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# Additional

Mat hemati cs
How to Solve
a Problem

## Understand Plan your Do - Carry out Check your

the Problem Strategy Your Strategy Answers

## •Which Topic / •Carry out the •Is the answer

•Subtopic ? •Choose suitable calculations reasonable?
•What info has been strategy •Graph sketching • Any other
given? •Choose the correct
•What is to be formula •Creating tables ... methods ??
found?
PAPER 1 FORMAT

##  Objective Test :  Short Questions

 No. of Questions :  25 questions
 Total Marks :  80
 Duration :  2 hours
 L.O.D. :  L (15) , M(7-8), H(2-3)
 Additional Materials :  Scientific Calculators,
Mathematical
Tables, Geometrical sets.
PAPER 2 FORMAT
 Subjective Questions
 No. of Questions : A (6), B (4/5), C (2/4)
 Total Marks : 100
 Duration : 2 hours 30 minutes
 L.O.D : L (6) , M(4-5), H(4-5)
 Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,
Mathematical Tables,
Geometrical sets.
Key towards achieving 1A …
 Read question carefully
 Follow instructions
 Start with your favourite question
 Show your working clearly
 Choose the correct formula to be used
+(Gunakannya dengan betul !!!)
 Final answer must be in the simplest form
 The end answer should be correct to 4 S.F.

## (or follow the instruction given in the question)

π ≅ 3.142
Kunci Mencapai kecemerlangan
 Proper / Correct ways of writing mathematical
notations
 Check answers!
 Proper allocation of time (for each question)

## Paper 1 : 3 - 7 minutes for each question

Paper 2 :
Sec. A : 8 - 10 minutes for each question
Sec. B : 15 minutes for each question
Sec. C : 15 minutes for each question
Common Mistakes…
1. The Quadratic equation 3x2 - 4x + 5 = 0

• y = 3x2 + 4x
dy
dx y = 6x + 4

3. ∫ 6 x + 4 dx = ∫ 3 x + 4 x + c
2

## 4. sin x = 300 , 1500 x = 300 , 1500

AB 1 AB
5. →
= 1

PQ 3 PQ

3
Kesilapan Biasa Calon …
• f ' (x) wrongly interpreted as f – 1(x) and
/ or conversely

• x2 = 4 ⇒ ⇒

x = 2

• x >4
2 ⇒ x > ±2

Common errors…

PA : PB = 2 : 3
then 2PA = 3 PB
Actually, …

PA : PB = 2 : 3

PA 2
=
PB 3
3 PA = 2 PB
More mistakes ……

3 ( ) + ( ) = 2 ( ) + ( )
2 2 2 2

3 [( ) + ( ) ] = 2 [( ) + ( ) ]
2 2 2 2

32 PA2 = 22 PB2

9 PA2 = 4 PB2
Common mistakes …
loga x + loga y = 0,

then xy = 0

It should be… xy = a0 = 1
Common mistakes …

## loga (x – 3) = loga x – loga 3

2 x 2 = 1
x y
2 x 2 = 2
x y 0

x + y = 1 2x + y = 2 0
x + y = 0
Common mistakes …
loga x + loga y = 0,

then loga xy = 0

So, xy = 0

It should be… xy = a0 = 1
Common mistakes …

sin (x + 300) = ½ ,
then sin x + sin 300 = ½
…………………gone !

Do NOT us e
Sin( A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin
B !
Correct way… …

sin (x + 30 ) = ½ , 0

## then x +300 = 300 , 1500

So, x = 0 , 120 0 0
?
If 0 0 is an an sw er , then 36 0 0 is al so an an swer !
sin (x + 30 ) = ½ ,
0

0 0 0 0

## So, x = 00 , 1200 , 3600

Relationship between Functions and Quadratic
Functions
Domain Codomain
y
X Y
f(x) = x2
4

1 1

1 2 4

x
Image
O 1 2
Objec
t
(1, 1) , (2, 4). …. form ordered pairs and can be
plotted to obtain a curve.
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 1
P = { 1, 2, 3}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

## The relationship between P and Q is defined by the set of

ordered pairs { (1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8)}.
State
 the image of 1,
 The object of 2. [2 marks]

Answer
(a) 2 , 4 1
(a) 1 1
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 2
g : x → 5x + 1 h : x → x2 − 2x + 3

Answer 2
(a) or 0.4 2
5
B1 : ( x −1) or g(x) = 3
5

 25x2 + 2 2
B1 : (5x+1)2 – 2(5x+1) + 3
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 3 (SPM 2005,Q5)
Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1- x)(x+2).
Write your answer correct to four significant figures.
(3 marks)
Answer
2.591, - 0.2573 (both + 4 s.f.) 3

## B2 : − (−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(3)(−2)

2(3)

B1 : 3x2 – 7x – 2 = 0
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 4
The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has
two distinct roots. Find the range of values of p.
(3 marks)

Answer
p < -3, p > 5 (kedua-duanya) 3

B2 : (p + 3) (p – 5) > 0

## B1 : (1 – p)2 – 4(1)(4) > 0

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 5

## Given that log 2 T - log4 V = 3, express T in terms

of V. (4 marks)
Answer
T= 8V½ 4
log 2 V
log 2 T − =3 B1
log 2 4
T
log 2 V 1
= 23
log 2 T − =3 V 2
2
1
log 2 T − log 2 V 2
=3 B2 1
T = 8V 2
T
log 2 1
= 3 B3
V 2
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 6

## Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 7x (4 marks)

Answer
x = 1.677 4
(2x – 1) log 4 = x log 7 B1
2x log 4 – log 4 = x log 7
2x log 4 – x log 7 = log 4 B2
x (2 log 4 – log 7 ) = log 4

log 4 0.6021
x  or B3
2 log 4  log 7 0.3591
SPM 2007 (???)
Solve the equation 42x – 1 = 8x (3 marks)
Answer
22(2x – 1) = 23x
2(2x – 1) = 3x

4x – 1 = 3x
x = 1
4x – 2 = 3x No !!!
x = 2
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 7
The first three terms of an A.P. are k-3, k+3, 2k+2.
Find (a) the value of k,
(b) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression.

(3 marks)
Answer
(a) 7 2

(k + 3) – (k – 3) = (2k + 2) – (k + 3) B1
6 = k–1

(b) 252 1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 1
Solve the simultaneous equation 4x + y = - 8
and x2 + x – y = 2 (5 marks)
Answer
Make x or y the subject P1
8  y
x or y   8  4x
4
Eliminating x or y
2 K1
 8  y   8  y 
 
    y  2 or x 2  x  (8  4 x)  2
 4   4 

## Solving the quadratic equation : K1

x = -2, -3 or y = 0 , 4 N1

y = 0 , 4 or x = -2, -3 N1
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2

## The function f(x) = x2 - 4kx + 5k2 + 1 has a minimum

value of r2 + 2k , with r and k as constants.

r=k–1 (4 marks)

## • Hence, or otherwise, find the value of k and the

value of r if the graph of the function is symmetrical
about the line x = r2 -1. (4 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2 ***
Answer
2(a) Writing f(x) in the form (x – p)2 + q
K1
(x – 2k)2 – 4k2 + 5k2 + 1

Equating q ( q* = r2 + 2k) K1
(k – 1)2 = r2 N1
r= k–1 N1
(b) Equating (his) - (x – p) = 0 K1
Eliminating r or k by
K1
2
 − 8 − y   dy b 
  + = 0 atau x = − 
 4   dx 2a  any valid method

k=0,4 N1
r = -1, 3 N1
F4

1. Functions

itself.
f (x) = x
x2 - 2 = x
x2 – x – 2 = 0
(x+1)(x-2) = 0
x = -1 , x = 2

## 2. Given f : x x - 3 , g:x 3x , find gf (1 ) .

f(x) = x – 3, g(x) = 3x
gf (1) = g [ f(1) ]
= g [-2]
= -6
T4
F4BAB 1

## 4. Given f (x) = 3 – 2x, find f -1.

Method 1 Method 2

Let f (x) = y
Let f (x) = y
-1

Then 3 – 2x = y
Then x = f (y)
3 – y = 2x
x = 3 – 2y 3− y
x=
3− x 2
3− y
y= f ( y) =
−1

2 2
3− x 3− x
f ( x) =
−1
f −1 ( x ) =
2 2
T4
F4BAB 1

## Functions : Applying the Idea of Inverse functions

3 x −1
5. Given f :x→
4 , find the value of a if f -1(a) = 11

## Method 1 (Find f-1 )

Method 2 ( No need f-1 )
Let f -1(x) = y
Then x = f(y) Let f -1(a) = 11
3y − 1
x=
4 Then a = f (11)
4x + 1
y=
3 = 8
4a + 1
f-1(a) = = 11
3

a= 8
T4
F4BAB 1

## Functions : Given composite function and one function,

find the other function.

## f(x ) =2 - x , gf (x) = 2x- 2

Let f(x) = u

Then u = 2 – x or x = 2 - u
g(u ) = 2( 2-u ) – 2
= 2-2u
g(x ) = 2-2x
fg(x ) = f(2 -2x)
= 2 - (2 -2x)

= 2x
T4
F4BAB 1

## 7. Skecth the graph of y = |3-2x|+1 for domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 4

and state the corresponding range.

## Tips : Sk etch y = |3-2x| first !!!

3
Range : 1≤ y ≤6
2

3 x
0 4
2
F4

2. Quadratic equations:
SP M 20 04, K 1, Q 4
Form t he q ua dr ati c equa ti on wh ich has
th e roots – 3 a nd ½ .

x = – 3 , x = ½
(x+3) (2x – 1) = 0
2x2 + 5x – 3 = 0
F4

2. Quadratic Equations

ax2 + bx + c = 0
 b c
x −  − x + = 0
2

 a a

x 2 – ( S.O .R ) x + ( P.O.R. ) = 0
b c
S.O.R − P.O.R.
a a
= =
F4

## **The straight line y = mx -1 is a tangent to the curve

y = x2 + 2 ……. ???
F4

## 3 Quadratic Functions : Quadratic Inequalities

SPM 20 04, K1 , S5

## Fin d the ra nge of v al ues of x f or whi ch

x(x – 4) ≤ 1 2

x (x – 4) ≤ 12
x 2 – 4x – 12 ≤ 0
(x + 2)( x – 6) ≤ 0

x
-2 6

– 2 ≤ x ≤ 6
F4
Back to
Sol ve BASIC

x2 > 4 x> ±2
x2 – 4 > 0 ???
(x + 2)(x – 2) > 0 R.H.S
must be O !
–2 2

x < -2 or x > 2
F4

4. Simultaneous Equations

x + y =1
x2 + 3y2 = 7
Fa ctorisat ion

## • Solve the simultaneous equations, give your answer

correct to three decimal places.
x +y=1
x2 +3y2 = 8 − b ± b − 4ac
2

2a
*** P = Q = R
F4
5. IND ICES
Back to basic… …
Solve .. x −1 1
9 . x
= 1
27
32(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x) = 1
2x – 2 – 3x = 1
– x = 3
x= –3 Betul
ke ???
F4
5. I NDIC ES

Solve x −1 1
9 . x
= 1
27
32(x – 1) . 3 (– 3x) = 1
32x – 2 +(– 3x) = 30
–x–2 =0
x = –2
F4
5. IN DIC ES

Solve x −1 1
9 . x
= 1
27

or… 9x-1
= 27 x

32(x – 1) = 3 3x
32x – 2 = 33x
2x – 2 = 3x
x = –2
F4
5. IND ICES
Sol ve
2x + 3 = 2 x+2
Can U take
2x + 3 = 2x . 22 log on both
2x + 3 = 4 (2x ) sides ???
WHY?
3 = 3(2 ) x

## 1 = (2x ) In the form

x = 0 u + 3 = 4u
F4
5. IND ICES
x2
Solve the equation 3  32  3 x
,
give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
[ 4 marks]

9 (3x) = 32 + (3x)
8 (3x) = 32
3x = 4
lg 4
x 
lg 3
x = 1.26 (Mid-Yr 07)
F4
5. INDICES
Sol ve
2 2x
.5 x
= 0 .05 ambm = (ab)m

1
4 .5x x
=
2 0 You can
also take
20 x
=
1
log on both
2 0
sides.

x = –1
F4 5. INDICE S & LOG ARITHM S

(Mi d-Yr 0 7)
Solv e th e equa ti on lo g 2 ( x  2 )  2  2 lo g 4 ( 4  x )

[ 4 mark s ]
log 2 (4  x)
log 2 ( x  2)  2  2 .
log 2 4
log 2 ( x  2)  2  log 2 (4  x)
lo g 2 ( x  2 )  lo g 2 4 ( 4  x )
x–2 = 4 (4 – x)
x = 3.6
F4 5. INDICE S & LOG ARITHM S

Back to basic… …
Solve the the equation
log3 (x – 4) + log3 (x + 4) = 2

log3(x-4)(x+4) = 2
x2 – 16 = 9
x = 5
F4

## Solve the equation

log3 4x – log3 (2x – 1) = 1
 4x 
log 3    1
 2 x  1
4x
 3
2x 1
4x = 3(2x – 1)
= 6x – 3
2x = 3
3
x =
2
F4

## Given that log3 p = m and log4 p = n. Find logp 36 in

terms of m and n.

## logp 36 = logp 9 + logp 4 K1

= 2log p 3 + logp 4 K1

log 3 3 1
= 2( )+ K1
log 3 p log 4 p
2 1
= + N1
log a a = 1 m n
Coordinate Geometry

## Some extra vitamins 4u …

Coordinate Geometry
 Distance between two points
 Division of line segments : midpoints
+ the ratio theorem
 Areas of polygons
 Equation of straight lines
 Parallel and perpendicular lines
 Loci (involving distance between two
points)
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

Solutions to this
question by scale
drawing will not be
accepted.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

## A diagram is usually given

(starting from SPM 2004).
You SHOULD make full use
of the given diagram while
answering the question.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

##  Sketch a simple diagram

to help you using the
required formula
correctly.
6. Coordinate Geometry
6.2.2 Division of a Line Segment
Q divides the line segment PR in the ratio PQ : QR = m : n

R(x2, y2)
n
m n ●
P(x1, y1) Q(x, y) R(x2, y2) m Q(x, y)

P(x1, y1)

 nx1 + m x2 ny1 + m y 2 
Q(x, y) =  , 
 m + n m + n 
6. Coordinate Geometry (Ratio Theorem)
The point P divides the line segment joining the point M(3,7) and
N(6,2) in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the coordinates of point P.

1 N(6, 2)
●  1(3) + 2(6) 1(7) + 2(2) 
P(x, y) P(x, y) =  , 
2
 2 +1 2 +1 

M(3, 7)
 15 11 
=  , 
3 3
 11 
=  5, 
nx1 + m x ny + m y   3 
P(x, y) = 
 m + n
2
, 1

m + n
2

6. Coordinate Geometry

Perpendicular lines :
R

m1.m2 = –1 P

Q
S
6. Coordinate Geometry
(SPM 2006, P1, Q12)
Diagram 5 shows the straight line AB which is perpendicular to the straight
line CB at the point B.
The equation of CB is y = 2x – 1 .
Find the coordinates of B. [3 marks]

y mCB = 2

y = 2x – 1 mAB = – ½
A(0, 4)

Equation of AB is y= –½x+4
●B Diagram 5
At B, 2x – 1 = – ½ x + 4
O x x = 2, y = 3
●C
So, B is the point (2, 3).
6. Coordinate Geometry
Given points P(8,0) and Q(0,-6). Find the equation of the
perpendicular bisector of PQ.
y

mPQ= 3
4
4 K1
mAB= − O P x
3
Midpoint of PQ = (4, -3)
4 Q
( y + 3) = − ( x − 4 )
3 K1
The equation : 4x + 3y -7 = 0
or 4 7 N1
y =− x +
3 3
6 Coordinate Geometry

## TASK : To find the equation of the locus of the moving

point P such that its distances from the points A and B
are in the ratio m : n

## (Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the

distance formula correctly)
6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distances from the points A(-2,3) and B(4, 8) are in the ratio 1 : 2.
(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the distance formula
correctly)
A(-2,3), B(4,8) and m:n=1:2
Let P = (x, y)
B(4, 8)
PA 1

PB 2 A(-2, 3) 2

2PA  PB 1

P(x, y)
4PA 2
 PB 2

4  ( x  2 ) 2  ( y  3 ) 2   ( x  4 ) 2  ( y  8 ) 2

## 3x2 + 3y2 + 24x – 8y – 28 = 0

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distance from the point A(-2,3) is always 5 units. (≈ SPM 2005)

A(-2,3)
Let P = (x, y) A(-2, 3)

5
( x  2) 2  ( y  3) 2  52

P(x, y)

## x 2  y 2  4 x  6 y  12  0 is the equation of locus of P.

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of point P which moves such that
it is always equidistant from points A(-2, 3) and B(4, 9).

PA = PB
A(-2, 3)
PA 2
= PB 2 ●

## (x+2)2 + (y – 3)2 = (x – 4)2 + (y – 9)2 ● P(x, y)

Locus of P
x + y – 7 = 0 is the equation of
locus of P.

## Note : This locus is actually the perpendicular bisector of AB

Solutions to this question by scale drawing will not be accepted.
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9)
Diagram 3 shows the triangle AOB where O is the origin.
Point C lies on the straight line AB.
A(-3, 4) y

Diagram 3
C

x
O

B(6, -2)

## (a) Calculate the area, in units2, of triangle AOB. [2 marks]

(b) Given that AC : CB = 3 : 2, find the coordinates of C. [2 marks]
• A point P moves such that its distance from point A is always twice its
distance from point B.
(i) Find the equation of locus of P,
(ii) Hence, determine whether or not this locus intercepts the y-axis.
[6 marks]
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS y
A(-3, 4)

3
Diagram 3
C
● 2
x
1 0 6 3 0 1 O
9(a)  0  24  0  0  6  0 K1 ●
2 0 2 4 0 2 B(6, -2)
N1 Use formula
= 9
To find area

## 9(b)  2(3)  3(6) 2(4)  3( 2) 

 ,  K1
 3 2 3 2  Use formula correctly
 nx1 + m x2 ny1 + m y 2 
 12 2   , 
  ,  N1  m + n m + n 
 5 5
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS

A(-3, 4) y
● 2
● P(x, y)
9(c) (i) C
● 1
x
O
AP = [ x  (3 )]2  ( y  4 )2 ●
B(6, -2)
K1 Use distance
formula
AP = 2PB
K1
AP2 = 4 PB2
Use AP = 2PB
(x+3) + (y – 4 )
2 2
= 4 [(x – 6) + (y + 2)
2 2

x2 + y2 – 18x + 8y + 45 = 0 N1

(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS

Use b2 – 4ac = 0
or AOM

√ (his locus
& b2 – 4ac)
F4

## 6. Coordinate Geometry : the equation of locus

Given that A(-1,-2) and B(2,1) are fixed points . Point P moves such that the
ratio of AP to PB is 1 : 2. Find the equation of locus for P.

2 AP = PB

2 ( x +1) 2 + ( y + 2) 2 = ( x − 2) 2 + ( y −1) 2 K1

## 3x2 + 3y2 + 12x + 18y + 15 = 0 N1

x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 5 = 0
F4

Statistics
Fr om a gi ve n s et of dat a,
Marks (e.g . The frequ ency distri buti on of
f marks o f a grou p of stu dents )
6-10 12
11-15 20 Stud ents shou ld be ab le to f in d ….

## 16-20 27 • the m ean , mo de & med ian

21-25 16 • Q1, Q3 an d IQR
• the v ari ance & S.D eviati ons
26-30 13
• Con stru ct a CFT and draw an
31-35 10 og ive
36-40 2 • Use the ogi ve to sol ve relate d
pr oblems
Total 100
F5 To estimate median from Graph For Question 6(b)

Histogram
Number of people

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
33.5

## 0.5 20.5 40.5 60.5 80.5 100.5 Age

Modal age = 33.5
F4 CHAPTER 8

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

 ‘Radian’  ‘Degrees’
 S = rθ (θ must be in
θ RADIANS)
 A = ½ r2 θ

## Always refer to diagram when answering this question.

F4

8. CIRCULAR MEASURE
Diagram shows a sector of a circle OABC A
with centre O and radius 4 cm. Given
B
that ∠AOC = 0.8 radians, find the area 0.8c O

## of the shaded region.

C

K1
Area of sector OABC = ½ x 42 x 0.8
= 6.4 cm 2
K1
Area of triangle OAC = ½ x 42 x sin 0. 8
In radians !!!!
= 5.7388 cm 2

K1
Area of shaded region = 6.4 – 5.7388
N1
= 0.661 2 cm2
F4

DIFFERENTIATION :
d  u 
 
3x + 1 dy dx  v 
Given that y= , find
4x + 5 dx

dy (4 x  5)(3)  (3 x  1)(4)

dx (4 x  5) 2

11
=
(4 x + 5) 2
F4

## Giv en that f(x) = x 3 + x 2 – 4x + 5

, fi nd th e va lue of f ” ( 1)

f’ (x ) = 3 x2 + 2 x –
4
f” (x ) = 6x +
2
f” ( 1 ) = 8
F4

## 9 Differentiation : The second derivative

 
5
Given that g (x)  x  1
2
, find the value of g ” (1) .

g’ (x) = 10x (x 2 + 1) 4

g’ ’ (x) = 40x (x 2 + 1) 3
. 2x

Ya ke
??
F4- 9

 
5
Given that
.
g (x)  x  1
2
, find the value of g ” (-1)

d
g’ (x) = 10x (x +
2
 uv 
1) 4 dx
g’’ (x) = 10 x . 4(x 2 + 1) 3 .2x +( x 2 +1) 4 .
10
g’ ’ (-1 ) = 10( -1 ) . 4[ (-1 ) 2 + 1] 3
+[(-1 ) 2 +1 ) 4 . 10

F4

## Differentiation : Small increments

dy
Given that y = 2x3 – x2 + 4, find the value of dx at the
point (2, 16). Hence, find the small incr emen t in x
which causes y to increase from 16 to 16.05.

dy
= 6x 2 – 2x
dx
= 20 , x = K1

δy 2 d y

δx dx
0 .0 5 K1
≈ 20
δx
δx = 0 .0 0 2 5 N1
F5

## Progr essi on s : A.P & G. P

A. P. : a, a+ d, a+2d, a +3d , …
…..
Mos t im por tant is “d”

## G.P. : a, ar, ar 2 , ar 3 , ……..

Mo st im por tant is “ r
” !!
F5

## Progressions : G.P - Recurring Decimals

SP M 20 04, P 1, Q 12
Ex press t he recurr ing d eci ma l 0.9 6969 6 …
as a f ra ction i n the si mpl est for m.

x = 0. 96 96 96 …
(1)
10 0x = 96. 9 6 96 …. . (2 )
(2) – (1) 99x = 96
96 32
x99
= 33 =
F5 Back to basic… …

Progressions
Given that Sn = 5n – n2 , find the sum from
the 5th to the 10th terms of the progression.

Usual Answer :
S10 – S5 = ……. ???
Correct Answer :
S10 – S4
Ans :-54
F5

Linear Law

1-2

## 4. Line of best fit 1

5. Use of Y-intercept to determine value
X of constant
2-4
6. Use of gradient to determine
another constant
F5

Linear Law
Bear in mi nd t ha t … ......
1. Sc ale mu st be un iform
Y 2. Scale of both a xes may d efer :
FO LLOW giv en in st ructi ons !

## 3. Ho rizo ntal ax is sho uld s tar t f ro m 0

!
4. P lot ……… a gai nst ……….
X

Axis
Linear law
F5
Y
4.5
x

3.5

x
3.0

x
2.5

2.5 x

1.5
x

1.0
x

0.5

## Read this value !!!!!

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x
F5

INTEGRATION

(3x + 1) 5
+c
∫ ( 3x +1)
4
1. dx =
15

(2 − 3x)5
∫ ( 2 − 3x )
4 =
2. dx +c
−15
1 1
3. ∫ dx = +c
( 3x + 1) 4
− 9(3 x +1) 3

−2 2
4. ∫ dx = +c
( 3x + 1) 4
9 ( 3x + 1) 3
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2003, P2, Q3(a) 3 marks
dy
Given that dx = 2x + 2 and y = 6 when x = – 1,
find y in terms of x.

dy
Answer: = 2x + 2
dx
y =  (2 x  2)dx
= x2 + 2x + c

x = -1, y = 6: 6 = 1 +2 + c
c = 3

Hence y = x2 + 2x + 3
F5
INTEGRATION
SPM 2004, K2, S3(a) 3 marks
The gradient function of a curve which passes through
A(1, -12) is 3x2 – 6 . Find the equation of the curve.

dy
Answer: = 3x2 – 6
dx
Gradient
y =   6)dx
2
(3 x
Function
= x3 – 6x + c
x = 1, y = – 12 : – 12 = 1 – 6 + c
c = –7
Hence y = x3 – 6 x – 7
F5

## Given that OA = 2i + j and OB = 6i + 4j, find

B the unit vector in the direction of AB

AB = OB - OA
= ( 6i + 4j ) – ( 2i + j )
A = 4i + 3j K1

l AB l = 4 2 + 32
= 5
1
Unit vector in the direction of AB = (4i + 3 j ) K1 N1
5
F5

Parallel vectors
Given that a and b are parallel vectors, with
a = (m-4)i +2 j and b= -2i + mj. Find the the value of
m.
a =kb

a = b
(m-4) i + 2 j = k (-2i + mj) K1

m- 4 = -2k 1

mk = 2 2 K1

m=2 N1
F5
5 TRIG ONOMET RIC FU NCT ION S

## Prove that tan2 x – sin2 x = tan2 x sin2 x

sin 2 x
tan2 x – sin2 x = 2
− sin 2x K1
kos x
sin 2 x − kos 2 x sin 2 x
=
kos 2 x

sin 2 x( 1 − kos 2 x ) K1
=
kos 2 x

= tan 2 x sin 2 x N1
F5
5 TRI GONOMET RIC FUN CT IO NS

## Solve the equation 2 cos 2x + 3 sin x - 2 = 0

2( 1 - 2sin2 x) + 3 sin x - 2 = 0 K1

-4 sin2 x + 3 sin x = 0

sin x ( -4 sin x + 3 ) = 0 K1

3
sin x = 0 , sin x =
4

F5

## (Us uall y Pap er 2, Que st ion 4 or 5) - WAJIB

!
1. Sketch given graph : (4 marks)
3
(2003) y = 2 cos 2
x , 0  x  2

## (2004) y = cos 2x for 00  x  1800

(2005) y = cos 2x , 0  x  2
(2006) y = – 2 cos x , 0  x  2
F5 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

## Find the number of four digit numbers exceeding

3000 which can be formed from the numbers 2,
3, 6 , 8, 9 if each number is allowed to be used
once only.

No. of ways = 4 . 4.
3. 2 = 96
3, 6, 8,
9
F5

## Find the number of ways the word BES TARI can be

arranged so that the vowels and consonants alternate
with each other [ 3 marks ]

Vowels : E, A, I
Consonants : B, S, T, R
Arrangements : C V C V C V C

No. of ways = 4! 3 !
= 144
F5
Two unb iase d dice ar e toss ed .
Fi nd the pro ba bi li ty that the su m of the tw o
numb ers obt ai ned is mo re than 4.
Dice B, y
n(S) = 6 x 6 = 36
6 X X X X X X Constraint : x + y > 4
5 X X X X X X
Draw the line x + y = 4
4 X X X X X X

3 X X X X X X We need : x + y > 4
2 X X X X X X
6
P( x + y > 4) = 1 –
36
1 X X X X X X
5
Dice A, x =
1 2 3 4 5 6 6
F5

## The Binomial Distribution

P ( X =r ) = nC r ( p ) r ( q ) n −r

r = 0, 1, 2, 3, …..n p+q=1

## n = Total number of trials

r = No. of ‘successes’
p = Probability of ‘success’
q = probability of ‘failure’ Mean = np
Variance = npq
F5

## The NORMAL Distribution

Candidates must be able to … f(z)
 determine the Z-score
x
Z =

z
00 0.5
use the SNDT to find the values
(probabilities)
T5

## f(z) f(z) f(z)

= 1 – –

z z z
-1.5 0 1 0 1 0 1.5
F4

Index Numbers

H1
• Index Number = I= × 100
H0

• Composite Index =
_
I=
∑ wI
∑w
• Problems of index numbers involving
two or more basic years.
Solution of Triangles
• The Sine Rule
• The Cosine Rule
• Area of Triangles
• Problems in 3-Dimensions.
• Ambiguity cases (More than ONE
answer)
Motion in a Straight Line

 Initial
displacement, velocity, acceleration...
 Particle returns to starting point O...
 Particle has maximum / minimum velocity..
 Particle achieves maximum displacement...
 Particle returns to O / changes direction...
 Particle moves with constant velocity...
Motion in a Straight Line

##  Question involving motion of TWO particles.

... When both of them collide / meet ???
… how do we khow both particles are of the same
direction at time t ???
 The distance travelled in the nth second.
 The range of time at which the particle returns ….
 The range of time when the particle moves with
negative displacement
 Speed which is increasing
 Negative velocity
 Deceleration / retardation
Linear Programming
To answer this question, CANDIDATES must be able to
.....
 form inequalities from given mathematical
information

##  draw the related straight lines using

suitable scales on both axes

the inequalities

##  solve maximising or minimising problems

from the objective function (minimum cost,
maximum profit ....)
Linear Programming
Maklumat Ketaksamaan
1. x is at least 10 x ≥ 10
2. x is not more than 80 x ≤ 80
3. x is not more than y x ≤ y
4. The value of y is at least twice the value of x y ≥ 2x
5. The maximum value of x is 100 x ≤ 100
6. The minimum value of y is 35 y ≥ 35
7. The maximum value of x+ 2y is 60 x + 2y ≤ 60
8. The minimum value of 3x – 2y is 18 3x - 2y ≥ 18
9. The sum of x and y is not less than 50 x + y ≥ 50
10. The sum of x and y must exceed 40 x + y > 40
11. x must exceed y by at least 10 x ≥ y + 10
12. The ratio of the quantity of Q (y) to the quantity of P (x) y ≤ 2x
should not exceed 2 : 1
13. The number of units of model B (y) exceeds twice the y - 2x >10
number of units of model A (x) by 10 or more.
Selamat maju jaya !