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Additional

Mat hemati cs
How to Solve
a Problem

Understand Plan your Do - Carry out Check your


the Problem Strategy Your Strategy Answers

•Which Topic / •Carry out the •Is the answer


•Subtopic ? •Choose suitable calculations reasonable?
•What info has been strategy •Graph sketching • Any other
given? •Choose the correct
•What is to be formula •Creating tables ... methods ??
found?
PAPER 1 FORMAT

 Objective Test :  Short Questions


 No. of Questions :  25 questions
 Total Marks :  80
 Duration :  2 hours
 L.O.D. :  L (15) , M(7-8), H(2-3)
 Additional Materials :  Scientific Calculators,
Mathematical
Tables, Geometrical sets.
PAPER 2 FORMAT
 Subjective Questions
 No. of Questions : A (6), B (4/5), C (2/4)
 Total Marks : 100
 Duration : 2 hours 30 minutes
 L.O.D : L (6) , M(4-5), H(4-5)
 Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,
Mathematical Tables,
Geometrical sets.
Key towards achieving 1A …
 Read question carefully
 Follow instructions
 Start with your favourite question
 Show your working clearly
 Choose the correct formula to be used
+(Gunakannya dengan betul !!!)
 Final answer must be in the simplest form
 The end answer should be correct to 4 S.F.

(or follow the instruction given in the question)


π ≅ 3.142
Kunci Mencapai kecemerlangan
 Proper / Correct ways of writing mathematical
notations
 Check answers!
 Proper allocation of time (for each question)

Paper 1 : 3 - 7 minutes for each question


Paper 2 :
Sec. A : 8 - 10 minutes for each question
Sec. B : 15 minutes for each question
Sec. C : 15 minutes for each question
Common Mistakes…
1. The Quadratic equation 3x2 - 4x + 5 = 0

• y = 3x2 + 4x
dy
dx y = 6x + 4

3. ∫ 6 x + 4 dx = ∫ 3 x + 4 x + c
2

4. sin x = 300 , 1500 x = 300 , 1500




AB 1 AB
5. →
= 1

PQ 3 PQ

3
Kesilapan Biasa Calon …
• f ' (x) wrongly interpreted as f – 1(x) and
/ or conversely

• x2 = 4 ⇒ ⇒

x = 2

• x >4
2 ⇒ x > ±2


Common errors…

PA : PB = 2 : 3
then 2PA = 3 PB
Actually, …

PA : PB = 2 : 3

PA 2
=
PB 3
3 PA = 2 PB
More mistakes ……

3 ( ) + ( ) = 2 ( ) + ( )
2 2 2 2

3 [( ) + ( ) ] = 2 [( ) + ( ) ]
2 2 2 2

32 PA2 = 22 PB2

9 PA2 = 4 PB2
Common mistakes …
loga x + loga y = 0,

then xy = 0

It should be… xy = a0 = 1
Common mistakes …

loga (x – 3) = loga x – loga 3

2 x 2 = 1
x y
2 x 2 = 2
x y 0

x + y = 1 2x + y = 2 0
x + y = 0
Common mistakes …
loga x + loga y = 0,

then loga xy = 0

So, xy = 0

It should be… xy = a0 = 1
Common mistakes …

sin (x + 300) = ½ ,
then sin x + sin 300 = ½
…………………gone !

Do NOT us e
Sin( A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin
B !
Correct way… …

sin (x + 30 ) = ½ , 0

then x +300 = 300 , 1500

So, x = 0 , 120 0 0
?
If 0 0 is an an sw er , then 36 0 0 is al so an an swer !
sin (x + 30 ) = ½ ,
0

then x +30 = 30 , 150 , 390


0 0 0 0

So, x = 00 , 1200 , 3600


Relationship between Functions and Quadratic
Functions
Domain Codomain
y
X Y
f(x) = x2
4

1 1

1 2 4

x
Image
O 1 2
Objec
t
(1, 1) , (2, 4). …. form ordered pairs and can be
plotted to obtain a curve.
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 1
P = { 1, 2, 3}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

The relationship between P and Q is defined by the set of


ordered pairs { (1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8)}.
State
 the image of 1,
 The object of 2. [2 marks]

Answer
(a) 2 , 4 1
(a) 1 1
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 2
g : x → 5x + 1 h : x → x2 − 2x + 3

Answer 2
(a) or 0.4 2
5
B1 : ( x −1) or g(x) = 3
5

 25x2 + 2 2
B1 : (5x+1)2 – 2(5x+1) + 3
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 3 (SPM 2005,Q5)
Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1- x)(x+2).
Write your answer correct to four significant figures.
(3 marks)
Answer
2.591, - 0.2573 (both + 4 s.f.) 3

B2 : − (−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(3)(−2)


2(3)

B1 : 3x2 – 7x – 2 = 0
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 4
The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has
two distinct roots. Find the range of values of p.
(3 marks)

Answer
p < -3, p > 5 (kedua-duanya) 3

B2 : (p + 3) (p – 5) > 0

B1 : (1 – p)2 – 4(1)(4) > 0


SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 5

Given that log 2 T - log4 V = 3, express T in terms


of V. (4 marks)
Answer
T= 8V½ 4
log 2 V
log 2 T − =3 B1
log 2 4
T
log 2 V 1
= 23
log 2 T − =3 V 2
2
1
log 2 T − log 2 V 2
=3 B2 1
T = 8V 2
T
log 2 1
= 3 B3
V 2
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 6

Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 7x (4 marks)


Answer
x = 1.677 4
(2x – 1) log 4 = x log 7 B1
2x log 4 – log 4 = x log 7
2x log 4 – x log 7 = log 4 B2
x (2 log 4 – log 7 ) = log 4

log 4 0.6021
x  or B3
2 log 4  log 7 0.3591
SPM 2007 (???)
Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 8x (3 marks)
Answer
22(2x – 1) = 23x
2(2x – 1) = 3x

4x – 1 = 3x
x = 1
4x – 2 = 3x No !!!
x = 2
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 7
The first three terms of an A.P. are k-3, k+3, 2k+2.
Find (a) the value of k,
(b) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression.

(3 marks)
Answer
(a) 7 2

(k + 3) – (k – 3) = (2k + 2) – (k + 3) B1
6 = k–1

(b) 252 1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 1
Solve the simultaneous equation 4x + y = - 8
and x2 + x – y = 2 (5 marks)
Answer
Make x or y the subject P1
8  y
x or y   8  4x
4
Eliminating x or y
2 K1
 8  y   8  y 
 
    y  2 or x 2  x  (8  4 x)  2
 4   4 

Solving the quadratic equation : K1


x = -2, -3 or y = 0 , 4 N1

y = 0 , 4 or x = -2, -3 N1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2

The function f(x) = x2 - 4kx + 5k2 + 1 has a minimum


value of r2 + 2k , with r and k as constants.

• By the method of completing the square, show that


r=k–1 (4 marks)

• Hence, or otherwise, find the value of k and the


value of r if the graph of the function is symmetrical
about the line x = r2 -1. (4 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2 ***
Answer
2(a) Writing f(x) in the form (x – p)2 + q
K1
(x – 2k)2 – 4k2 + 5k2 + 1

Equating q ( q* = r2 + 2k) K1
(k – 1)2 = r2 N1
r= k–1 N1
(b) Equating (his) - (x – p) = 0 K1
Eliminating r or k by
K1
2
 − 8 − y   dy b 
  + = 0 atau x = − 
 4   dx 2a  any valid method

k=0,4 N1
r = -1, 3 N1
F4

1. Functions

1. Given f : x x2 - 2 . Find the values of x which map onto


itself.
f (x) = x
x2 - 2 = x
x2 – x – 2 = 0
(x+1)(x-2) = 0
x = -1 , x = 2

2. Given f : x x - 3 , g:x 3x , find gf (1 ) .

f(x) = x – 3, g(x) = 3x
gf (1) = g [ f(1) ]
= g [-2]
= -6
T4
F4BAB 1

Functions : Inverse Functions

4. Given f (x) = 3 – 2x, find f -1.

Method 1 Method 2

Let f (x) = y
Let f (x) = y
-1

Then 3 – 2x = y
Then x = f (y)
3 – y = 2x
x = 3 – 2y 3− y
x=
3− x 2
3− y
y= f ( y) =
−1

2 2
3− x 3− x
f ( x) =
−1
f −1 ( x ) =
2 2
T4
F4BAB 1

Functions : Applying the Idea of Inverse functions


3 x −1
5. Given f :x→
4 , find the value of a if f -1(a) = 11

Method 1 (Find f-1 )


Method 2 ( No need f-1 )
Let f -1(x) = y
Then x = f(y) Let f -1(a) = 11
3y − 1
x=
4 Then a = f (11)
4x + 1
y=
3 = 8
4a + 1
f-1(a) = = 11
3

a= 8
T4
F4BAB 1

Functions : Given composite function and one function,


find the other function.

6. Given f : x  2  x and gf : x  2 x  2, find fg.

Rem emb er : you need to find g firs t !

f(x ) =2 - x , gf (x) = 2x- 2


Let f(x) = u

Then u = 2 – x or x = 2 - u
g(u ) = 2( 2-u ) – 2
= 2-2u
g(x ) = 2-2x
fg(x ) = f(2 -2x)
= 2 - (2 -2x)

= 2x
T4
F4BAB 1

**Functions : To skecth the graphs of y = |f(x)|

7. Skecth the graph of y = |3-2x|+1 for domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 4


and state the corresponding range.

Tips : Sk etch y = |3-2x| first !!!

3
Range : 1≤ y ≤6
2

3 x
0 4
2
F4

2. Quadratic equations:
SP M 20 04, K 1, Q 4
Form t he q ua dr ati c equa ti on wh ich has
th e roots – 3 a nd ½ .

x = – 3 , x = ½
(x+3) (2x – 1) = 0
2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0
F4

2. Quadratic Equations

ax2 + bx + c = 0
 b c
x −  − x + = 0
2

 a a

x 2 – ( S.O .R ) x + ( P.O.R. ) = 0
b c
S.O.R − P.O.R.
a a
= =
F4

2. The Quadratic Equation : Types of roots

The quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has

1. Two distinct roots if b2 - 4ac >0

2. Two equal roots if b2 - 4ac = 0

3. No real roots if b2 - 4ac <0

**The straight line y = mx -1 is a tangent to the curve

y = x2 + 2 ……. ???
F4

3 Quadratic Functions : Quadratic Inequalities


SPM 20 04, K1 , S5

Fin d the ra nge of v al ues of x f or whi ch


x(x – 4) ≤ 1 2

x (x – 4) ≤ 12
x 2 – 4x – 12 ≤ 0
(x + 2)( x – 6) ≤ 0

x
-2 6

– 2 ≤ x ≤ 6
F4
Back to
Sol ve BASIC

x2 > 4 x> ±2
x2 – 4 > 0 ???
(x + 2)(x – 2) > 0 R.H.S
must be O !
–2 2

x < -2 or x > 2
F4

4. Simultaneous Equations

• Solve the simultaneous equations


x + y =1
x2 + 3y2 = 7
Fa ctorisat ion

• Solve the simultaneous equations, give your answer


correct to three decimal places.
x +y=1
x2 +3y2 = 8 − b ± b − 4ac
2

2a
*** P = Q = R
F4
5. IND ICES
Back to basic… …
Solve .. x −1 1
9 . x
= 1
27
32(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x) = 1
2x – 2 – 3x = 1
– x = 3
x= –3 Betul
ke ???
F4
5. I NDIC ES

Solve x −1 1
9 . x
= 1
27
32(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x) = 1
32x – 2 +(– 3x) = 30
–x–2 =0
x = –2
F4
5. IN DIC ES

Solve x −1 1
9 . x
= 1
27

or… 9x-1
= 27 x

32(x – 1) = 3 3x
32x – 2 = 33x
2x – 2 = 3x
x = –2
F4
5. IND ICES
Sol ve
2x + 3 = 2 x+2
Can U take
2x + 3 = 2x . 22 log on both
2x + 3 = 4 (2x ) sides ???
WHY?
3 = 3(2 ) x

1 = (2x ) In the form

x = 0 u + 3 = 4u
F4
5. IND ICES
x2
Solve the equation 3  32  3 x
,
give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
[ 4 marks]

9 (3x) = 32 + (3x)
8 (3x) = 32
3x = 4
lg 4
x 
lg 3
x = 1.26 (Mid-Yr 07)
F4
5. INDICES
Sol ve
2 2x
.5 x
= 0 .05 ambm = (ab)m

1
4 .5x x
=
2 0 You can
also take
20 x
=
1
log on both
2 0
sides.

x = –1
F4 5. INDICE S & LOG ARITHM S

(Mi d-Yr 0 7)
Solv e th e equa ti on lo g 2 ( x  2 )  2  2 lo g 4 ( 4  x )

[ 4 mark s ]
log 2 (4  x)
log 2 ( x  2)  2  2 .
log 2 4
log 2 ( x  2)  2  log 2 (4  x)
lo g 2 ( x  2 )  lo g 2 4 ( 4  x )
x–2 = 4 (4 – x)
x = 3.6
F4 5. INDICE S & LOG ARITHM S

Back to basic… …
Solve the the equation
log3 (x – 4) + log3 (x + 4) = 2

log3(x-4)(x+4) = 2
x2 – 16 = 9
x = 5
F4

Back to basic… … SPM 2005, P1, Q8

Solve the equation


log3 4x – log3 (2x – 1) = 1
 4x 
log 3    1
 2 x  1
4x
 3
2x 1
4x = 3(2x – 1)
= 6x – 3
2x = 3
3
x =
2
F4

5 Indices and Logaritms : Change of base

Given that log3 p = m and log4 p = n. Find logp 36 in


terms of m and n.

logp 36 = logp 9 + logp 4 K1

= 2log p 3 + logp 4 K1

log 3 3 1
= 2( )+ K1
log 3 p log 4 p
2 1
= + N1
log a a = 1 m n
Coordinate Geometry

Some extra vitamins 4u …


Coordinate Geometry
 Distance between two points
 Division of line segments : midpoints
+ the ratio theorem
 Areas of polygons
 Equation of straight lines
 Parallel and perpendicular lines
 Loci (involving distance between two
points)
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

Solutions to this
question by scale
drawing will not be
accepted.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

A diagram is usually given


(starting from SPM 2004).
You SHOULD make full use
of the given diagram while
answering the question.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

 Sketch a simple diagram


to help you using the
required formula
correctly.
6. Coordinate Geometry
6.2.2 Division of a Line Segment
Q divides the line segment PR in the ratio PQ : QR = m : n

R(x2, y2)
n
m n ●
P(x1, y1) Q(x, y) R(x2, y2) m Q(x, y)

P(x1, y1)

 nx1 + m x2 ny1 + m y 2 
Q(x, y) =  , 
 m + n m + n 
6. Coordinate Geometry (Ratio Theorem)
The point P divides the line segment joining the point M(3,7) and
N(6,2) in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the coordinates of point P.

1 N(6, 2)
●  1(3) + 2(6) 1(7) + 2(2) 
P(x, y) P(x, y) =  , 
2
 2 +1 2 +1 

M(3, 7)
 15 11 
=  , 
3 3
 11 
=  5, 
nx1 + m x ny + m y   3 
P(x, y) = 
 m + n
2
, 1

m + n
2


6. Coordinate Geometry

Perpendicular lines :
R

m1.m2 = –1 P

Q
S
6. Coordinate Geometry
(SPM 2006, P1, Q12)
Diagram 5 shows the straight line AB which is perpendicular to the straight
line CB at the point B.
The equation of CB is y = 2x – 1 .
Find the coordinates of B. [3 marks]

y mCB = 2

y = 2x – 1 mAB = – ½
A(0, 4)

Equation of AB is y= –½x+4
●B Diagram 5
At B, 2x – 1 = – ½ x + 4
O x x = 2, y = 3
●C
So, B is the point (2, 3).
6. Coordinate Geometry
Given points P(8,0) and Q(0,-6). Find the equation of the
perpendicular bisector of PQ.
y

mPQ= 3
4
4 K1
mAB= − O P x
3
Midpoint of PQ = (4, -3)
4 Q
( y + 3) = − ( x − 4 )
3 K1
The equation : 4x + 3y -7 = 0
or 4 7 N1
y =− x +
3 3
6 Coordinate Geometry

TASK : To find the equation of the locus of the moving


point P such that its distances from the points A and B
are in the ratio m : n

(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the


distance formula correctly)
6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distances from the points A(-2,3) and B(4, 8) are in the ratio 1 : 2.
(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the distance formula
correctly)
A(-2,3), B(4,8) and m:n=1:2
Let P = (x, y)
B(4, 8)
PA 1

PB 2 A(-2, 3) 2

2PA  PB 1

P(x, y)
4PA 2
 PB 2

4  ( x  2 ) 2  ( y  3 ) 2   ( x  4 ) 2  ( y  8 ) 2

3x2 + 3y2 + 24x – 8y – 28 = 0


6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distance from the point A(-2,3) is always 5 units. (≈ SPM 2005)

A(-2,3)
Let P = (x, y) A(-2, 3)

5
( x  2) 2  ( y  3) 2  52

P(x, y)

x 2  y 2  4 x  6 y  12  0 is the equation of locus of P.


6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of point P which moves such that
it is always equidistant from points A(-2, 3) and B(4, 9).

Constraint / Condition : B(4, 9)



PA = PB
A(-2, 3)
PA 2
= PB 2 ●

(x+2)2 + (y – 3)2 = (x – 4)2 + (y – 9)2 ● P(x, y)

Locus of P
x + y – 7 = 0 is the equation of
locus of P.

Note : This locus is actually the perpendicular bisector of AB


Solutions to this question by scale drawing will not be accepted.
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9)
Diagram 3 shows the triangle AOB where O is the origin.
Point C lies on the straight line AB.
A(-3, 4) y

Diagram 3
C

x
O

B(6, -2)

(a) Calculate the area, in units2, of triangle AOB. [2 marks]


(b) Given that AC : CB = 3 : 2, find the coordinates of C. [2 marks]
• A point P moves such that its distance from point A is always twice its
distance from point B.
(i) Find the equation of locus of P,
(ii) Hence, determine whether or not this locus intercepts the y-axis.
[6 marks]
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS y
A(-3, 4)

3
Diagram 3
C
● 2
x
1 0 6 3 0 1 O
9(a)  0  24  0  0  6  0 K1 ●
2 0 2 4 0 2 B(6, -2)
N1 Use formula
= 9
To find area

9(b)  2(3)  3(6) 2(4)  3( 2) 


 ,  K1
 3 2 3 2  Use formula correctly
 nx1 + m x2 ny1 + m y 2 
 12 2   , 
  ,  N1  m + n m + n 
 5 5
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS

A(-3, 4) y
● 2
● P(x, y)
9(c) (i) C
● 1
x
O
AP = [ x  (3 )]2  ( y  4 )2 ●
B(6, -2)
K1 Use distance
formula
AP = 2PB
K1
AP2 = 4 PB2
Use AP = 2PB
(x+3) + (y – 4 )
2 2
= 4 [(x – 6) + (y + 2)
2 2

x2 + y2 – 18x + 8y + 45 = 0 N1


(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS

9(c) (ii) x = 0, y2 + 8y + 45 = 0 K1 Subst. x = 0 into his locus

b2 – 4ac = 82 – 4(1)(45) < 0 K1


Use b2 – 4ac = 0
or AOM

So, the locus does not intercept the y-axis. N1


√ (his locus
& b2 – 4ac)
F4

6. Coordinate Geometry : the equation of locus

Given that A(-1,-2) and B(2,1) are fixed points . Point P moves such that the
ratio of AP to PB is 1 : 2. Find the equation of locus for P.

2 AP = PB

2 ( x +1) 2 + ( y + 2) 2 = ( x − 2) 2 + ( y −1) 2 K1

4[ (x+1)2 + (y+2)2 ] = (x -2 )2 + (y -1)2 J1

3x2 + 3y2 + 12x + 18y + 15 = 0 N1

x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 5 = 0
F4

Statistics
Fr om a gi ve n s et of dat a,
Marks (e.g . The frequ ency distri buti on of
f marks o f a grou p of stu dents )
6-10 12
11-15 20 Stud ents shou ld be ab le to f in d ….

16-20 27 • the m ean , mo de & med ian


21-25 16 • Q1, Q3 an d IQR
• the v ari ance & S.D eviati ons
26-30 13
• Con stru ct a CFT and draw an
31-35 10 og ive
36-40 2 • Use the ogi ve to sol ve relate d
pr oblems
Total 100
F5 To estimate median from Graph For Question 6(b)

Histogram
Number of people

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
33.5

0.5 20.5 40.5 60.5 80.5 100.5 Age


Modal age = 33.5
F4 CHAPTER 8

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

 ‘Radian’  ‘Degrees’
 S = rθ (θ must be in
θ RADIANS)
 A = ½ r2 θ

Always refer to diagram when answering this question.


F4

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE
Diagram shows a sector of a circle OABC A
with centre O and radius 4 cm. Given
B
that ∠AOC = 0.8 radians, find the area 0.8c O

of the shaded region.


C

K1
Area of sector OABC = ½ x 42 x 0.8
= 6.4 cm 2
K1
Area of triangle OAC = ½ x 42 x sin 0. 8
In radians !!!!
= 5.7388 cm 2

K1
Area of shaded region = 6.4 – 5.7388
N1
= 0.661 2 cm2
F4

DIFFERENTIATION :
d  u 
 
3x + 1 dy dx  v 
Given that y= , find
4x + 5 dx

dy (4 x  5)(3)  (3 x  1)(4)

dx (4 x  5) 2

11
=
(4 x + 5) 2
F4

9 Differentiation : The second derivative

Giv en that f(x) = x 3 + x 2 – 4x + 5


, fi nd th e va lue of f ” ( 1)

f’ (x ) = 3 x2 + 2 x –
4
f” (x ) = 6x +
2
f” ( 1 ) = 8
F4

9 Differentiation : The second derivative

 
5
Given that g (x)  x  1
2
, find the value of g ” (1) .

g’ (x) = 10x (x 2 + 1) 4

g’ ’ (x) = 40x (x 2 + 1) 3
. 2x

Ya ke
??
F4- 9

 
5
Given that
.
g (x)  x  1
2
, find the value of g ” (-1)

d
g’ (x) = 10x (x +
2
 uv 
1) 4 dx
g’’ (x) = 10 x . 4(x 2 + 1) 3 .2x +( x 2 +1) 4 .
10
g’ ’ (-1 ) = 10( -1 ) . 4[ (-1 ) 2 + 1] 3
+[(-1 ) 2 +1 ) 4 . 10

= 800 Mid-year, Paper 2


F4

Differentiation : Small increments


dy
Given that y = 2x3 – x2 + 4, find the value of dx at the
point (2, 16). Hence, find the small incr emen t in x
which causes y to increase from 16 to 16.05.

dy
= 6x 2 – 2x
dx
= 20 , x = K1

δy 2 d y

δx dx
0 .0 5 K1
≈ 20
δx
δx = 0 .0 0 2 5 N1
F5

Progr essi on s : A.P & G. P

A. P. : a, a+ d, a+2d, a +3d , …
…..
Mos t im por tant is “d”

G.P. : a, ar, ar 2 , ar 3 , ……..

Mo st im por tant is “ r
” !!
F5

Progressions : G.P - Recurring Decimals


SP M 20 04, P 1, Q 12
Ex press t he recurr ing d eci ma l 0.9 6969 6 …
as a f ra ction i n the si mpl est for m.

x = 0. 96 96 96 …
(1)
10 0x = 96. 9 6 96 …. . (2 )
(2) – (1) 99x = 96
96 32
x99
= 33 =
F5 Back to basic… …

Progressions
Given that Sn = 5n – n2 , find the sum from
the 5th to the 10th terms of the progression.

Usual Answer :
S10 – S5 = ……. ???
Correct Answer :
S10 – S4
Ans :-54
F5

Linear Law

1. Table for data X and Y


1-2

Y 2. Correct axes and scale used 1

3. Plot all points correctly 1

4. Line of best fit 1


5. Use of Y-intercept to determine value
X of constant
2-4
6. Use of gradient to determine
another constant
F5

Linear Law
Bear in mi nd t ha t … ......
1. Sc ale mu st be un iform
Y 2. Scale of both a xes may d efer :
FO LLOW giv en in st ructi ons !

3. Ho rizo ntal ax is sho uld s tar t f ro m 0


!
4. P lot ……… a gai nst ……….
X

Vertical Axis Horizontal


Axis
Linear law
F5
Y
4.5
x

3.5

x
3.0

x
2.5

2.5 x

1.5
x

1.0
x

0.5

Read this value !!!!!


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x
F5

INTEGRATION

(3x + 1) 5
+c
∫ ( 3x +1)
4
1. dx =
15

(2 − 3x)5
∫ ( 2 − 3x )
4 =
2. dx +c
−15
1 1
3. ∫ dx = +c
( 3x + 1) 4
− 9(3 x +1) 3

−2 2
4. ∫ dx = +c
( 3x + 1) 4
9 ( 3x + 1) 3
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2003, P2, Q3(a) 3 marks
dy
Given that dx = 2x + 2 and y = 6 when x = – 1,
find y in terms of x.

dy
Answer: = 2x + 2
dx
y =  (2 x  2)dx
= x2 + 2x + c

x = -1, y = 6: 6 = 1 +2 + c
c = 3

Hence y = x2 + 2x + 3
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2004, K2, S3(a) 3 marks
The gradient function of a curve which passes through
A(1, -12) is 3x2 – 6 . Find the equation of the curve.

dy
Answer: = 3x2 – 6
dx
Gradient
y =   6)dx
2
(3 x
Function
= x3 – 6x + c
x = 1, y = – 12 : – 12 = 1 – 6 + c
c = –7
Hence y = x3 – 6 x – 7
F5

Vectors : Unit Vectors

Given that OA = 2i + j and OB = 6i + 4j, find


B the unit vector in the direction of AB

AB = OB - OA
= ( 6i + 4j ) – ( 2i + j )
A = 4i + 3j K1

l AB l = 4 2 + 32
= 5
1
Unit vector in the direction of AB = (4i + 3 j ) K1 N1
5
F5

Parallel vectors
Given that a and b are parallel vectors, with
a = (m-4)i +2 j and b= -2i + mj. Find the the value of
m.
a =kb

a = b
(m-4) i + 2 j = k (-2i + mj) K1

m- 4 = -2k 1

mk = 2 2 K1

m=2 N1
F5
5 TRIG ONOMET RIC FU NCT ION S

Prove that tan2 x – sin2 x = tan2 x sin2 x

sin 2 x
tan2 x – sin2 x = 2
− sin 2x K1
kos x
sin 2 x − kos 2 x sin 2 x
=
kos 2 x

sin 2 x( 1 − kos 2 x ) K1
=
kos 2 x

= tan 2 x sin 2 x N1
F5
5 TRI GONOMET RIC FUN CT IO NS

Solve the equation 2 cos 2x + 3 sin x - 2 = 0

2( 1 - 2sin2 x) + 3 sin x - 2 = 0 K1

-4 sin2 x + 3 sin x = 0

sin x ( -4 sin x + 3 ) = 0 K1

3
sin x = 0 , sin x =
4

x = 00, 1800, 3600 N1 x = 48.590, 131.410 N1


F5

5 TRI GONOMET RIC FUN CT IO NS (Graph s)

(Us uall y Pap er 2, Que st ion 4 or 5) - WAJIB


!
1. Sketch given graph : (4 marks)
3
(2003) y = 2 cos 2
x , 0  x  2

(2004) y = cos 2x for 00  x  1800


(2005) y = cos 2x , 0  x  2
(2006) y = – 2 cos x , 0  x  2
F5 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

Find the number of four digit numbers exceeding


3000 which can be formed from the numbers 2,
3, 6 , 8, 9 if each number is allowed to be used
once only.

No. of ways = 4 . 4.
3. 2 = 96
3, 6, 8,
9
F5

Find the number of ways the word BES TARI can be


arranged so that the vowels and consonants alternate
with each other [ 3 marks ]

Vowels : E, A, I
Consonants : B, S, T, R
Arrangements : C V C V C V C

No. of ways = 4! 3 !
= 144
F5
Two unb iase d dice ar e toss ed .
Fi nd the pro ba bi li ty that the su m of the tw o
numb ers obt ai ned is mo re than 4.
Dice B, y
n(S) = 6 x 6 = 36
6 X X X X X X Constraint : x + y > 4
5 X X X X X X
Draw the line x + y = 4
4 X X X X X X

3 X X X X X X We need : x + y > 4
2 X X X X X X
6
P( x + y > 4) = 1 –
36
1 X X X X X X
5
Dice A, x =
1 2 3 4 5 6 6
F5

PROB AB ILITY D IST RIB UTIONS

The Binomial Distribution


P ( X =r ) = nC r ( p ) r ( q ) n −r

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, …..n p+q=1

n = Total number of trials


r = No. of ‘successes’
p = Probability of ‘success’
q = probability of ‘failure’ Mean = np
Variance = npq
F5

PROB AB ILITY DIST RIB UTIONS

The NORMAL Distribution


Candidates must be able to … f(z)
 determine the Z-score
x
Z =

z
00 0.5
use the SNDT to find the values
(probabilities)
T5

f(z) f(z) f(z)

= 1 – –

z z z
-1.5 0 1 0 1 0 1.5
F4

Index Numbers

H1
• Index Number = I= × 100
H0

• Composite Index =
_
I=
∑ wI
∑w
• Problems of index numbers involving
two or more basic years.
Solution of Triangles
• The Sine Rule
• The Cosine Rule
• Area of Triangles
• Problems in 3-Dimensions.
• Ambiguity cases (More than ONE
answer)
Motion in a Straight Line

 Initial
displacement, velocity, acceleration...
 Particle returns to starting point O...
 Particle has maximum / minimum velocity..
 Particle achieves maximum displacement...
 Particle returns to O / changes direction...
 Particle moves with constant velocity...
Motion in a Straight Line

 Question involving motion of TWO particles.


... When both of them collide / meet ???
… how do we khow both particles are of the same
direction at time t ???
 The distance travelled in the nth second.
 The range of time at which the particle returns ….
 The range of time when the particle moves with
negative displacement
 Speed which is increasing
 Negative velocity
 Deceleration / retardation
Linear Programming
To answer this question, CANDIDATES must be able to
.....
 form inequalities from given mathematical
information

 draw the related straight lines using


suitable scales on both axes

 recognise and shade the region representing


the inequalities

 solve maximising or minimising problems


from the objective function (minimum cost,
maximum profit ....)
Linear Programming
Maklumat Ketaksamaan
1. x is at least 10 x ≥ 10
2. x is not more than 80 x ≤ 80
3. x is not more than y x ≤ y
4. The value of y is at least twice the value of x y ≥ 2x
5. The maximum value of x is 100 x ≤ 100
6. The minimum value of y is 35 y ≥ 35
7. The maximum value of x+ 2y is 60 x + 2y ≤ 60
8. The minimum value of 3x – 2y is 18 3x - 2y ≥ 18
9. The sum of x and y is not less than 50 x + y ≥ 50
10. The sum of x and y must exceed 40 x + y > 40
11. x must exceed y by at least 10 x ≥ y + 10
12. The ratio of the quantity of Q (y) to the quantity of P (x) y ≤ 2x
should not exceed 2 : 1
13. The number of units of model B (y) exceeds twice the y - 2x >10
number of units of model A (x) by 10 or more.
Selamat maju jaya !