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9400
eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning
Fundamentals
STUDENT GUIDE
TMO54093_V1.0-SG Edition 01
Template variant :
Single file, for courses with single section/module.

-For a new course,
Use PPT Tools:
ALU Tools > @@Variables menu [PPT2003] or
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to substitute variables, header and footer,

-Do not use CA2.
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Course objectives
By the end of the course, participants will be able to:
Describe briefly the structure of an RNP tool and the steps
of the RNP process;
Describe the LTE RNP inputs in regard to frequency spectrum,
traffic parameters, equipment parameters and RNP requirements;
Calculate the cell range for a given service by doing a manual link budget
in Uplink; have the theoretical background to create an initial network
design using a RNP tool (the RNP tool is only used by the trainer for
demonstration);
Define basic radio network parameters (neighborhood and PR/code
planning);
Discuss briefly optimization possibilities in terms of capacity and coverage;
Describe briefly the interference mechanisms due to LTE/UMTS/GSM co-
location and the solutions for antenna systems.
7
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.1 Basics and principles
Objective:
to get the necessary background information in regards of LTE basics and RNP principles for a
good start in LTE Radio Network Planning.
Prerequisites:
GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals
Introduction to UMTS/LTE
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.2 Wireless Technology Feature Comparison
This study provides an evaluation of the key technical features of the main
cellular systems and considers the relative merits of each in relation to the
network performances and thus in the context of the Network Design
process.
The Wireless Technologies included in this analysis can be broadly
categorised into their associated standards bodies ie:
3GPP2
3GPP
IEEE

GSM-GPRS
EDGE
UMTS-FDD
UMTS-FDD HSDPA
UMTS-FDD HSUPA
WiMAX
WiFi
CDMA2000
CDMA2000 EV-DO
802.20

3GPP
3GPP2
IEEE
LTE (Rel.8)
10
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
The following table provides a summary of the major wireless cellular
technologies and their associated categories. This analysis will focus on
what can be considered the 3
rd
and 4
th
generation systems
System Release / Generation Standards Body
CDMA IS95 2G 3GPP2
CDMA 3G1X 2.5G 3GPP2
3G1X EVDO 3G 3GPP2
GSM 2G 3GPP
W-CDMA 3G 3GPP
LTE (ADV) 3/4G 3GPP
802.16d 3G IEEE
802.16e 4G IEEE
802.16m, n, ac 4G IEEE
Non ALU System
ALU Planned Convergence
1 LTE Introduction
1.2 Wireless Technology Feature Comparison
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.3 3GPP: the LTE standardization
Members:
ETSI (Europe) ARIB/TTC (Japan) CCSA (China)
ATIS (USA,Canada) TTA (South Korea)

LTE system specifications:
Access Network
LTE (eUTRAN + OFDMA + SC-FDMA)
Core Network
All-IP
Note: 3GPP has also taken over the GSM recommendations (previously written by ETSI)


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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.4 LTE specification

Interesting specifications for
LTE Radio Network Planning:


3GPP TS 36.101: UE radio transmission and reception
3GPP TS 36.104: E-UTRA (BS) radio transmission and reception
3GPP TS 36.133: Requirements for support of radio resource management
3GPP TS 36.141: Base Station (BS) conformance testing
3GPP TS 36.213: Physical layer procedures
3GPP TS 36.214: Physical layer - measurements
3GPP TS 36.942: RF system scenarios
3GPP specifications:
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/36_series/


Specifications:

UMTS: series 21 - 35
LTE: series 36
Multiple radio access technology: series 37

Specification numbering and
overview of all UMTS/LTE series:
http://www.3gpp.org/specification-numbering
and 3GPP 21.101
13
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.4 LTE specification [cont.]
LTE frequency bands (3GPP TS 36.101 )
The first frequency bands usable by the operators are the DD bands and the
2.6 GHz bands.
It will also possible to reuse 2G, 3G or CDMA bands for LTE (refarming)

700 MHz
US DD
FDD
800 MHz
EDD
(European Didital Dividend)
FDD
1GHz
2GHz
2.6 GHz
New band for LTE only
FDD and TDD
2.3 GHz
TDD
AWS
1900Mhz
PCS
DCS
1800 Mhz
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.5 Mobile evolution and 3GPP releases
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

2G 2.5G
4G
3G 3.5G
Media Streaming Real-time
Voice, SMS Web Browsing VoIP Mutlimedia
Services
TDM ATM, FR, HDLC IP/Ethernet
RAN
Transport
GSM GPRS EDGE W-CDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE (adv.)
R99 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 (R10)
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.6 On the road to LTE with W-CDMA
W-CDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE
Transport
ATM/Mixed ATM &
IP
ATM/Mixed ATM
& IP
Possibly All IP All IP
Bandwidth 5 MHz 5 MHz 5 MHz
Scaleable from 1.4,
3, 5, 10 to 20MHz
Modulation UL BPSK QPSK QPSK/16QAM QPSK/16QAM
Modulation DL QPSK QPSK/16QAM
QPSK/16QAM
64QAM
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Antenna Systems Rx Diversity Rx Diversity 2x2 MIMO
2x2-4X4-2x4 array
cross pol. MIMO
IMS/VoIP IMS/VoCS IMS/VoCS IMS/VoIP IMS/VoIP
Network
Structure
Node B + RNC Node B + RNC
Node B + RNC
Or eHSPA Node
B
eNode B
Services
Circuit & Packet
Switched
Circuit & Packet
Switched
PS but
Compatible to
CS
PS Only
Radio Access CDMA CDMA CDMA
OFDMA DL
SC-FDMA UL
Preparing network and services to 4G
4G Compliant
3G Compliant
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.7 LTE vs UMTS/HSPA
LTE
HSPA+
HSPA
<10ms
30ms
60ms
Latency
75 Mbps (64QAM)
11 Mbps
5.7 Mbps
UL peak
data rates
300 Mbps (64QAM + MIMO 4x4)
150 Mbps (64QAM + MIMO 2x2)
100 Mbps (64QAM + no MIMO)
42 Mbps (64QAM + MIMO 2x2)
28 Mbps (16QAM + MIMO 2x2)
21 Mbps (no MIMO)
14 Mbps
DL peak
data rates
17
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.8 LTE Performances Evaluation
Uplink Downlink
HSPA:
1Tx, 2Rx: 0.3 bps/Hz
LTE:
No MIMO(1Tx, 2Rx): 0.7 bps/Hz
No MIMO(1Tx, 4Rx): 1.1 bps/Hz
HSPA
1Tx, 2Rx: 0.5 bps/Hz
LTE:
No MIMO (1Tx, 2Rx): 1.3 bps/Hz
MIMO 2x2: 1.7 bps/Hz
MIMO 4x2: 1.9 bps/Hz
MIMO 4x4: 2.7 bps/Hz
18
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.9 LTE network architecture
Entities and interfaces
Network simplification
User Plane : 3 functional entities : eNode B, Serving Gateway and PDN Gateway
(the gateways can be combined into a single physical entity)
GGSN S/P-GW
Control plane :
SGSN MME (Mobility Management Entity)
RNC eNode B

eNode B
3GLTE S/P GW
IP transport
backbone
Multi-standard
User Database
Application
servers
Service IP
backbone
MD
S
S1
X2
eNode B
MME
UE
Uu
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.9 LTE network architecture [cont.]
GERAN
UTRAN
S11
S3
S5
SGi
eUTRAN
HSS
S4
S1-U
S1-MME
MME
Gx
S6a
PCRF
SGSN
S12
Other
Non-Trusted Access
User-plane centric network
element(s)
Anchor point for bearers
Support IP address management
Policy & QoS enforcement point
Signaling-plane element
User mobility management
Access & attachment control
Paging, handovers & roaming

Serving
Gateway
Other
Trusted Access
IP Network
S2a
S2b
PDN
Gateway
X2
X2
X2
UE
Uu
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1 LTE Introduction
1.9 LTE network architecture [cont.]
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2 RNP process
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2 RNP process
2.1 Goal of radio network design
What is radio network planning?

Site selection and configuration

Efficient deployment of
network
Minimizing cost
Why radio network planning?

Network performance to
meet market targets
Lower cost for network operator:
Initial deployment
Network upgrades
and optimization
Limitations

Approximation: propagation model
Estimation: traffic prediction
Constraints: site availability in real world
24
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2 RNP process
2.2 Overview of radio network design process
Input
Radio network
planning phases
Output
LTE
technology


Market and
engineering
requirements


Environment
parameters

Selected sites
Site parameters
Predicted
coverage map
Designed capacity
eNode B
configuration
Performance
analysis
Next Steps: RNP study to confirm site count and locations
Network optimization
Radio network
dimensioning
+
cell
dimensions
Radio cell
planning
+
cell
locations
RNP
optimization
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2.2 Overview of radio network design process
2.2.1 Input LTE technology
Multiple
antenna
techniques
Air interface
Flexible bandwidth
Flexible spectrum
Duplex mode
Radio access
technology
Transmit diversity
SU-MIMO / SM
MU-MIMO / SDMA
DL: OFDMA
UL: SC-FDMA
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2.2 Overview of radio network design process
2.2.2 Input - market and engineering requirements
Quality of Service:

Reliability
Coverage probability
Targeted service at cell edge
Indoor penetration level
Coverage:

Area




Type of mobility Traffic:

Number of subscribers

Traffic profiles





Offered services
Network:

LTE frequency

LTE maximum bandwidth
27
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2010 TODAY


UMTS
2100 MHz
GSM
900
MHz
UMTS
2100 MHz
Smooth LTE introduction in
existing band, pre-empting a
narrow BW in GSM, 5 MHz
carrier in UMTS
GSM
900 MHz
UMTS
2100 MHz
LTE
2600 MHz
Capacity driven
New spectrum
application, Hot spots ,
20MHz possible
GSM
900 MHz
UMTS
2100
MHz
GSM
1800 MHz
1800 MHz 900MHz
UMTS GSM LTE
2100 MHz
Free 900 MHz needs for 1800
MHz contiguous coverage, but
will provide favourable range

Free 1800 MHz more adapted to
hot spots capacity driven
scenario
GSM
900 MHz
GSM
900 MHz
UMTS
2100 MHz
2.2 Overview of radio network design process
2.2.3 LTE Spectrum
Reuse spectrum or new spectrum deployment
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2.2 Overview of radio network design process
2.2.4 Input - environment parameters
Site co-ordinates

Traffic Maps

29
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
2 RNP process
2.3 Exercise
1. With radio network planning site locations and configurations are
selected.

2. The goal of radio network planning is an efficient deployment of the
network while minimizing the costs.

3. Radio network planning is only necessary for greenfield deployment.

4. Good network design makes sure that the network is deployed with a
maximum number of sites.
5. Approximations have to be used to build a propagation model that
represents the characteristics for the radio propagation in certain radio
frequencies and environment.
6. The expected traffic in terms of number of users and volume is fix and
known at the beginning of radio network planning.

Select all correct statements
30
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.1 OFDM Basics
Conventional
FDM
Frequency
Carrier
saved bandwidth
OFDM
Frequency
Subcarrier
32
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.1 OFDM Basics [cont.]
Time
OFDM symbol 2
OFDM symbol 1 (via path 1)
OFDM symbol 1 * (via path 2)
OFDM symbol 1 ** (via path 3)
OFDM symbol 2
Time
OFDM symbol 1 (via path 1)
OFDM symbol 1 * (via path 2)
OFDM symbol 1 ** (via path 3)
Path 1
Path 2
Path 3
ISI
Copy
CP
Guard time
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.2 OFDM The full transmission chain
OFDM transmitter
N samples of
OFDM symbol
k subcarrier
add
CP
Parallel
to serial
Serial
to
parallel
data
stream .
.
.
.
.
.
N-point
IDFT
(IFFT)
OFDM receiver
k subcarrier
N samples of
OFDM symbol
N-point
DFT
(FFT)
Parallel
to
serial
.
.
.
.
.
.
Serial
to
parallel
remove
CP
Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT)
algorithm
34
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.2 OFDM The full transmission chain [cont.]
Frequency
1 Subcarrier
Bandwidth
Time
1 OFDM
symbol
Frequency
Bandwidth
Time
User 1
User 2
User 3
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
35
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.3 Scalable OFDMA
Different UEs
assigned different
sets of subcarriers
Scalable OFDMA
used for downlink
Fixed symbol
time: 66.7 s
Total number of
subcarriers varies
with bandwidth
Different FFT sizes:
5 MHz 512-point FFT,
20 MHz 2048-point FFT
etc.
36
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.4 Exercise
1. In OFDMA the subcarriers overlap.
2. Orthogonal subcarriers interfere with each other.
3. In OFDMA different users get different subcarriers.
4. The cyclic prefix is inserted to combat inter-symbol interference and inter-carrier
interference caused by multi-path delay spread.
5. OFDM modulation and demodulation can be efficiently implemented using the Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) algorithm.
6. Central part of an OFDM receiver is an N-point Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT)
which is implemented by an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT).
7. 512-point FFT means that 512 samples are taken within the OFDM symbol time.
8. For all bandwidths the same FFT size is used.
9. The subcarrier spacing depends on the bandwidth.



Select all correct statements
Timing: minutes
Correct result:
1. 3. 4. 5. 7.
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Subframe (1 ms)
Frequency
Time
3 Air Interface LTE
3.5 Frame structure
Slot
(0.5 ms)
Slot
(0.5 ms)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Bandwidth
OFDM
symbol
Resource
element
Physical Resource Block
12
subcarrier

180 kHz
Subframe
0
Subframe
1
Subframe
2
Subframe
3
Subframe
4
Subframe
5
Subframe
6
Subframe
7
Subframe
8
Subframe
9
Frame (10 ms)
38
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3.5 Frame structure
3.5.1 Frame structure details OFDM symbol
OFDM symbol
Useful OFDM symbol time
66.7 s
Normal
CP
4.7 s
7 symbols per slot
14 symbols per subframe
Useful OFDM symbol time
66.7 s
CP
Useful OFDM symbol time
66.7 s
Extended
CP
16.7 s
6 symbols per slot
12 symbols per subframe
Timing: minutes
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3.5 Frame structure
3.5.2 Frame structure details - PRB
Bandwidth 1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz
Number of occupied
subcarriers
72 180 300 600 900 1200
Number of PRBs 6 15 25 50 75 100
40
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.6 Answer the questions
How long is the duration of one frame (in milliseconds)


10 ms
Timing: minutes
10 ms
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.6 Answer the questions [cont.]
How long is the duration of one subframe (in milliseconds)

1 ms

Timing: minutes
1 ms
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.6 Answer the questions [cont.]
What is the bandwidth of one subcarrier (in kilo Hertz)

15 kHz
Timing: minutes
15 kHz
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.6 Answer the questions [cont.]
Select all correct statements.

A physical resource block spans 12 subcarriers over 1 slot.

The minimum unit that can be allocated to a user is
a physical resource block.

One slot contains always 7 OFDM symbols.

The number of physical resource blocks depends on the
total bandwidth available.


Timing: minutes
Right answers:
The minimum unit that can be allocated to a
user is a physical resource block.

The number of physical resource blocks
depends on the total bandwidth available.

Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.6 Answer the questions [cont.]
Assign the bandwidth in the left column to the number of physical resource
blocks in the right column.

1,4 MHz 6
3 MHz 15
5 MHz 25
20 MHz 100

Timing: minutes
1,4 MHz 6
3 MHz 15
5 MHz 25
20 MHz 100
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.7 Adaptive modulation and coding
Radio link quality

Modulation 64QAM 16QAM QPSK
UL scheduling
grant, MCS
Data
Coding 3/5 1/3 3/5 1/6 1/12 1/2 11/12
Data
CQI
46
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.8 Answer the questions
A UE near the cell edge encounters very poor radio conditions.
Select the modulation and coding scheme that will be used by
the eNode B.

64 QAM

16 QAM 3/5

QPSK - 3/5

QPSK 1/12
47
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.9 Downlink: Physical channels (1)
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.10 Downlink: PRB structure
Frequency
Time
1 physical
resource block
Reference signal overhead:
1 antenna: 4.8%
2 antennas: 9.5%
4 antennas: 14.3%
1 subframe
Reference signal
antenna 1
Reference signal
antenna 2
PCFICH
PDCCH
PHICH
49
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.11 Answer the questions
Calculate the control information and reference signal overhead (in %) for:
- 1 OFDM symbol used for control information (PCFICH, PDCCH,
PHICH)
- 2 transmit antennas
Assumption: normal cyclic prefix is used.

Pay attention to the short explanation how to calculate it!

Select the correct result.

10.7
14.3
25.0
28.6

Timing: minutes
The correct answer is 14.3%. 24 out
of 168 resource elements
are used for control information and
reference signals.
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.11 Answer the questions [cont.]
Calculate the control information and reference signals overhead (in %) for:
- 3 OFDM symbols used for control information (PCFICH, PDCCH, PHICH)
- 2 transmit antennas
Assumption: normal cyclic prefix is used.

Pay attention to the short explanation how to calculate it!

Select the correct result.

10.7
14.3
25.0
28.6

Timing: minutes
The correct answer is 28.6%. 48 out
of 168 resource elements
are used for control information and
reference signals.
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.12 Downlink: Physical channels (2)
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.13 Downlink: Synchronization channels & PBCH
Subframe
0
1 2 3 4
5
6 7 8 9
Slot
0 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20
MHz
10
MHz
5
MHz
3
MHz
1.4
MHz
6 PRB
1.08 MHz
Secondary Synch. Channel

Primary Synch. Channel

PBCH
504 Physical cell identities
Cell group number: 0 .. 167
Cell number in cell group: 0, 1, 2
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.14 Answer the questions
Calculate the PBCH overhead (in %) for:
- 20 MHz bandwidth
- 2 transmit antennas
Assumption: normal cyclic prefix is used.

Pay attention to the short explanation how to calculate it!

Select the correct result.

0.16
0.6
2.6
5.0

Timing: minutes
The correct answer is 0.16%. 264 out
of 168000 resource elements are
used for PBCH.
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
3 Air Interface LTE
3.14 Answer the questions [cont.]
Calculate the Synchronization Channel overhead (in %) for:
- 20 MHz bandwidth
- 2 transmit antennas
Assumption: normal cyclic prefix is used.

Pay attention to the short explanation how to calculate it!

Select the correct result.

0.17
0.7
2.9
6.2
Timing: minutes
The correct answer is 0.17%. 288 out
of 168000 resource elements are
used for SCH.
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.15 Downlink: Physical channels (3)
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.16 Answer the questions
Select for each task description the appropriate physical downlink channel.

1. Carries downlink traffic and transmits tracking area code and cell usage restrictions.
2. Transmits downlink resource allocation, uplink scheduling grant and uplink power control
commands.
3. Contains number of OFDM symbols that are used for PDCCH.
4. Carries important basic system information for all UEs in a cell like the system bandwidth.
5. Allows UE to get timing and frequency synchronization with the cell and carries physical
cell identity.
6. Used to acknowledge uplink transmission.

a. PHICH
b. Synchronization Channels
c. PBCH
d. PCFICH
e. PDCCH
f. PDSCH
Timing: minutes
Right answers:

1-f, 2-e, 3-d, 4-c, 5-b, 6-a,
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.17 Uplink: SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA
SC-FDMA transmitter:






SC-FDMA receiver:

IFFT
Parallel to
serial
DFT
Serial
to parallel
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Serial
to
parallel
FFT IDFT
Parallel
to
serial
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
High PAPR in OFDMA
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.18 Uplink: Physical channels
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PUSCH
PUCCH
PUCCH
3 Air Interface LTE
3.19 Uplink: PUCCH
Frequency
Time
1 subframe
Bandwidth
Carries:
CQI
ACK/NACK
Scheduling request

Physical resource blocks:
At extreme ends of
bandwidth
Number based on required
amount of control

Never transmitted with PUSCH
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UE 1
UE 2
3 Air Interface LTE
3.20 Uplink: Sounding & demodulation reference signals
Frequency
Time
1 subframe
Bandwidth



PUSCH
PUCCH
PUCCH
Sounding
reference
signal
Demodulation
reference
signal
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.21 Answer the questions
Calculate the PUCCH overhead (in %) for:
- 5 MHz bandwidth
- 8 physical resource blocks reserved for PUCCH

Pay attention to the short explanation how to calculate it!

Select the correct result.

2 %
8 %
32 %
33.3 %
Timing: minutes
The correct answer is 32%. 8 out of
25 physical resource blocks are
reserved for PUCCH.
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.22 Uplink: Random access
PUSCH: Data
Response (timing alignment, uplink allocation)
PRACH: random access preamble
PRACH: random access preamble
No response
Initial access
Handoff
Uplink synchronization
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.23 Uplink: PRACH
Time
PRACH cycle
Frequency
6 PRB
(1.08 MHz)
PRACH
opportunities
CP Preamble
Guard
period
1ms, 2ms or 3ms
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.24 Answer the questions
Select for each task description the appropriate physical uplink channel.

1. Carries scheduling request for uplink transmission, hybrid ARQ
feedback for downlink transmission and Channel Quality Indicator
(CQI).
2. Used for initial access and uplink timing alignment.
3. Carries traffic, hybrid ARQ feedback for downlink transmission and
Channel Quality Indicator (CQI).

a. PRACH
b. PUSCH
c. PUCCH



Timing: minutes
Right answers:

1-c, 2-a, 3-b,
Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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Classical open loop power control

All users achieve same target SINR

Poor spectral efficiency
3 Air Interface LTE
3.25 Uplink: Power control
Fractional power control


Flexible trade-off
between spectral
efficiency and cell
edge rates
Target
SINR
Others

Fractional power control based
on path loss difference
3GPP general definition
Downlink reference signal
Broadcast: target SINR, uplink interference
UE specific power factors
,
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.26 Uplink: Inter-cell power control
Interference
Overload indicator (X2 interface)
Measure
Interference
Adapt power
control
parameters
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.27 Answer the questions
1. Open loop power control allows the UE to autonomously adjust the
transmit power level to compensate for path loss and shadowing.
Is this statement true or false?
true

2. For open loop power control the UE measures the downlink reference
signal and computes the path loss at downlink. The UE sets its transmit
power to achieve the SINR target, broadcasted by the eNode B.
Is this statement true or false?
true

3. Fractional Power Control tries to achieve the same SINR value
everywhere in the cell.
Is this statement true or false?
false
Timing: minutes
Right answers:
1. True
2. True
3. False

Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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3 Air Interface LTE
3.28 Answer the questions
1. Interference within a cell is the dominant source of interference in LTE.

Is this statement true or false?
false

2. Inter-cell power control is based on overload indicators exchanged
directly between neighboring eNode Bs via the X2 interface.

Is this statement true or false?
true
Timing: minutes
Right answers:
1. False
2. True

Facilitator/Instructor notes
Producer/Assistant notes
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4 Summary
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4 Summary
4.1 You are now able to:
Find information about relevant specifications
Describe main requirements and targets of LTE
Identify basic components and interfaces of LTE
network
Explain goal of radio network planning
Explain process and major steps of radio network planning
Identify input parameters for radio network planning
Explain aspects of LTE air interface relevant for radio network planning:

OFDMA and Frame structure
SC-FDMA concepts

Physical channels
in uplink and Uplink power control
downlink
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4 Summary
4.2 Crossword
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
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4 Summary
4.3 Crossword questions
1 Antenna characteristic
2 Component of an LTE network that performs radio resource management functions and
allocates the radio resources in uplink and downlink
3 Component of an LTE network which is the mobility anchor point and routes and forwards
packets
4 Part of the physical cell identity in the secondary synchronization channel.
5 Central part of a OFDM transmitter
6 Component of an LTE network that manages user mobility, selects the gateways and
keeps location information
7 Used by UEs to make an initial request
8 Modulation scheme
9 Input to radio network planning
10 Inter-cell power control is based on it
11 Radio access technology used in downlink
12 Means to reduce inter-symbol interference and inter-carrier interference
13 Technique to increase the cell capacity even in challenging radio conditions at the cell
edge
14 Radio network planning phase
15 In the 5 MHz bandwidth we have 300 . . . . .
16 Minimum resource unit that can be allocated to a user
17 Component of an LTE network that allocates the UE IP address
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5 Antennas in LTE
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.1 Basic antenna data for radio network planning
Basic antennas
(isotropic / dipole)

Antenna gain
Effective isotropic
radiated power
(EIRP)
Antenna downtilt
Radiation patterns:

Half power beamwidth
Front-to-back ratio
Main lobe, side lobes,
null directions
Standard antenna
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.2 Basic antennas








single transmit point
sphere pattern
Isotropic antenna







wavelength conductor
doughnut shaped pattern
Dipole antenna
Antenna gain
dipole:
0 dBd

isotropic:
0 dBi
real antenna:
5.15 dBi = 3 dBd + 2.15 dB
= 2.15 dBi
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5.3 Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP)
Power = 45 dBm
Gain = 11 dBi
EIRP = Power + Gain
= 45 dBm + 11 dBi
= 56 dBm
Isotropic
radiated
Power
Radiated
power
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.4 Radiation patterns
Back
lobe
Side
lobes
Nulls
Main
lobe
Null
fill
Front-
to-back
ratio
-3 dB level
Half
power
beam-
width
Horizontal or azimuth pattern Vertical or elevation pattern
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.5 Antenna downtilt
Electrical downtilt
Back
lobe
peak
Horizontal
pattern (disc)
Axis of
rotation
Main
lobe
peak
Vertical pattern Horizontal pattern
Tilt:
Horizontal pattern Vertical pattern
Mechanical downtilt
Horizontal
pattern (cone)
Back
lobe
peak
Main
lobe
peak
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.6 Standard antennas
Horizontal beam width:
65or 90
Azimuth:
0, 120 and 240
(3 sectored site)
Gain:
17 dBi - 18 dBi
Height (above ground):
20 m - 25 m (urban)
30 m - 35 m (suburban)
Electrical downtilt:
0 - 10 adjustable
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.7 Answer the questions
What is the EIRP for the following antenna:
Power: 45 dBm
Gain: 18 dBi

0 dBm
27 dBm
63 dBm
65.15 dBm

What is the gain expressed in dBi of a real antenna with a gain of 3.85 dBd?

0 dBm
1.7 dBm
3.65 dBm
6.0 dBm

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5 Antennas in LTE
5.8 Multiple antenna techniques
Diversity
Press the buttons
to get more
information!
M x N
transmit antennas
X
receive antennas
SU-MIMO /
Spatial Multiplexing
MU-MIMO /
Spatial Division
Multiple Access
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Receive diversity:
Same data stream to multiple receive
antennas

Improved reliability
Better coverage

Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC)
Transmit diversity:
Same data stream from multiple transmit
antennas to same user

Improved reliability
Better coverage
Less power or higher throughput
5 Antennas in LTE
5.9 Diversity
f1 -S2*
f2 S1*
f1 S1
f2 S2
S2 S1
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.10 SU-MIMO / Spatial Multiplexing (SM)
S2 S1
S1
S2
W
11
W
21
W
1
2
W
22
Pre-coding matrix: W=
[
W
11
W
12
]
W
21
W
22
Multiple data streams sent to same user

Used in good radio conditions (high SINR)
Single-user throughput gains
a, b, c,
d
a,
b
c,
d
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.11 Closed-loop and open-loop
Open-loop

Closed-loop

CQI
RI
PMI
Modulation & coding
Rank (number of data
streams) to be used in SM
Preferred pre-coding matrix
to be used in SM
Adaptive MIMO Switching (AMS)
Spatial
Multiplexing
Transmit
Diversity
Fall back
Spatial
Multiplexing
Rank-1
Pre-coding
Fall back
Uses RI & PMI
Suitable for low speed scenarios
Received SNR/throughput maximized
Uses RI
Suitable for high mobility scenarios
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.12 Rank-1 pre-coding
S1
S1
S2
W
11
W
21
W
12
W
22
Pre-coding matrix: W=
[
W
11
W
12
]
W
21
W
22
S2
S1
W=
[
W
1
]
W
2
Pre-coding vector:
W
1
Spatial Multiplexing Rank-1 Pre-coding
W
2
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5.13 MU-MIMO / Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
Different data streams transmitted simultaneously on the same frequencies
Used in low SINR conditions
Capacity in terms of number of connected users improved
Cell throughput improved

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5.14 Multiple antenna techniques summary
Link level simulation: 5 MHz, downlink, 30 km/h, 16QAM:
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
SINR [dB]
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
i
t
/
s
]

Coding = 2/3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
SINR [dB]
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
i
t
/
s
]

Coding = 1/3
no MIMO
SU-MIMO 2x2
Coverage Capacity Peak throughput
SU-MIMO / SM + + ++
Rank-1 pre-coding ++ ++ +
MU-MIMO (uplink) + ++
Transmit diversity ++ + +
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5 Antennas in LTE
5.15 Answer the questions
Select for every description the corresponding multiple antenna technique.

1. Copies of the same data stream are sent from multiple antennas to same user.
2. Independent data streams are sent from multiple antennas to the same user.
3. Different data streams are transmitted simultaneously on the same
frequencies.

a. MU-MIMO
b. SU-MIMO
c. Transmit diversity

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5.15 Answer the questions [cont.]
Transmit diversity is used to increase the reliability of a single data stream in good
radio conditions.

Is this statement true or false? false

Transmit diversity mainly improves the coverage.

Is this statement true or false? true

SU-MIMO is used in good radio conditions to increase the throughput for one user.

Is this statement true or false? true

SU-MIMO is used in good radio conditions to increase the throughput for one user.

Is this statement true or false? true
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5.15 Answer the questions [cont.]
Open-loop spatial multiplexing uses RI and PMI reported from the UE to
select the rank and the pre-coding matrix.

Is this statement correct? False

MU-MIMO in uplink is used in good radio conditions to improve the capacity
in terms of number of connected users.

Is this statement true or false? False

MU-MIMO in uplink is used in challenging radio conditions, e.g. at the edge
of the cell to improve the capacity in terms of number of connected users.

Is this statement true or false? true
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6 Radio network planning process
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6 Radio network planning process
6.1 Overview of radio network planning process
Input
Radio network
planning phases
Output
LTE
technology


Market and
engineering
requirements


Environment
parameters

Selected sites
Site parameters
Predicted
coverage map
Designed capacity
eNode B
configuration
Performance
analysis
Radio network
dimensioning
+
cell
dimensions
Radio cell
planning
+
cell
locations
RNP
optimization
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Radio network
dimensioning
6 Radio network planning process
6.2 Radio network plannning phases
LTE link budget
Propagation model
Radio cell planning
Capacity planning
Network simulations
RF design
Site placement & configuration
Coverage prediction
RF configuration parameters
Cell neighbor planning
Physical cell id. planning
Frequency planning
Site candidate selection
& acceptance
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6 Radio network planning process
6.3 Answer the questions
Select the appropriate task for each radio network planning step:
Radio network dimensioning

RF design

RF configuration parameters

Capacity planning

Site candidate selection &
acceptance
-Use network simulations to model
impact of traffic distribution and
service usage profiles.

-Select real site locations

-Plan physical cell identities and
frequency reuse

-Use coverage predictions to improve
site locations and configurations

-Calculate Maximum Allowable Path
Loss between transmitter and receiver


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7 Link Budget
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7 Link Budget
7.1 What is a link budget
Maximum
UE transmit
power
Maximum
Allowable Path
Loss (MAPL)
Cell radius
Maximum distance between transmitter and receiver?
Signal must be received with defined quality level
Calculate Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL)
Required
received signal
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7 Link Budget
7.2 Uplink MAPL calculation
Max. UE
transmit
power
Losses and
margins
-
Gains
+
eNode B
receiver
sensitivity
-
MAPL
=
-
Interference
Cable,
connector,
feeder losses
Shadowing
Penetration loss
Body loss
eNode B
antenna gain
UE antenna
gain
Handoff gain
Cell
radius
Propagation
model
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Examples of typical values considered in uplink link budget (at 2.6 GHz):
7 Link Budget
7.3 eNode B receiver sensitivity
Minimum required signal level to reach given quality when
facing only thermal noise
At eNode B within required
bandwidth
Packet services
UL data rate [kbps] 64 256 2000
Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK
Coding rate 0.379 0.679 0.664
Nbr. of resource blocks 2 5 40
SINR target
[dB]
EVehA3 -3.6 -2.4 -3.3
EVehA50 -2.1 -0.5 -1.7
UL Sensitivity
[dBm]
EVehA3 -119.6 -114.4 -106.2
EVehA50 -118.0 -112.5 -104.6
Per resource block
To reach given data rate and quality
Depends on service
Derived from link level simulations /
equipment measurements
Sensitivity [dBm] = SINR_Target + ThermalNoise

NoiseFigure_eNB + 10log
10
(ThermalNoiseDensity NbrRB BandwidthRB)
Depends on supplier;
typical value: 2.5 dB
Depends on service;
BandwidthRB = 180
kHz
10log
10
(ThermalNoiseDenisty)
= -174 [dBm/Hz]
UE speed:
3km/h: dense urban,
urban, suburban indoor
50km/h: rural
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Received power at eNode B: C
S
[dBm] Sensitivity + IoT
Typical interference margin: 3 dB
7 Link Budget
7.4 Interference margin (IoT)
Interference rise over
thermal noise
Inter-cell
interference
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Cell edge SINR target (dB)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

I
o
T

(
d
B
)

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Examples:
7 Link Budget
7.5 Shadowing margin
Shadowing = slow fading due to obstacles







Shadowing margin: signal received well with given probability

Probability(C
S
[dBm] Sensitivity + IoT) CoverageProbability

Modeled (in dB) as Gaussian variable:
Mean: 0 dB
Standard deviation:
depends on the environment; typically 5 10 dB
Shadowing standard
deviation
Cell area coverage
probability
Cell edge coverage
probability
Shadowing
margin
8 dB 95% 86.2% 8.7 dB
7 dB 90% 73.3% 4.3 dB
Typical coverage probabilities:
Dense urban, urban and suburban
environments: 95%
Rural environments: 90%
Typical dense urban, urban
and suburban deployment
conditions with 3 km/h UE
speed.
Typical rural conditions
with 50 km/h UE speed.
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Typical penetration margins:
Rural
incar
Suburban
indoor
Urban
indoor
Dense urban
deep indoor
700 MHz 5 dB 11 dB 14 dB 17 dB
900 MHz 6 dB 12 dB 15 dB 18 dB
2.6 GHz 9 dB 15 dB 18 dB 21 dB
7 Link Budget
7.6 Penetration losses
Penetration losses due to in-building and in-car usage:

Characterize level of indoor coverage
(deep indoor, in-car, outdoor, etc.)

Depend on wall materials, number
of walls/windows and frequency
Specified as "worst case" penetration margin.
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7 Link Budget
7.7 Body loss
Body loss = losses induced by user
Derived from statistical measurements.
Typical values:
Voice services:
3 dB
Data services:
0 dB
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Examples:
7 Link Budget
7.8 Handoff gain
high
shadowing
lower
shadowing
Hard handoff
Shadowing standard
deviation
Cell area coverage
probability
Shadowing
margin
UE speed Handoff gain
8 dB 95% 8.7 dB 3 km/h 3.6 dB
7 dB 90% 4.3 dB 50 km/h 2.6 dB
Models exist to derive hard handoff gain.
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7 Link Budget
7.9 Answer the questions
1. The minimum required signal level to reach the given quality when facing only
thermal noise.
2. Takes into account the interference rise over thermal noise due to inter-cell
interference.
3. Ensures that the signal is received with enough quality with a given coverage
probability.
4. Characterizes the level of indoor coverage that is required.
5. Takes into account the presence of a user that reduces the power transmitted
or received by a UE.
6. Takes into account that a UE can use a neighbor cell with more favorable
shadowing.

a. Shadowing margin
b. eNode B receiver sensitivity
c. Handoff gain
d. Body loss
e. Interference margin
f. Penetration margin
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= 131.6 (3+3+8.7+18) + (0+18+3.6) (-122.7) 3
MAPL for indoor coverage [dB] 131.6
23
7 Link Budget
7.10 Example for urban environment (VehA 3km/h)
Data Rate
VoIP (12.2 kbps uplink
data rate)
Number of resource blocks 1
eNode B noise figure [dB] 2.5
Required SINR [dB] -3.7
Maximum UE transmit power [dBm] 23
UE antenna gain [dB] 0
Body loss [dB] 3
eNode B antenna gain [dB] 18
Cable loss [dB] 3
Required sensitivity [dBm] -122.7
Interference margin [dB] 3
Shadowing margin [dB] 8.7
Handoff gain [dB] 3.6
Penetration losses [dB] 18
Max. UE
transmit
power
Losses and
margins
-
Gains
+
eNode B
receiver
sensitivity
-
MAPL
=
-
Interference
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7 Link Budget
7.11 Answer the questions
What is the MAPL for indoor coverage for the following packet service:

- UE maximum transmit power: 23 dBm
- UE antenna gain: 0 dB
- Body loss: 0 dB
- eNode B antenna gain: 18 dB
- Cable loss: 3 dB
- Required sensitivity: -113.0 dBm
- Interference margin: 3 dB
- Shadowing margin: 8.7 dB
- Handoff gain: 3.6 dB
-Penetration loss: 18 dB

-81.7 dB
-124.9 dB
-142.9 dB
-128.6 dB

108
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7 Link Budget
7.12 Propagation model
eNode B
antenna
height
Clutter
UE antenna
height
Frequency
Distance
Path loss
Propagation Models
Okumura-Hata
COST-231 Hata
Modified COST-231 Hata
etc.
Cell radius
MAPL
Tune model
109
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7 Link Budget
7.13 Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata propagation models
COST-231 Hata
A1 = 46.30
A2 = 33.90
A3 = -13.82
B1 = 44.90
B2 = -6.55
modified COST-231 Hata
PathLoss = <COST-231 Hata formula>
+ 33.9log
10
(2000) + 20log
10
(F/2000)
Okumura-Hata
A1 = 69.55
A2 = 26.16
A3 = -13.82
B1 = 44.90
B2 = -6.55

PathLoss = A1 + A2log
10
(F) + A3log
10
(H
eNodeB
)
+ (B1 B2log
10
(H
eNodeB
))log
10
(Distance)
a(H
UE
)
+ K
clutter
F Frequency [MHz]

H
eNodeB
eNode B antenna height
above ground [m]
Distance eNode B - UE [km]
H
UE
UE antenna height above
ground [m]
a(H
UE
) Correction function if
H
UE
is not

1.5 m
K
clutter
Correction function for
different clutter
110
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7 Link Budget
7.14 Cell range
MAPL
= K
1
+ K
2
log(CellRange)
eNodeB
antenna
height
Morphology
correction
factor
UE antenna
height
Operating
frequency
Example:
Propagation
model
Modified COST-231 Hata for
2.6GHz
Dense
urban
Urban Suburban Rural
K1 140,9 136,8 127,8 118,1
K2 35,7 35,2 35,2 34,4
eNodeB antenna height [m] 25 30 30 40
Correction factor [db] 0 -3 -12 -20
111
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7 Link Budget
7.15 Answer the questions
Calculate the cell range for the following services in urban environment
(VehA 3km/h).
Use the modified COST-231 Hata propagation model for 2.6GHz :
Service
VoIP AMR12.2
with TTI bundling
Packet service
256 kbps
MAPL for Indoor Coverage [db] 131,1 126,2
Cell range [km] 0,69 0,5
112
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7 Link Budget
7.16 Answer the questions
Which statement about propagation models is correct?

1. A propagation model can be used optionally to define the maximum
cell radius.
2. A propagation model is a fixed mathematical formula that can be used
for all situations without any adjustment.
3. A propagation model predicts radio wave propagation and combined
with the Maximum Allowable Path Loss it defines the cell radius.
4. A propagation model only takes into account the clutter or type of land
use.

113
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7 Link Budget
7.17 Impact of RRH and TMA
Remote Radio Head
(RRH)
Enhance uplink coverage of eNode Bs with
high feeder losses between eNode B and
antenna

Reduce global noise figure of
eNode B
Compensate feeder losses
Tower Mounted Amplifier
(TMA)
Separate RF part of eNode B
Locate RF part physically close to antenna

More effective radiated power
on downlink
Lower losses on uplink
114
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7 Link Budget
7.18 Answer the questions
Select all correct statements:

1. Sites with RRH have higher losses on the uplink.
2. Sites with RRH have a more effective radiated power on downlink.
3. With Tower Mounted Amplifiers we have a typical gain of around 2.7
dB on the MAPL.
4. Tower Mounted Amplifiers do not affect the link budget.
115
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8 Planning tool
116
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
9955 Radio
Network Planning
Tool
Traffic data

Services
User profiles
UE characteristics
Traffic data

Services
User profiles
UE characteristics
Propagation model
Radio data

LTE frame configuration
Modulation and coding schemes
Reception characteristics
eNode B characteristics
Radio channel characteristics
Radio data

LTE frame configuration
Modulation and coding schemes
Reception characteristics
eNode B characteristics
Radio channel characteristics
Geographic data

Topographic map (terrain heights)
Morphographic map (clutter)
Clutter classes
Geographic data

Topographic map (terrain heights)
Morphographic map (clutter)
Clutter classes
8 Planning tool
8.1 Input data
117
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Name
Standard
Deviation
(dB)
Indoor
Loss
(dB)
SU-MIMO
Gain Factor
(dB)
Additional
Transmit
Diversity Gain
(dB)
Additional
Receive
Diversity Gain
(dB)
open 6 0 0.2 3 3
inlandwater 8 0 0.2 3 3
residential 8 6 0.7 3 3
meanurban 8.5 9 0.9 3 3
denseurban 9 12 1 3 3
buildings 10 9 1 3 3
village 9 3 0.2 3 3
industrial 9 6 0.5 3 3
openurban 9 0 0.7 3 3
forest 8 3 0.8 3 3
parks 8 3 0.8 3 3
8 Planning tool
8.2 Geographic data - Clutter Class
118
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8 Planning tool
8.3 Radio data - LTE Frame
Cyclic prefix: normal or
extended
Number of symbols for
PDCCH, PCFICH,
PHICH
Number of physical
resource blocks for
PUCCH
(Network settings properties)
119
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8 Planning tool
8.4 Radio data - LTE Bearer
Useful bits per
symbol
Exact coding
rate
120
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
8 Planning tool
8.5 Radio data - LTE Equipment
Name
Properties
LTE Bearer Selection Quality MIMO
Default Cell Equipment
Default UE Equipment
Mobility Type
(speed)
SINR (dB)
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

(
b
i
t
s
/
s
/
H
z
)

QPSK 1/8
QPSK 1/2
16QAM 1/2
64QAM 4/5
121
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8 Planning tool
8.5 Radio data - LTE Equipment [cont.]
Name
Properties
LTE Bearer Selection Quality MIMO
Default Cell Equipment
Default UE Equipment
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8 Planning tool
8.5 Radio data - LTE Equipment [cont.]
Name
Properties
LTE Bearer Selection Quality MIMO
Default Cell Equipment
Default UE Equipment
Transmit
diversity gain
SU-MIMO gain
123
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8 Planning tool
8.6 Radio data - Transmitter
Losses, noise figure,
additional equipment
MIMO setting

Antenna
configuration
124
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8 Planning tool
8.7 Radio data - Cell
Frequency,
bandwidth,
duplex mode
Reference signal
quality threshold
UL/DL traffic
loads
LTE equipment
MIMO support
125
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8 Planning tool
8.8 Traffic data - Service
Name Type
Body
Loss
(dB)
Best Bearer
Prio
Max.
Throughput
Demand (kbps)
Min.
Throughput
Demand (kbps)
Requested
Average
Rate (kbps)
Activity
Factor
DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL
FTP Download Data 0 15 15 0 1000 100 0 0 10 10 1 1
Video Conferencing Voice 0 15 15 2 64 64 64 64 64 64 0.5 0.5
VoIP Voice 3 15 15 3 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.2 0.6 0.6
Web Browsing Data 0 15 15 1 128 64 64 32 64 32 1 1
LTE Bearer
Capacity demand 0: lowest priority
126
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8 Planning tool
8.9 Traffic data - Terminal (UE)
Name
Min.
power
Max.
power
Noise
Figure
(dB)
Losses
(dB)
Antenna
Gain
(dBi)
LTE
Equipment
Diversity
Support
Number of
Antenna Ports
Transmission Reception
MIMO Terminal -40 23 8 0 0
Default UE
Equipment
MIMO 2 2
Mobile Terminal -40 23 8 0 0
Default UE
Equipment
none 1 1
MIMO configuration
Technical data
LTE equipment
127
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8 Planning tool
8.10 Traffic data - User profile
Traffic density
128
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8 Planning tool
8.11 Output
Link budget
calculation
Traffic simulation
Cell neighbors
Physical cell id. planning
Frequency allocation
Coverage
prediction
129
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8 Planning tool
8.12 Answer the questions
Which information can be found in the Clutter Class?

1. Standard deviation to calculate shadowing losses
2. Available modulation and coding schemes
3. Capacity demand of a certain type of traffic
4. Technical data of a UE
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8 Planning tool
8.12 Answer the questions [cont.]
Drag and drop each information about radio data to the data structure
where it can be found:

1. LTE Frame
2. LTE Bearer
3. LTE Equipment
4. Transmitter
5. Cell

a. SINR threshold to select a modulation and coding scheme
b. Available modulation and coding schemes
c. Number of symbols for PDCCH, PCFICH, PHICH
d. Losses and noise figure of eNode B
e. Frequency


131
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8 Planning tool
8.12 Answer the questions [cont.]
Drag and drop each information about traffic data to the data structure
where it can be found:

1. Service
2. Terminal
3. User profile

a. Technical data of a UE
b. Capacity demand of a certain type of traffic
c. Services and traffic density of a type of user
132
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9 RF design
133
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9 RF design
9.1 Steps
Initial site placement
& configuration
Final site placement
& configuration
Prediction
Identify
problems
Adjust
configuration
Coverage holes
Over-coverage / interference
Clutter information
Propagation model
Coverage requirements
Antenna height, beamwidth
Downtilt, azimuth
Site location, additional site
134
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Coverage predictions
Signal quality





Effective signal level
9 RF design
9.2 Coverage prediction
Site placement &
configuration
+
Path loss
Cell

Load
conditions:
Non-interfering user:
service
mobility type
terminal
defined by operator
RS, SCH/PBCH, PDSCH, PUSCH
SINR: RS, SCH/PBCH, PDSCH,
PUSCH

Best bearer: UL & DL

Throughput: UL & DL

Quality indicator: UL & DL

135
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9 RF design
9.3 Coverage prediction - examples
Coverage by DL SINR
MIMO with 2x2
antenna
>= 30

>= 25

>= 20

>= 15

>= 10

>= 5

>= 0

>= -5
SINR (dB)
without
MIMO
Isotropic receiver antenna Directional receiver antenna
Coverage by PUSCH SINR
SINR improved for
low values
136
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9 RF design
9.4 Answer the questions
Which statements about RF design are correct?

1. The goal of RF design is to find possible locations for the real sites.
2. RF design is a cyclic process where site locations and configurations
are fine tuned.
3. RF design is a linear process where site locations and configurations
are defined.
4. The main steps are "Create coverage prediction", "Identify problems"
and "Adjust configuration".
137
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9 RF design
9.4 Answer the questions [cont.]
A coverage prediction takes a realistic user distribution into account.

Is this statement true or false? False

A coverage prediction is created to find problems like coverage holes or
areas of interference.

Is this statement true or false? True

With coverage predictions the effective signal levels and the signal quality
can be analyzed.

Is this statement true or false? True


138
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9 RF design
9.4 Answer the questions [cont.]
Select all possible actions to solve coverage problems.

1. Correct clutter information for the area
2. Tune propagation model
3. Change antenna heights and beamwidths
4. Change antenna downtilt and azimuth
5. Change site location
6. Add new site
139
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10 configuration parameters
140
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10 configuration parameters
10.1 Cell neighbors
Automatic
RNP tool
Manual
141
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Automatic
RNP tool
Manual
RNP tool




10 configuration parameters
10.2 Cell neighbors
Cell
Nbr. of
Neighbors
Neighbor
Distance
(m)
Site0_1 5 Site0_2 0
Site0_1 5 Site0_3 0
Site0_1 5 Site35_1 447
Site0_1 5 Site64_2 2567
Site0_1 5 Site64_3 2567
Site0_2 6 Site0_1 0
Site0_2 6 Site0_3 0

Cell A

Best server
area
Cell B
Best server

area
Parameters:
Maximum number of neighbors
Maximum inter-site distance
Coverage conditions:
Overlapping
Shadowing
Indoor coverage
Overlapping
Handover start
(dB)
Handover end
(dB)
Reference signal
threshold (dB)
Cell

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Automatic
RNP tool
Manual
10 configuration parameters
10.2 Cell neighbors [cont.]
Automatic
Automatic Neighbor Relation
eNode B "X"
Physical cell id. = 3
eNode B "Y"
Physical cell id. = 8
eNode B "Z"
Physical cell id. = 5
Report: strong signal
physical cell id. = 8
X2
O&M
Center
IP address,
constraints
eNode B "Y"
Physical cell id. = 8
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Physical cell identities
Primary Synch. Channel

3 x cell group + cell number
504 physical cell identities
Subframe 0 5
Slot 0 10
B
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h

6 PRB
1.08 MHz
Cell number: 0, 1, 2
Goal: Easy recognition of cells by UEs
Different physical cell identities in nearby cells
Secondary Synch. Channel

Zadoff-Chu
sequences
Cell group: 0 .. 167
144
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Answer the questions
With the Automatic Neighbor Relation function the eNode Bs use the
reports from the UEs to setup the list of cell neighbors.

Is this statement true or false? True

To allow easy recognition of cells by UEs it is important to intelligently
allocate physical cell identities to the cells.

Is this statement true or false? True

In nearby cells the same physical cell identities should be used.

Is this statement true or false? false

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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Inter-cell interference coordination techniques
Frequency reuse of 1:
improve cell coverage
increase throughput at cell edge
Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC)
=
assign users to portions of bandwidth
assignment depending on user's location in cell
limit transmit power
Load Information Message

X2 interface





















complete bandwidth
Virtual Frequency Reuse
Fractional Frequency Reuse
Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Virtual & Fractional Frequency Reuse
complete bandwidth
1/3 bandwidth 1/3 bandwidth 1/3 bandwidth
F1 F2 F3






















Example - Virtual 1/3 Frequency Reuse Example - Fractional 1/3 Frequency Reuse














1/3 bandwidth
F1 F2 F3
Interior UEs
Edge UEs in
Edge UEs in
Edge UEs in
complete bandwidth
1/3 bandwidth 1/3 bandwidth
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse














F1 F2 F3
Interior UEs
Trash heap of
Trash heap of
Trash heap of
complete bandwidth


Example - Soft Fractional 1/3 Frequency Reuse:
Edge UE:
If outside trash heap of
strongest neighbor
reduced transmit PSD
Not possible to assign resources inside
trash heap and outside trash heap to
same UE in parallel
is strongest
neighbor,
trash heap of is
used for edge UEs
is strongest
neighbor,
trash heap of is
used for edge UEs
is strongest
neighbor,
trash heap of is
used for edge UEs
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Simulation ICIC parameters:
Soft Fractional 1/9 Frequency Reuse
50% of UEs classified as cell edge UEs
Transmit power spectral density is reduced by 3 dB if UE at
cell edge is outside of trash heap of strongest neighbor cell
Interference coordination simulation
Frequency Selective Scheduling (FSS)
Frequency-selective fading: UEs experience different channel conditions in
different portions of the spectrum
Channel conditions derived by eNode B from Sounding Reference Signals
and Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) transmitted by UE
UE allocated to its individual best part of the spectrum
Higher system throughputs
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
16
0


14
0


12
0


10
0


80


60


40


20
Cell throughput (kbps)
5
%

C
D
F

u
s
e
r

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

(
k
b
p
s
)

Interference coordination simulation results
without ICIC / without FSS
with ICIC / without FSS
Large gain when trying to
achieve high cell edge rate
(40% improvement in highest
achievable cell edge rate)
Negligible gains when
trying to achieve high
average cell throughput
Negligible gains;
ICIC can actually
hurt performance
without ICIC / with FSS
with ICIC / with FSS
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Frequency allocation examples
Manual allocation with 1/3 reuse
Automatic allocation with 1/3 reuse
>= 30

>= 25

>= 20

>= 10
DL Reference Signal SINR (dB)
>= 0

>= -5

>= -10

>= -20
151
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Answer the questions
What is the meaning of ICIC?

1. Inter-Carrier Interference Cancellation
2. Inter-Cell Interference Coordination
3. In-Cell Interference Coordination
4. Identity Control Indicator Channel

Coordination of the interference between cells concentrates interference
into known portions of the system bandwidth in each cell.

Is this statement true or false? true
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Answer the questions
Select for each description the corresponding frequency reuse technique.

1. The complete bandwidth is divided into 3 portions. In each cell only
1/3 of the subcarriers can be used.
2. UEs in the interior of the cell can use the entire bandwidth. UEs at the
edge of the cell can use only 1/3 of the bandwidth.
3. UEs in the interior of the cell can use the entire bandwidth. UEs at the
edge of the cell preferably use resources in the trash heap of the UE's
strongest neighbor cell. If this is not possible the UE's transmit power
spectral density is reduced.

a. Soft Fractional 1/3 Frequency Reuse
b. Virtual 1/3 Frequency Reuse
c. Fractional 1/3 Frequency Reuse
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Answer the questions
The size of the trash heap zone is small in comparison to the complete
bandwidth, which limits the number of resource blocks that can be
assigned to a cell edge UE.

Is this statement true or false? True

With Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse it is possible to assign resources
inside the trash heap and outside the trash heap to the same UE in
parallel.

Is this statement true or false? False

What can be concluded from interference coordination simulations?
1. The gain of ICIC highly depends on the scenario.
2. ICIC is beneficial if it is used in conjunction with Frequency Selective
Scheduling.
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11 Capacity planning
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Overview
Air interface
capacity
Offered traffic
Goals
Forecast network demand and application mix
Predict necessary network resources
Ensure QoS
Backhaul
capacity
How Who Where
Traffic map User profile
QoS
Service
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Traffic map definition: where
Map
Environment Class User Profile
Geographical density (users/km
2
)
low traffic medium traffic high traffic
Dense Urban Business User 1000 3000 8000
Urban Business User 750 1500 3000
Suburban Business User 50 250 500
Suburban Standard User 20 30 60
Rural Standard User 10 20 40
Rural
Suburban
Urban
Dense
Urban
Traffic map
157
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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Air interface capacity
LTE Frame
LTE Bearer


LTE Equipment

User Profile




Service




Cell

Terminal



Air interface
capacity
Bandwidth
MIMO gains
Modulation
and Coding
LTE
configuration
Clutter Class



LTE Equipment

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9400 eUTRAN LA5.0 Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
Network simulation
Study network capacity and network coverage
Realistic user distribution and traffic demand scenarios

Snapshot of LTE network
Traffic map
Service




Mobility Type




Activity
status
Geographic
location
User Profile




Geographic user distribution (Monte-Carlo algorithm) with traffic demand
Resources allocated to each user
Cell loads
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Network simulation result
Traffic distribution by connection status





Connected DL
Connected DL+UL
Connected UL
No Service
Resource Saturation





Peak RLC Channel Throughput (DL) > 2800
2100 <= Peak RLC Channel Throughput (DL) < 2800
1400 <= Peak RLC Channel Throughput (DL) < 2100
700 <= Peak RLC Channel Throughput (DL) < 1400
Peak RLC Channel Throughput (DL) < 700
Traffic distribution by throughput
User Profile: Business User
Service: Video Conferencing
Mobility: 50 km/h
Activity Status: DL + UL
Connection Status: Connected UL + DL

PDSCH PDCCH SINR: 16.2 dB
LTE Bearer DL: 64QAM 3/4
Diversity Mode DL: None
Peak RLC Channel Throughput DL: 15356.04 kbps

PUSCH PUCCH SINR: 18.6 dB
LTE Bearer UL: 64QAM 11/12
Diversity Mode UL: None
Peak RLC Channel Throughput UL: 17597.29 kbps
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Answer the questions
Select all questions that have to be answered to characterize the offered
traffic:

1. Who uses the network?
2. How is the network used?
3. Where are he subscriber groups?
4. What quality of service requirements must the network meet?

A traffic map describes the distribution of subscriber groups in the planning
area.

Is this statement true or false? true
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Answer the questions
A network simulation assumes a uniform load in the cell.

Is this statement true or false? False

Select all factors that affect the capacity of the air interface.

1. Bandwidth that is used
2. Number of symbols used for control information in downlink and uplink
3. Modulation and coding scheme that can be used
4. Use of MIMO techniques
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12 Summary
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Explain details about multiple antenna
techniques used in LTE and their impacts

Describe the major steps of the radio network planning process

Identify the typical components of a link budget for
LTE and explain the use of a propagation model

Describe briefly the purpose a radio network
planning tool and its inputs and outputs

Describe the major steps of RF design and coverage predictions

Explain different possibilities to configure basic parameters
like cell neighbors, physical cell ids. and frequency reuse

Identify the factors influencing capacity planning and
the purpose of network simulations.
You are now able to:
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13 Appendix
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.1 How to calculate the Pathloss Lpath?
For link budget calculations, we have to find out the value of the Pathloss L
path

between the eNodeB and the UE using:
The free-space formula:
It cannot be used in mobile networks such as LTE, because the Fresnel ellipsoid is
obstructed in the environment of the UE over a big distance (due to low height above
the ground of the UE).( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_space_loss)
Empirical formulas:
The most effective approach is based on the classical COST 231-Hata formula, extended
for the usage on higher frequencies or additional propagation effects.
e.g. Alcatel-Lucent selected as LTE propagation model a slightly modified COST 231-
Hata model, called the Standard Propagation Model*.
t In radio environment, the propagation waves are subject to complex mechanisms:
Free Space Propagation
Reflections/Refractions/Scattering
Diffraction
Slow fading (Shadowing)
Fast Fading (Multipath fading)
*see last page of Appendix for the relationship between COST231- Hata and the Alcatel-Lucent
Standard Propagation Model
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model
L
path
formula:
Important: this formula takes into account
free space propagation, reflections /refractions/scattering and diffraction
not slow and fast fading effects (never considered in propagation model, but as
margins)
*see next slides for the values of the 7
multiplying factors K1, ..., K6, Kclutter and
the calculations of the 3 functions
f(diffraction), f(H
UEeff
), f(clutter)
( )
( )
( )
(
)
( )
(m) UE of height antenna effective : H
(m) eNB of height antenna effective : H
(m) UE - eNB distance : d
* with
eff
eff
UE
eNB
path
|
|
.
|


\
|
+ +
+ + + +
=
clutter f K H f K H d K
n diffractio f K H K d K K
L
clutter UE eNB
eNB
eff eff
eff
) ( log log
) ( log log
6 5
4 3 2 1
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]
Can we consider for the antenna height in the L
path
formula the height
above the sea? the height above the ground?

What is the effective antenna height of eNodeB and UE?
Typical values for the antenna height of eNodeB and UE above the ground level
are:
H
eNodeB above ground
= 20-25 m for urban and 30-35 m for suburban
H
UE above ground
= 1.5 m
These values and the topographic information between eNodeB and UE are
used to calculate an effective antenna height H
eNodeB eff
and H
UE eff
, in order to
model the real effect of antenna height on the pathloss.
The effective height and the height above the ground :
are equal on a flat terrain (of course)
can be very different on a hilly terrain
A n s w e r :
H e i g h t a b o v e t h e s e a : n o ( M e x i c o i s n t b e t t e r t h a n S h a n g h a i d u e t o i t s h i g h e r a l t i t u d e ! )
H e i g h t a b o v e g r o u n d : i t i s c a n b e a s t r o n g a p p r o x i m a t i o n o n a h i l l y t e r r a i n . I n d e e d a s s u m e a 2 0 m a n t e n n a i s l o c a t e d o n t h e t o p o f a 5 0 0 m h i l l . T h e
h e i g h t a b o v e g r o u n d i s 2 0 m , b u t t h e a n t e n n a h e i g h t s h o u d b e 5 2 0 m .
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]


Multiplying factors (directly derived from COST-Hata model)

Name

Value

Factor
related to

Comment

K1

23.6
(for f=
2140MHz)

constant
offset

used to take into account free space propagation
and reflections/refractions/scattering mechanisms
for a standard clutter class.
K2

44.9

d

same comment as K1.

K3

5.83

H
eNodeB eff


same comment as K1.

K5

-6.55

d , H
eNodeB
eff


same comment as K1.

K6

0

H
UEeff


same comment as K1. As the contribution of
f(H
UEeff
) is close to zero, K6 is set to zero.

Propagation model parameters (1)
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]




Multiplying factors (not included in COST-Hata model)

Name

Value Factor
related to

Comment

K4

1

f(diffraction)

used to take into account diffraction mechanisms
see further comments on f(diffraction).

Kclutter

1

f (clutter)

used to take into account the necessary correction
compared to the standard clutter class see further
comments on f(clutter).
Propagation model parameters (2)
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]






Clutter Class*

Clutter Loss

1

buildings

0

2

dense urban

-3.0

3

mean urban

-6.0

4

suburban

-8.0

5

residential

-11.0

6

village

-14.0

7

rural

-20.0

8

industrial

-14.0

9

open in urban

-12.0

10

forest

-8.0

11

parks

-15.0

12

open area

-24.0

13

water

-27.0

Propagation model parameters (3)
clutter losses based on experienced values (examples)
*BE CAREFUL: do not confuse clutter classes and environment classes
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]


Calculation of the diffraction loss f(diffraction)
Approximation: an obstacle of height H between NodeB and UE is
modeled as an infinite conductive plane of height H.
Case 1: one obstacle
Node
B
UE
What is the diffraction loss in case 1 (use the curve on the next page)?
r
h
0
Fresnel Ellipsoid
(first order)
Infinite conductive plane
H

A n s w e r :
h
0
= r v = - 1 f ( d i f f r a c t i o n ) = 1 4 d B
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]


Knife-edge diffraction function
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Clearance of Fresnel ellipsoid (v)
F
(
v
)

[
d
B
]
Calculation of the diffraction loss f(diffraction)
Case 1: one obstacle (continuing)
Diffraction loss for one obstacle:
v: clearance
parameter,
v=-h
0
/r
r: Fresnel ellipsoid
radius,
h
0
: height

of obstacle
above line of sight
(LOS)

Note:
h
0
= 0 v =0 F(v)
= 6 dB
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]


Calculation of the diffraction loss f(diffraction)
Case 2: several obstacles
Node
B
UE
The diffraction loss in case 2 is not easy to calculate: it is not equal to the sum of the
contributions of each obstacle alone (it is usually smaller).
Different calculations methods can be applied based on the General method for one
or more obstacles described in ITU P.526-5 (08/97) recommendations, e.g Deygout,
Epstein-Peterson or Millington
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.2 Alcatel-Lucent Standard Propagation Model [cont.]




Calculation of f(clutter):
In the L
path
formula, the multiplying factors K1,..,K6 are calculated for a
standard clutter class: f(clutter) is a correction factor compared to the standard
clutter class.
f(clutter) is calculated taking into account a clutter loss* average of all pixels
located in the line of sight and in a circle around the UE (the circle radius,
called Max distance, is typically 200m).
Pix
el
Node
B
UE
Water clutter class pixel
clutter loss = -27 dB (typically)
Forest clutter class pixel
clutter loss = -9 dB (typically)
*(also called clutter or morpho correction factor)
in this example, 3 pixels are considered
to calculate f(clutter)
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.3 Cost 231-Hata formula
Reminder: Cost-Hata formula



Mapping between COST-Hata and Standard Propagation Model

( )
R
T T
Hata COST
h C
m
d
m
h
B B
m
h
A
MHz
f
A A L
(


|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

3 log log log log


2 1 3 2 1
Alcatel-Lucent
UMTS
Standard Model
Parameter
COST-Hata
K
1
A
1
+A
2
log(f/MHz)3B
1
0.87
K
2
B
1

K
3
A
3
3B
2

K
4
-
K
5
B
2

K
6
C(h
R
)
K
Clutter
-

Compared to COST231-Hata
propagation model, the Alcatel-
Lucent Standard Propagation Model:
has an additional diffraction
loss represented by K4 has
been added
can be calibrated by adding a
clutter dependent calibration
offset
176
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4.4 Appendix
4.4.4 FDD and TDD introduction
TDD = Time Division Duplex
The Uplink and the downlink transmissions are separated by the time.
Only one bandwidth is used.
Example: WiMAX
frequency
DL
time
UL DL UL
FDD = Frequency Division Duplex
The Uplink and the downlink transmissions are separated by the frequency.
2 bandwidths are used.
Example: WCDMA, CDMA2000
frequency
DL
UL DL
time
UL
frequency
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Discussion or question
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References
LTE OUTDOOR RF DESIGN GUIDELINES external (April 2012)
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End of module