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Powerpoint presentation for Heizer and Render's chapter 12 from Operations Management 10th ed.
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Inventory Management

PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer and Render Operations Management, 10e Principles of Operations Management, 8e

PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl

12 - 1

Outline

Global Company Profile: Amazon.com

The Importance of Inventory

Functions of Inventory Types of Inventory

12 - 2

Outline Continued

Managing Inventory

ABC Analysis Record Accuracy Cycle Counting Control of Service Inventories

Inventory Models

Independent vs. Dependent Demand Holding, Ordering, and Setup Costs

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 3

Outline Continued

Inventory Models for Independent Demand

The Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model

Minimizing Costs

Reorder Points

Production Order Quantity Model Quantity Discount Models

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 4

Outline Continued

Probabilistic Models and Safety Stock

Other Probabilistic Models

12 - 5

Learning Objectives

When you complete this chapter you should be able to:

1. Conduct an ABC analysis 2. Explain and use cycle counting

3. Explain and use the EOQ model for independent inventory demand

4. Compute a reorder point and safety stock

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 6

Learning Objectives

When you complete this chapter you should be able to:

5. Apply the production order quantity model 6. Explain and use the quantity discount model

12 - 7

Amazon.com

Amazon.com started as a virtual retailer no inventory, no warehouses, no overhead; just computers taking orders to be filled by others

Growth has forced Amazon.com to become a world leader in warehousing and inventory management

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 8

Amazon.com

1. Each order is assigned by computer to the closest distribution center that has the product(s)

2. A flow meister at each distribution center assigns work crews 3. Lights indicate products that are to be picked and the light is reset 4. Items are placed in crates on a conveyor, bar code scanners scan each item 15 times to virtually eliminate errors

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 9

Amazon.com

5. Crates arrive at central point where items are boxed and labeled with new bar code 6. Gift wrapping is done by hand at 30 packages per hour 7. Completed boxes are packed, taped, weighed and labeled before leaving warehouse in a truck

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 10

Inventory Management

The objective of inventory management is to strike a balance between inventory investment and customer service

12 - 11

Importance of Inventory

One of the most expensive assets of many companies representing as much as 50% of total invested capital Operations managers must balance inventory investment and customer service

12 - 12

Functions of Inventory

1. To decouple or separate various parts of the production process

2. To decouple the firm from fluctuations in demand and provide a stock of goods that will provide a selection for customers

3. To take advantage of quantity discounts 4. To hedge against inflation

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 13

Types of Inventory

Raw material

Purchased but not processed

Work-in-process

Undergone some change but not completed A function of cycle time for a product

Maintenance/repair/operating (MRO)

Necessary to keep machinery and processes productive

Finished goods

Completed product awaiting shipment

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 14

Cycle time 95%

Input Wait for inspection Wait to be moved

5%

Output

Move Wait in queue Setup Run time for operator time time

Figure 12.1

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 15

Managing Inventory

1. How inventory items can be classified

2. How accurate inventory records can be maintained

12 - 16

ABC Analysis

Divides inventory into three classes based on annual dollar volume

Class A - high annual dollar volume Class B - medium annual dollar volume Class C - low annual dollar volume

Used to establish policies that focus on the few critical parts and not the many trivial ones

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 17

ABC Analysis

Item Stock Number #10286 #11526 #12760 #10867 #10500 30%

20%

38.8% 72% 33.2% 11.3% 6.4% 5.4% 23%

Class A A B B B

12 - 18

ABC Analysis

Item Stock Number #12572 #14075 #01036 #01307 #10572 50%

3.7% .5% .4% .2% .1% 100.0% 5%

Class C C C C C

12 - 19

ABC Analysis

Percent of annual dollar usage 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A Items B Items | | | | 10 20 30 40

C Items

| | | | | |

50

60

70

80

90 100

Figure 12.2

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 20

ABC Analysis

Other criteria than annual dollar volume may be used

Anticipated engineering changes

Delivery problems Quality problems High unit cost

12 - 21

ABC Analysis

Policies employed may include

More emphasis on supplier development for A items Tighter physical inventory control for A items

12 - 22

Record Accuracy

Accurate records are a critical ingredient in production and inventory systems Allows organization to focus on what is needed Necessary to make precise decisions about ordering, scheduling, and shipping Incoming and outgoing record keeping must be accurate

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 23

Cycle Counting

Items are counted and records updated on a periodic basis Often used with ABC analysis to determine cycle Has several advantages

1. Eliminates shutdowns and interruptions 2. Eliminates annual inventory adjustment 3. Trained personnel audit inventory accuracy 4. Allows causes of errors to be identified and corrected 5. Maintains accurate inventory records

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 24

5,000 items in inventory, 500 A items, 1,750 B items, 2,750 C items Policy is to count A items every month (20 working days), B items every quarter (60 days), and C items every six months (120 days) Item Class A B C Number of Items Counted per Day 500/20 = 25/day 1,750/60 = 29/day 2,750/120 = 23/day 77/day

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 25

Can be a critical component of profitability Losses may come from shrinkage or pilferage

1. Good personnel selection, training, and discipline

3. Effective control on all goods leaving facility

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 26

Independent demand - the demand for item is independent of the demand for any other item in inventory Dependent demand - the demand for item is dependent upon the demand for some other item in the inventory

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 27

Holding costs - the costs of holding or carrying inventory over time Ordering costs - the costs of placing an order and receiving goods Setup costs - cost to prepare a machine or process for manufacturing an order

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 28

Holding Costs

Category Housing costs (building rent or depreciation, operating costs, taxes, insurance) Material handling costs (equipment lease or depreciation, power, operating cost) Labor cost Investment costs (borrowing costs, taxes, and insurance on inventory) Pilferage, space, and obsolescence Overall carrying cost

Cost (and range) as a Percent of Inventory Value

6% (3 - 10%)

3% (1 - 3.5%)

3% (3 - 5%) 11% (6 - 24%) 3% (2 - 5%) 26%

Table 12.1

12 - 29

Holding Costs

Category Housing costs (building rent or depreciation, operating costs, taxes, insurance) Material handling costs (equipment lease or depreciation, power, operating cost) Labor cost Investment costs (borrowing costs, taxes, and insurance on inventory) Pilferage, space, and obsolescence Overall carrying cost

Cost (and range) as a Percent of Inventory Value

6% (3 - 10%)

3% (1 - 3.5%)

3% (3 - 5%) 11% (6 - 24%) 3% (2 - 5%) 26%

Table 12.1

12 - 30

Need to determine when and how much to order 1. Basic economic order quantity

3. Quantity discount model

12 - 31

Important assumptions

1. Demand is known, constant, and independent

3. Receipt of inventory is instantaneous and complete

5. Only variable costs are setup and holding 6. Stockouts can be completely avoided

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 32

Order quantity = Q (maximum inventory level) Usage rate Average inventory on hand Q 2

Inventory level

Minimum inventory

0 Time

Figure 12.3

12 - 33

Minimizing Costs

Objective is to minimize total costs

Total cost of holding and setup (order) Minimum total cost Annual cost Holding cost

Setup (or order) cost Optimal order quantity (Q*) Order quantity

12 - 34

Table 12.4(c)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Q Q* D S H

= Number of pieces per order = Optimal number of pieces per order (EOQ) = Annual demand in units for the inventory item = Setup or ordering cost for each order = Holding or carrying cost per unit per year Annual setup cost = (Number of orders placed per year) x (Setup or order cost per order) Annual demand Setup or order = Number of units in each order cost per order = D (S) Q

12 - 35

Q Q* D S H

= Number of pieces per order = Optimal number of pieces per order (EOQ) = Annual demand in units for the inventory item = Setup or ordering cost for each order = Holding or carrying cost per unit per year

Q H 2

Annual holding cost = (Average inventory level) x (Holding cost per unit per year) = Order quantity (Holding cost per unit per year) 2 Q (H) 2

12 - 36

Q Q* D S H

= Number of pieces per order = Optimal number of pieces per order (EOQ) = Annual demand in units for the inventory item = Setup or ordering cost for each order = Holding or carrying cost per unit per year

Q H 2

Optimal order quantity is found when annual setup cost equals annual holding cost D Q S = H Q 2 Solving for Q*

12 - 37

An EOQ Example

Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units S = $10 per order H = $.50 per unit per year

Q* = Q* =

12 - 38

An EOQ Example

Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order H = $.50 per unit per year Expected Demand D number of = N = = Order quantity Q* orders 1,000 N= = 5 orders per year 200

12 - 39

An EOQ Example

Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year Number of working Expected days per year time between = T = N orders T= 250 = 50 days between orders 5

12 - 40

An EOQ Example

Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year T = 50 days Total annual cost = Setup cost + Holding cost D Q S + H Q 2 1,000 200 TC = ($10) + ($.50) 200 2 TC = TC = (5)($10) + (100)($.50) = $50 + $50 = $100

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 41

Robust Model

The EOQ model is robust

It works even if all parameters and assumptions are not met

The total cost curve is relatively flat in the area of the EOQ

12 - 42

An EOQ Example

Management underestimated demand by 50% D = 1,000 units 1,500 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year T = 50 days

D Q TC = S + H Q 2 1,500 200 TC = ($10) + ($.50) = $75 + $50 = $125 200 2 Total annual cost increases by only 25%

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 43

An EOQ Example

Actual EOQ for new demand is 244.9 units D = 1,000 units 1,500 units Q* = 244.9 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year T = 50 days

TC = $61.24 + $61.24 = $122.48

Only 2% less than the total cost of $125 when the order quantity was 200

12 - 44

Reorder Points

EOQ answers the how much question The reorder point (ROP) tells when to order

ROP =

=dxL

D d = Number of working days in a year

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 45

Inventory level (units)

Q*

Resupply takes place as order arrives

Slope = units/day = d

ROP (units)

Time (days)

Figure 12.5

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Lead time = L

12 - 46

Demand = 8,000 iPods per year 250 working day year Lead time for orders is 3 working days

= 8,000/250 = 32 units ROP = d x L

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 47

Used when inventory builds up over a period of time after an order is placed Used when units are produced and sold simultaneously

12 - 48

Inventory level Part of inventory cycle during which production (and usage) is taking place

Maximum inventory

Time

Figure 12.6

12 - 49

Q = Number of pieces per order p = Daily production rate H = Holding cost per unit per year d = Daily demand/usage rate t = Length of the production run in days

Annual inventory Holding cost = (Average inventory level) x holding cost per unit per year Annual inventory = (Maximum inventory level)/2 level Maximum Total produced during = inventory level the production run Total used during the production run

= pt dt

12 - 50

Q = Number of pieces per order p = Daily production rate H = Holding cost per unit per year d = Daily demand/usage rate t = Length of the production run in days

Maximum Total produced during = inventory level the production run = pt dt Total used during the production run

Maximum Q = p inventory level p d Q p =Q 1 d p

Holding cost =

Q d 1 2 p

H

12 - 51

Q = Number of pieces per order H = Holding cost per unit per year D = Annual demand p = Daily production rate d = Daily demand/usage rate

2 1

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

12 - 52

D = 1,000 units S = $10 H = $0.50 per unit per year Q* = p = 8 units per day d = 4 units per day

= 80,000

Q* =

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 53

Note:

1,000 D d = 4 = Number of days the plant is in operation = 250

Q* =

12 - 54

Reduced prices are often available when larger quantities are purchased Trade-off is between reduced product cost and increased holding cost

Total cost = Setup cost + Holding cost + Product cost TC = D Q S+ H + PD Q 2

12 - 55

A typical quantity discount schedule

Discount Number

1 2 3 Discount Quantity 0 to 999 1,000 to 1,999 2,000 and over Discount (%) no discount 4 5

$5.00 $4.80 $4.75

Table 12.2

12 - 56

Steps in analyzing a quantity discount

1. For each discount, calculate Q* 2. If Q* for a discount doesnt qualify, choose the smallest possible order size to get the discount 3. Compute the total cost for each Q* or adjusted value from Step 2 4. Select the Q* that gives the lowest total cost

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 57

Total cost curve for discount 1 Total cost curve for discount 2

Total cost $

a

1st price break

Q* for discount 2 is below the allowable range at point a and must be adjusted upward to 1,000 units at point b 2nd price break

1,000

Figure 12.7

12 - 58

Calculate Q* for every discount

Q* = 2DS IP

Q1* =

Q2* = Q3* =

2(5,000)(49) = 700 cars/order (.2)(5.00) 2(5,000)(49) = 714 cars/order (.2)(4.80) 2(5,000)(49) = 718 cars/order (.2)(4.75)

12 - 59

Calculate Q* for every discount

Q* = 2DS IP

Q1* =

Q2* = Q3* =

2(5,000)(49) = 700 cars/order (.2)(5.00) 2(5,000)(49) = 714 cars/order (.2)(4.80) 1,000 adjusted 2(5,000)(49) = 718 cars/order (.2)(4.75) 2,000 adjusted

12 - 60

Discount Number 1 2 3 Unit Price $5.00 $4.80 $4.75 Order Quantity 700 1,000 2,000 Annual Product Cost $25,000 $24,000 $23.750 Annual Ordering Cost $350 $245 $122.50 Annual Holding Cost $350 $480 $950 Total $25,700 $24,725 $24,822.50

Table 12.3

Choose the price and quantity that gives the lowest total cost

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 61

Used when demand is not constant or certain

Use safety stock to achieve a desired service level and avoid stockouts ROP = d x L + ss

Annual stockout costs = the sum of the units short x the probability x the stockout cost/unit x the number of orders per year

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 62

ROP = 50 units Orders per year = 6 Stockout cost = $40 per frame Carrying cost = $5 per frame per year

Number of Units

30 40 50 60 70

Probability

.2 .2 .3 .2 .1 1.0

ROP

12 - 63

ROP = 50 units Orders per year = 6

Safety Stock Additional Holding Cost

Stockout cost = $40 per frame Carrying cost = $5 per frame per year

Total Cost

Stockout Cost

20

10 0

(20)($5) = $100

(10)($5) = $ 50 (10)(.1)($40)(6) $

$0

= $240

$100

$290 $960

A safety stock of 20 frames gives the lowest total cost ROP = 50 + 20 = 70 frames

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 64

Probabilistic Demand

Inventory level

Mean demand during lead time ROP = 350 + safety stock of 16.5 = 366.5 ROP Normal distribution probability of demand during lead time Expected demand during lead time (350 kits) Safety stock 16.5 units

0

Figure 12.8

Lead time

Time

Place order

Receive order

12 - 65

Probabilistic Demand

Use prescribed service levels to set safety stock when the cost of stockouts cannot be determined ROP = demand during lead time + ZsdLT

where Z = number of standard deviations sdLT = standard deviation of demand during lead time

12 - 66

Probabilistic Demand

Quantity

12 - 67

Probabilistic Example

Average demand = m = 350 kits Standard deviation of demand during lead time = sdLT = 10 kits 5% stockout policy (service level = 95%)

Using Appendix I, for an area under the curve of 95%, the Z = 1.65 Safety stock = ZsdLT = 1.65(10) = 16.5 kits Reorder point = expected demand during lead time + safety stock = 350 kits + 16.5 kits of safety stock = 366.5 or 367 kits

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 68

When data on demand during lead time is not available, there are other models available 1. When demand is variable and lead time is constant 2. When lead time is variable and demand is constant 3. When both demand and lead time are variable

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 69

Demand is variable and lead time is constant

ROP = (average daily demand x lead time in days) + ZsdLT

where sd = standard deviation of demand per day sdLT = sd lead time

12 - 70

Probabilistic Example

Average daily demand (normally distributed) = 15 Standard deviation = 5 Z for 90% = 1.28 Lead time is constant at 2 days From Appendix I 90% service level desired

ROP = (15 units x 2 days) + ZsdLT = 30 + 1.28(5)( 2) = 30 + 9.02 = 39.02 39 Safety stock is about 9 iPods

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 - 71

Lead time is variable and demand is constant

ROP = (daily demand x average lead time in days)

where sLT = standard deviation of lead time in days

12 - 72

Probabilistic Example

Daily demand (constant) = 10 Average lead time = 6 days Standard deviation of lead time = sLT = 3 98% service level desired Z for 98% = 2.055 From Appendix I

ROP = (10 units x 6 days) + 2.055(10 units)(3) = 60 + 61.65 = 121.65 Reorder point is about 122 cameras

12 - 73

Both demand and lead time are variable

ROP = (average daily demand x average lead time) + ZsdLT

where sd = standard deviation of demand per day

sdLT = (average lead time x sd2) + (average daily demand)2 x sLT2

12 - 74

Probabilistic Example

Average daily demand (normally distributed) = 150 Standard deviation = sd = 16 Average lead time 5 days (normally distributed) Standard deviation = sLT = 1 day 95% service level desired Z for 95% = 1.65 From Appendix I ROP = (150 packs x 5 days) + 1.65sdLT = (150 x 5) + 1.65 (5 days x 162) + (1502 x 12) = 750 + 1.65(154) = 1,004 packs

12 - 75

Only one order is placed for a product Units have little or no value at the end of the sales period

Cs = Cost of shortage = Sales price/unit Cost/unit Co = Cost of overage = Cost/unit Salvage value

Service level = Cs Cs + Co

12 - 76

Average demand = m = 120 papers/day Standard deviation = s = 15 papers Cs = cost of shortage = $1.25 - $.70 = $.55 Co = cost of overage = $.70 - $.30 = $.40

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

12 - 77

From Appendix I, for the area .578, Z .20 The optimal stocking level = 120 copies + (.20)(s)

= 120 + (.20)(15) = 120 + 3 = 123 papers

= 1 .578 = .422 = 42.2%

12 - 78

Orders placed at the end of a fixed period

Inventory counted only at end of period Order brings inventory up to target level

Only relevant costs are ordering and holding

Lead times are known and constant Items are independent from one another

12 - 79

Target quantity (T) Q4

On-hand inventory

Q2

Q1 P

P

Q3

P Time

2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Figure 12.9

12 - 80

3 jackets are back ordered It is time to place an order No jackets are in stock Target value = 50

Order amount (Q) = Target (T) - Onhand inventory - Earlier orders not yet received + Back orders Q = 50 - 0 - 0 + 3 = 53 jackets

12 - 81

Fixed-Period Systems

Inventory is only counted at each review period May be scheduled at convenient times Appropriate in routine situations May result in stockouts between periods May require increased safety stock

12 - 82

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

12 - 83

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