi tin gia nt ngun v nt ch do cc router Ipv6 trung gian s thc hin x l tt hn. Trng ny thng c dng vi cc dch v thi gian thc (thoi, truyn hnh). Khi trng ny c gi tr mc nh l 0 (khng yu cu x l c bit cc router trung gian). Gia nt ngun v nt ch c th tn ti nhiu ngun d liu v chng c phn bit cc gi tr khc 0 ca trng ny.
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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6

Payload Length: 16 bit, ch th di ca phn ti trng. Gi tr ny bao gm c phn mo u m rng ca Ipv6, do kch thc ln nht ca phn ti trng ca Ipv6 l 65535 byte. Vi phn ti trng c kch thc ln hn th trng ny c gi tr bng 0 v gi tr ca trng Hop-by-Hop trong phn header m rng s l Jumbo Payload (ti trng ln).
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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6

Next header: 8 bit, dng giao thc s dng lp trn hoc xc nh phn mo u m rng u tin (nu c). Hop limit: 8 bit, xc nh s lng kt ni ln nht m gi tin c chuyn tip ti ch trc khi b hu, ngha ca trng ny tng t nh trong Ipv4, khi Hop limit c gi tr l 0 th mt bn tin ICMPv6 s c gi ti ngun v gi tin b hu.
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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6

Source Address: 128 bit, cha a ch ngun v gi tin. Destination Address: 128 bit, cha a ch ch ca gi tin.

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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6

Header n gin hn l do s thay i ca 1 s phng thc hot ng . Header c cng kch thc nn b trng header length. Qu trnh fragmentation (phn on) ch do source node thc hin nn cc Router ko tham gia vo qu trnh fragmentation trng fragmentation ko cn thit .
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III. Cu trc trng header ca gi tin IPv6


Extension header (mo u m rng): l mt c ch m bng cch nhng thng tin ca lp internet c m ho trong

nhng header ring bit c th c trong header ca IPv6


v cc header ca cc lp trn ca cng 1 gi tin.(dng khi c

yu cu t cc router trung gian hoc ti cc node ch).


Mi phn mo u m rng c kch thc l s nguyn ln cc nhm 8 byte (64 bit), phn kch thc d khng s dng s c in y bng cc bit 0.
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IV.nh tuyn trong IPv6.


o V c bn nh tuyn trong IPv6 ko khc nhiu so vi nh tuyn trong IPv4. N cng c chia thnh 2 loi Interior v Exterior. oCc giao thc Interior c s dng bn trong mt min c kt ni ti internet . oCc giao thc Exterior c s dng trn mng backbone vi cc min c kt ni vo do vy c ch ca n phc tp hn nhiu so vi Interior routing protocol oCc giao thc nh tuyn hot ng gia trn cc thut ton nh tuyn.C 2 thut ton nh tuyn c bn nht l distance vector v link state .
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IV. ICMPv6
L giao thc s dng bn tin ICMPv6 thng bo li hoc thu ht cc p ng t 1 node ly thng tin cn thit. C nhim v n gin l bo cho sender bit vic gi data i c vn . Cu trc : Type : 8 bit , ch ra loi bn tin ICMPv6, (0-127)l bn tin error mess, (128-255) l bn tin thng bo Code : 8 bits ph thuc vo trng type Checksum : 16 bits Mess body : cha d liu

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IV. ICMPv6
Mt s loi bn tin ICMP : Destination unreachable: c gi cho node ngun khi R nhn c gi tin m n ko th gi i u c. Packet too big: c gi cho node ngun khi Router nhn c gi tin ln hn gi tr MTU ca link.

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IV. ICMPv6
Mt s loi bn tin ICMP : Time exceeded: - Khi gi tin chy trong mng trong khong thi gian qu lu m ko n ch . - Gi tin vt qu c thi gian phn mnh v ghp mnh qu lu .

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IV. ICMPv6
Mt s loi bn tin ICMP : Parameter problem: c gi cho node ngun khi c vn

vi 1 vi phn ca gi tin IPv6 hoc trng extension


header khin cho Router ko th x l v phi xo gi tin.

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IV. ICMPv6
Mt s loi bn tin ICMP : ICMPv6 Echo Funtion : echo request v echo reply

Hnh: Echo Request

Hnh: Echo reply

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V. Bo mt trong IPv6_ IPsec


IPsec: IPsec Giao thc IPsec c lm vic ti tng Network Layer layer 3 ca m hnh OSI. Cung cp cc chc nng bo mt cho IPv6. IPsec cung cp 4 chc nng bo mt sau:
Xc thc- Authentication : xc nh c ngun gc ca d liu Ton vn d liu- Data integrity : m bo d liu ko b thay i trong qu trnh truyn. Bo mt(m ha)- Confidentiality : m bo d liu ko b c hoc s dng bi ngi khc trong qu trnh truyn . Antireplay protection: xc nhn mi gi tin l duy nht v khng trng lp
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V. Bo mt trong IPv6_ IPsec


Cc giao thc chnh s dng trong IPSec: IP Security Protocol (IPSec). Authentication Header (AH): cung cp tnh ton vn phi kt ni v chng thc ngun gc d liu cho cc gi d liu IP v bo v chng li cc cuc tn cng replay. Encapsulation Security Protocol (ESP): cung cp tnh

nng bo mt, chng thc ngun gc d liu, tnh


ton vn phi kt ni v dch v chng replay.
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V. Bo mt trong IPv6_ IPsec


Cc giao thc chnh s dng trong IPSec: Message Encryption: Data Encryption Standard (DES): c pht trin bi IBM. DES s dng 1 kha 56-bt, m bo hiu nng m ha cao. DES l mt h thng m ha kha i xng. Triple DES (3DES): l mt bin th ca DES 56-bt. Hot ng tng t nh DES, trong d liu c chia thnh cc khi 64 bt. 3DES thc thi mi khi ba ln, mi ln vi mt kha 56 bt c lp. 3DES cung cp sc mnh kha ng k so vi DES.

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V. Bo mt trong IPv6_ IPsec


Cc giao thc chnh s dng trong IPSec: Message Integrity (Hash) Functions Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) : l mt thut ton ton vn d liu m bo tnh ton vn ca bn tin. Ti u cui, bn tin v mt kha chia s b mt c gi thng qua mt thut ton bm, trong to ra mt gi tr bm. Bn tin v gi tr bm c gi qua mng. Hai dng ph bin ca thut ton HMAC nh sau:

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V. Bo mt trong IPv6_ IPsec


Cc giao thc chnh s dng trong IPSec: Peer Authentication

Key Management
Security Association

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VI. M hnh mng IPv6 Quc gia

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