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ME 3504 : Week 1

1
Dynamic Systems - Vibrations
ME 3504
Michael Roan
mroan@vt.edu
ME 3504 : Week 1
2
Course Policy: ME 3504
•Grades will be based on a numerical average
calculated with the following weightings:
•Two in-class tests = 50%
•Final Examination = 25%
•Weekly homework and in-class quizzes = 25%

•Tests will be given on the dates indicated. Makeup
tests will not be given except in special cases. If you
have to miss a test you should contact me before the
test date.

•Homework will be due as indicated. Students will be
allowed to drop one homework grade.
ME 3504 : Week 1
3
Course Policy: ME 3504
• Late Homework Policy:
Homeworks are due in-class on dates indicated
in this syllabus. Late homeworks are subject
to:
20% deduction <=24 Hours Late
40% reduction >24 and <=48 hours Late
No credit given >48 Hours Late

• Text: Engineering Vibration, 2nd Edition, D. J.
Inman, Prentice Hall, 2001

• Computer Code: You will be required to use the
Student Edition of MATLAB to solve Homework
Problems.
ME 3504 : Week 1
4
Marking Dispute Policy
The Insurance File
1. On a cover page that includes your name and
the date, briefly describe the injustice or complaint.
2. Also on the cover page, state the exact number
of points that you feel that should be added back to
your score.
3. Resubmit the entire original work. Since I will
keep this please make a photocopy for your
records and for later studying.
ME 3504 : Week 1
5
Help sessions rather than
office hours
Office hours are by appointment.
E-Mail is the best way to have questions
answered. Don’t wait till the last minute!
Students turning up at my door unannounced
will not be helped.
ME 3504 : Week 1
6
Course Notes
•Course notes will be provided on the
Blackboard System
•You must print out the notes beforehand
and bring them to class
•The notes are incomplete and will only
include partially drawn figures and equations
which must be completed during class. This
assures both your attendance and attention
during class.
ME 3504 : Week 1
7
Course Notes: My Version
Differential equations
) (t f kx x b x M = + +
  
Laplace transform
| | ) ( ) ( s F s X k bs Ms
2
= + +
Transfer function
k bs Ms
1
s F
s X
s G
2
+ +
= =
) (
) (
) (
M
b
k
x
f(t)
Input force
Output
displacement
v(t)
t
ME 3504 : Week 1
8
Course Notes: Your Version
Differential equations
Laplace transform
Transfer function
) (t f kx x b x M = + +
  
M
b
k
x
f(t)
Input force
Output
displacement
v(t)
t
You fill in here
ME 3504 : Week 1
9
Why do things vibrate?
Consider a ball bouncing off of a wall
v

is +ive
t
1

v = 0
t
2
t
3

High Kinetic energy
Low potential energy
High Kinetic energy
Low potential energy
Low Kinetic energy
High potential energy
v

is -ive
ME 3504 : Week 1
10
Position, Velocity and
Acceleration
ME 3504 : Week 1
11
Bouncing between two walls
v

is +ive
t
1

v = 0
t
2

High KE
Low PE
v

is -ive
t
3

High KE
Low PE
v

is +ive
t
5

High KE
Low PE
v = 0
t
2

Low KE
High PE
Low KE
High PE
ME 3504 : Week 1
12
Velocity over cycle
t
v
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
t
2

ME 3504 : Week 1
13
Stiffness and mass
Vibration is cause by the interaction of two different forces
one related to position (stiffness) and one related to
acceleration (mass).
m
k
x
Displacement
Mass Spring
Stiffness (k)
Mass (m)
) (t kx F
k
÷ =
) ( ) ( t x m t ma F
m
 
= =
Proportional to displacement
Proportional to acceleration
ME 3504 : Week 1
14
Equation of Motion
For this simple mass-spring system the two forces must
be equal i.e. F
M
=F
k
.
M
k
x
Displacement
Mass Spring
0 = +
÷ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
t kx t x m
t kx t x m
 
 
or

This is a 2nd order differential
equation and all phenomena
that have differential equations
of this type for will exhibit
oscillatory behavior.
ME 3504 : Week 1
15
Examples of Single-Degree-of-
Freedom Systems
m
u
l=length
Pendulum
0 = + ) ( ) ( t
l
g
t u u
 
Gravity g
Shaft and Disk
u
0 = + ) ( ) ( t k t J u u
 
Torsional
Stiffness
k
Moment
of inertia
J
ME 3504 : Week 1
16
Solution to 2nd order DEs
) | e + = t A t x
n
sin( ) (
Lets assume a solution:
Differentiating twice gives:
) ( sin( ) (
cos( ) (
t x t A t x
t A t x
n n n
n n
2 2
e | e e
| e e
- )
)
= + ÷ =
+ =
 

Substituting back into the equations of motion gives:
m
k
k m
t kA t A m
n n
n n n
= = + ÷
= + + + ÷
e e
| e | e e
or
) )
0
0
2
2
sin( sin(
Natural
frequency
t
x(t)
ME 3504 : Week 1
17
Summary of simple harmonic
motion
t
x(t)
0
x
Slope
here is v
0

n
e
|
Period
n
T
e
t 2
=
Amplitude
A
Maximum
Velocity
A
n
e
Hz
s
cycles
rad/cycle
rad/s
t
e
t
e
t
e
2 2 2
n n n
n
f = = =
ME 3504 : Week 1
18
Initial Conditions
If a system is vibrating then we must assume that something
must have (in the past) transferred energy into to the system
and caused it to move. For example the mass could have
been:
•moved a distance x
0
and then released at t=0 (i.e. given
Potential energy) or
•given an initial velocity v
0
(i.e. given Kinetic energy) or
•Some combination of the two above cases
From our earlier solution we know that:
) )
) )
| e | e e
| | e
cos( cos( ) (
sin( sin( ) (
A A x v
A A x x
n n n
n
= + = =
= + = =
0 0
0 0
0
0

ME 3504 : Week 1
19
Initial Conditions
Solving these equation gives:
        
        
Phase
Amplitude
,
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
÷
0
0
1 2
0
2
0
2
1
v
x
v x A
n
n
n
e
| e
e
tan
|
n
v
e
0
0
x
2
0
2
0
2
1
v x
n
n
+ e
e
t
x(t)
0
x
Slope
here is v
0

n
e
|
ME 3504 : Week 1
20
A note on arctangents
• Note that calculating arctangent from a calculator requires
some attention
• The argument atan(-/+) is in a different quadrant then
atan(+/-), and usual machine calculations will return an
arctangent in between -p/2 and +p/2 reading only the atan(-)
for both of the above two cases.
|
|
ME 3504 : Week 1
21
Example 1.2.1Hardware store spring, bolt: m= 49.2x10^-
3 kg,k=857.8 N/m and x
0
=10 mm. Compute e
n
and max amplitude of
vibration.
mm
s
Hz
rad/s
kg 10 49.2
N/m
3 -
10
1
0476 0
21
1 1 2
21
2
132
8 857
0
2
0
2
0
2
= = + = =
= = =
= =
=
×
= =
x v x A t x
cyles
f
T
f
m
k
n
n
n n
n
n
n
e
e
e
t
t
e
e
max
) (
.
sec
.
0
ME 3504 : Week 1
22
Compute the solution and max velocity and
acceleration
v(t)
max
= e
n
A = 1320 mm/s= 1. 32 m/s
a(t)
max
= e
n
2
A = 174.24 × 10
3
mm/s
2
=174.24 m/s
2
~17.8g!
| = tan
÷1
e
n
x
0
0
|
\
|
.
=
t
2
rad
x(t) =10sin(132t + t / 2) =10 cos(132t) mm
ME 3504 : Week 1
23
Relationship between Displacement,
Velocity and Acceleration
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-1
0
1
x

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-20
0
20
v

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-200
0
200
Time (sec)
a

A=1, e
n
=12
) | e + = t A t x
n
sin( ) (
) | e e + = t A t x
n n
cos( ) (

) | e e + ÷ = t A t x
n n
sin( ) (
2
 
ME 3504 : Week 1
24
Complex numbers and complex
exponential
9
·
b
a
A
u j
Ae jb a c = + =
A complex number can be written with a real and imaginary
part or as a complex exponential
Where
u u sin , cos A b A a = =
Multiplying two complex numbers:
) (
2 1
2 1 2 1
u u +
=
j
e A A c c
Dividing two complex numbers:
) (
2 1
2
1
2
1
u u ÷
=
j
e
A
A
c
c
ME 3504 : Week 1
25
Equivalent solutions to 2nd order
DEs
t j t j
n n
n
n n
e a e a t x
t A t A t x
t A t x
e e
e e
| e
÷
+ =
+ =
+ =
2 1
2 1
) (
cos sin ) (
) sin( ) (
All of the following solutions are equivalent:
The relationships between A and |, A
1
and A
2
, and
a
1
and a
2
can be found in Window 1.4 of the
course text.
ME 3504 : Week 1
26
Derivation of the solution
jt jt
jt jt
n
t t
t
n n
n n
e a e a t x
e a t x e a t x
j j
m
k
m
k
k m
kae ae m
kx x m ae t x
e e
e e
ì ì
ì
e ì
ì
ì
÷
÷
+ =
¬ = =
¬ ± = ± = ÷ ± =
¬ = +
¬ = +
¬ = + =
2 1
2 1
2
2
0
0
0
) (
) ( ) (
) (
and
into Substitute
 
ME 3504 : Week 1
27
Calculating RMS
value square mean root =
value square - mean =
value average =
value peak
2
0
2 2
0
1
1
x x
dt t x
T
x
dt t x
T
x
A
rms
T
T
T
T
=
=
=
=
}
}
· ÷
· ÷
) ( lim
) ( lim
Proportional
to energy
Not very useful since for
a sine function the
average value is zero
May need to be limited due
to physical constraints
ME 3504 : Week 1
28
The decibel or dB scale
It is often useful to use a logarithmic scale to plot vibration
levels (or noise levels). One such scale is called the decibel or
dB scale. The dB scale is always relative to some reference
value x
0
. It is define as:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
10
2
0
10
20 10
x
x
x
x
dB log log
For example: if an acceleration value was 19.6ms
-2
then relative
to 1g (or 9.8ms
-2
) the level would be 6dB,

( ) dB 6 2 20
8 9
6 19
10
10
2
10
= =
|
.
|

\
|
log
.
.
log
ME 3504 : Week 1
29
Viscous Damping
All real systems dissipate energy when they vibrate. To
account for this we must consider damping. The most simple
form of damping (from a mathematical point of view) is called
viscous damping. A viscous damper (or dashpot) produced a
force that is proportional to velocity.
Damper (c)
) ( ) ( t x c t cv F
c

÷ = ÷ =
x
F
c

ME 3504 : Week 1
30
Differential equation including
damping
M
k
x
Displacement
c
For this damped single degree of freedom system the force acting
on the mass is due to the spring and the dashpot i.e. F
M
=F
k
+F
c
.
0 = + +
÷ ÷ =
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t kx t x c t x m
t x c t kx t x m
  
  
or

To solve this for of the equation it is necessary to assume a
solution of the form.
λt
ae x(t) =
ME 3504 : Week 1
31
Solution to DE with damping
included (dates to 1743 by Euler)
ae λ (t) x
λae (t) x
λt
λt
2
=
=
 

The velocity and acceleration can then be calculated as:
If this is substituted into the equation of motion we get:
k) cλ (mλ ae
λt
0
2
= + +
Divide equation by m, substitute for natural frequency and
assume a non-trivial solution
) ω
m

(λ ae
n
λt
0 0
2 2
= + + ¬ =
ME 3504 : Week 1
32
Solution to DE with damping
included
km
c
ζ=
2
For convenience we will define a term known as the damping
ratio as:
The equation of motion then becomes:
) ω λ ζω (λ
n n
0 2
2 2
= + +
Solving for ì then gives,
1
2
2 1
÷ ± ÷ = ζ ω ζω λ
n n ,
Lower Case Greek Zeta
ME 3504 : Week 1
33
Possibility 1. Critically damped
motion
Critical damping occurs when ,=1. The damping coefficient
c in this case is given by
n n n ,
ω ω ω λ ÷ = ÷ ± ÷ = 1 1 1
2
2 1
n cr
m km c c e , 2 2 = = = ¬ 1 =
The solution then takes the form
t t
n n
te a e a t x
e e ÷ ÷
+ =
2 1
) (
Solving for ì then gives,
ME 3504 : Week 1
34
Critically damped motion
a
1
and a
2
can be calculated from initial conditions (t=0),
0 0 2
2 1 0
2 2 1
0 1
2 1
x v a
a a v
e a t a a v
x a
e t a a x
n
n
t
n n
t
n
n
e
e
e e
e
e
+ = ¬
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ =
= ¬
+ =
÷
÷

) (
) (
0 1 2 3 4
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Time (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)

k=225N/m m=100kg and ,=1
x
0
=0.4mm v
0
=1mm/s
x
0
=0.4mm v
0
=0mm/s
x
0
=0.4mm v
0
=-1mm/s
• No oscillation occurs
• Useful in door
mechanisms, analog
gauges
ME 3504 : Week 1
35
Possibility 2: Overdamped motion
An overdamped case occurs when ,>1. Both of the roots of the
equation are real.
) e a e (a e x(t)
ζ ω ζω λ
ζ t ω ζ t ω t ζω
n n ,
n n n
1
2
1
1
2
2 1
2 2
1
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ =
÷ ± ÷ =
a
1
and a
2
can again be calculated
from initial conditions (t=0),
1 2
1
1 2
1
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
1
÷
÷ + +
=
÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷
=
ζ ω
x )ω ζ (ζ v
a
ζ ω
x )ω ζ ζ ( v
a
n
n
n
n
0 1 2 3 4
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Time (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)

k=225N/m m=100kg and , =2
x
0
=0.4mm v
0
=1mm/s
x
0
=0.4mm v
0
=0mm/s
x
0
=0.4mm v
0
=-1mm/s
Slower to respond than
critically damped case
ME 3504 : Week 1
36
Possibility 3: Underdamped motion
An underdamped case occurs when ,<1. The roots of the
equation are complex conjugate pairs.
φ) t (ω Ae
) e a e (a e x(t)
ζ j ω ζω λ
d
t ζω
ζ t jω ζ t jω t ζω
n n ,
n
n n n
+ =
+ =
÷ ± ÷ =
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
sin
2 2
1
2
1
1
2
2 1
1
2
1 ζ ω ω
n d
÷ =
The frequency of oscillation e
d
is called the damped natural
frequency is given by.
ME 3504 : Week 1
37
Underdamped motion
A and |

can be calculated from initial conditions (t=0),
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+ + =
÷
0 0
0
1
2
0
2
0 0
1
x ζω v
ω x
φ
) ω (x ) x ζω (v
ω
A
n
d
d n
d
tan
0 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Time (sec)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

• Gives an oscillating
response with exponential
decay
• Most natural systems vibrate
with and underdamped
response
• See Window 1.5 for details
and other representations
ME 3504 : Week 1
38
Example 1.3.1: consider the spring of 1.2.1, if c = 0.11
kg/s, determine the damping ratio of the spring-bolt system.
m = 49.2 × 10
÷3
kg, k = 857.8 N/m
c
cr
= 2 km = 2 49.2 ×10
÷3
×857.8
= 12.993 kg/s
, =
c
c
cr
=
0.11 kg/s
12. 993 kg/s
= 0.0085 ¬
the motion is underdamped
and the bolt will oscillate
ME 3504 : Week 1
39
Example 1.3.2
The human leg has a measured natural frequency of around 20
Hz when in its rigid (knee locked) position, in the longitudinal
direction (i.e., along the length of the bone) with a damping ratio
of , = 0.224. Calculate the response of the tip if the leg bone to
an initial velocity of v
0
= 0.6 m/s and zero initial displacement
(this would correspond to the vibration induced while landing
on your feet, with your knees locked form a height of 18 mm)
and plot the response. What is the maximum acceleration
experienced by the leg assuming no damping?

ME 3504 : Week 1
40
Solution:
e
n
=
20
1
cyc les
s
2t rad
cyc les
= 125.66 rad/s
e
d
=125.66 1÷ .224 ( )
2
= 122.467 rad/s
A =
0.6 + 0.224
( )
125.66
( )
0
( ) ( )
2
+ 0
( )
122.467
( )
2
122.467
= 0.005 m
| = tan
-1
0 ( ) e
d
( )
v
0
+,e
n
0 ( )
|
\

|
.
|
= 0
¬ x t
( )
= 0.005e
÷28.148t
sin 122.467t
( )
ME 3504 : Week 1
41
Use undamped formula to get max acceleration:
( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2
0
0 0
2
0
2
0
m/s 396 . 75 m/s 66 . 125 6 . 0
6 . 0
max
m
6 . 0
m
0 , 6 . 0 , 66 . 125 ,
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ÷ =
= =
= = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
n
n n
n n
n
n
A x
v
A
x v
v
x A
e
e e
e e
e
e
 
maximum acceleration =
75.396 m/s
2
9.81 m/s
2
g = 7.68g' s
ME 3504 : Week 1
42
Plot of the response:
ME 3504 : Week 1
43
Example 1.3.3 Compute the form of the response of an
underdamped system using the Cartesian form of the solution given in
Window 1.5.
1 2
0
0 1 2 2 0
1 2
1 2
sin( ) sin sin cos cos
( ) sin( ) ( sin cos )
(0) ( sin(0) cos(0))
( sin cos )
( cos sin
n n
n
n
t t
d d d
t
n d d
t
d d d
x y x y x y
x t Ae t e A t A t
x x e A A A x
x e A t A t
e A t A
,e ,e
,e
,e
e | e e
,e e e
e e e
÷ ÷
÷
÷
+ = + ¬
= + = +
= = + ¬ =
= ÷ +
+ ÷
0 1 0 1 0
0 0
1
0 0
0
)
( sin 0 cos 0) ( cos 0 sin 0)

( ) sin cos
n
n d
n
d
t
n
d d
d
t
v A x A x
v x
A
v x
x t e t x t
,e
,e e
,e
e
,e
e e
e
÷
= ÷ + + ÷
+
¬ = ¬
| |
+
= +
|
\ .
ME 3504 : Week 1
44
Comparison of Linear and dB
plots
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
M
a
g
.

(
d
B
)

Case 2
Frequency (Hz)
Control on
Control off
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
M
a
g
.


Case 2
Control on
Control off