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# CYCLETIME REDUCTION

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
The Definition of Cycletime
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 There are two general definitions of Cycletime
1. Time between beginning of production and completion of
production.
2. Time between the completion of the last product and completion of
the next product.
 While the scope of this Course covers BOTH areas, for purposes
of clarity, we will refer to definition 1 as “leadtime” and 2 as
“cycletime”.
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
The Definition of Cycletime

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 The leadtime starts the moment the piece parts are withdrawn from Store and
ends when the product is completed.
 The elements involved : waiting time, processing time, conversion or set-up
time, transportation time and documentation time.
 To effectively reduce leadtime and cycletime, we would need to
reduce/eliminate each of these elements.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
The Definition of Cycletime

## Cycletime = Available Production Time

Number of Products Produced

= Production Efficiency

## Cycletime can be measured for the whole Production Line,

for each individual Product or even Model.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Importance of Cycletime
Reduction
 Technology is constantly obsolete
 Today’s Product Lifecycles 3 – 12 months
 Inventory is money
 Risk of inventory obsolescence – high
 Today’s Customers want
- increased flexibility
- low obsolescence risk
 These goals can be achieved with reduced cycletime
 A short cycletime is an organization’s COMPETITIVE EDGE

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Theory of Constraints A B C D

##  In a Production line, identify Effective

capacity
the bottleneck (D).
 Increase the bottleneck (D)
capacity. Bottleneck shifts to Effective
capacity
B.
 Increase the bottleneck (B)
capacity. Effective
capacity
 To increase the effective
capacity, focus on the
constraint (bottleneck) area.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Theory of Constraints
 Constraints Product flow
Cycletime
 To REDUCE Cycletime, production flow
constraints need to be eliminated or reduced.
 These constraints are :

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools
 Three main tools used to analyze cycletime
are :
1. Flow Diagram
 To analyze the actual product flow.
1. Operations Chart
 To analyze every production step and part used.
1. Process Chart
 To study all the handling, inspection, operations,
storage and delays as the product flows from raw
materials to finished goods.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools
 These tools are the macro analysis tools in that they are used to
analyze the overall operations.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Flow Diagram
 What it is : A diagram that shows the path
traveled by the product as it flows through from
Receiving to Production to Shipping.
 How to develop :
2. Each step in the actual or proposed production flow is
plotted onto the layout, with arrows showing the
direction of flow.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Flow Diagram
 Example : A current production layout.
Actual Product
Flow
Receivin Finishe OQA
g& Shippin d Room
Issuing g Goods
Store Store
WIP
Awt.
Pack
WIP (Kits)

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Flow Diagram
 The Flow Diagram will be able to identify issues
such as :
 Cross Traffic – where flow lines cross
 Backtracking – where material flows backward
 Distance product travelled.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Flow Diagram
 Cross Traffic and Backtracking
Actual Product
Flow
Receivin Finishe OQA
g& Shippin d Backtrackin Room
Issuing g Goods g
Store Store
WIP
Awt.
Cross Pack
Traffic
WIP (Kits)

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Operations
Chart
 What it is : A chart showing
 the raw material,
 the purchased piece parts,
 the fabrication/sub-assembly sequence,
 the assembly sequence,
 the equipment needs and
 the time standards
to produce a finished product.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Operations
Chart
 How to develop :
1. Identify purchased vs. sub-assembled piece parts.
2. Determine the operations required to fabricate each part and its
sequence of operations.
3. Determine the sequence of assembly for ALL piece parts.
4. Identify the base part (raw PCB). This is the 1st part that starts the
assembly process. Put that part on a horizontal line at the far right top
of the page. On a vertical line extending down from the right side of the
horizontal line, place a circle for each operation. Beginning with the first
operation, list all operations down to the last operation.
5. Place the 2nd part to the left of the 1st part and the 3rd part to the left of
the 2nd part etc. All of the fabrication steps are listed below the parts
with a circle representing each operation.
6. Draw a horizontal line from the bottom of the last operation of the 2nd
part to the point above the operation where it joins the 1st part, and so
on.
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Operations
Chart
Purchased Piece
Part
 Example : Parts to be 1st
fabricated
4th Part 3 Part
rd
2nd Part
Base/
Part Part

Operations
to fabricate
4th Part

Sub-assemble
4th Part to 3rd
Part

## Assemble 1st and 2nd Parts

and sub-assemble 3rd and
4th Parts

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Operations
Chart
 How to develop : cont.
7. Introduce all the purchased piece parts on horizontal lines above the
assembly operation circle where they are placed on the assembly.
8. Put time standards, operation numbers, and operation descriptions next
to and in the circle.
9. Sum total the hours per 1,000 units and place these total hours at the
bottom right under the last assembly or pack-out operation.

## Example : Solder PCB Units per

paste
hour
Caps 0012
(4) 40
Solder
Res. 0120 paste
0 0
2.5 Number of
(3) printing 5 hours to
complete
Operation SMD 25 1,000 units
descriptio placement 1 0
4
n 0
SH CHEAH 6.5
Operation hours
number
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Operations
Chart
 From the Operations Chart, the theoretical
 The difference between the actual leadtime and
 It is only through process and operations
improvement that the theoretical leadtime can
be improved.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Process Chart
 What it is : A chart that shows all the handling,
inspection, operations, storage, and delays that
occur to one part as it moves through the
Production process.
 How to develop : Conventional symbols are used to
describe the process steps.
Symbo Description Indicate Meaning
l Circle s
Operation Performing work on a
part
Squar Inspection Used for quality control
e work
Used when moving
Arrow Transportati
on
Storage material
Used for long term storage
Triangl
eD
D Big Delay Used for short term
SH CHEAH
storage
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Process Chart
 Sample Process Charting

4 5 6

PRESENT M
7 8 9 10 11 12 13

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Process Chart
 The main sections :
1. Select either present method or proposed method, date and page.
2. Describe the name of part and specifications if relevant.
3. Record the limits of the study (example : from Receiving to FG).
4. Record under the “PRESENT” column for study of current operations.
To come up with a new proposal, use the “PROPOSED” column.
5. For each step, the 5W’s and 1H are asked, starting with “Why”. Try
to
 Eliminate every step possible or
 Combine the steps or
 Change the sequence of operations to improve the product flow.
1. A Flow Diagram should be attached if available.
2. Describe what happens in each step.
3. Methods of transportation or storage are described (eg. by pallet).
4. Symbols – shade the appropriate symbol related to the step.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Analysis Tools : Process Chart
 The main sections :
10. This is recorded when the transportation symbol is used. Specify unit
of measurement.
11. Quantity refers to many things :
a. Operations – Pieces per hour
b. Transportation – Number of pieces moved at a time
c. Inspection – Pieces per hour and/or frequency of inspection
d. Delays – Number of pieces waiting
e. Storage – How many pieces per storage unit
12. Hours per unit – time spent per piece at that step. Used only for
operations, transportation and inspection.
13. Time calculations – column provided to compute time spent.

Use your Process Chart analyze and identify improvement opportunities.
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
 Five main charts are used to micro
analyze cycletime of operations :
 Operations Analysis Chart

 Operator/Machine Chart

 Gang Chart

 Multi-Machine Chart

##  Left/Right Hand Chart

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
 These charts are used to analyze and
breakdown each operation into its separate
micro elements.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime :Multi Activity
Chart
 What it is : It is a standard Chart Format used
to create the
 Operations analysis chart
 Operator/machine chart
 Gang chart
 Multimachine chart
 Left-hand/right-hand chart
 The chart is separated into 15 different sections.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime :Multi
Activity Chart
1

2 3
4 5 7
6
8 8

OPERA
9 9

1 1
0 0
11
12

L
13
14
15
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime :Multi
Activity Chart
 The main sections :
1. Tick or cross the appropriate box on the chart being created.
2. The operation number for the particular operation (if available).
3. The product part number.
4. The date of the study, include day, month and year.
5. The time the study started.
6. Record the name of the person who is conducting the study.
7. Operation described in clear terms.
8. Activity will represent different things for different charts
1. Operations analysis – use LEFT column only
2. Operator/machine – LEFT column for Operator, RIGHT for Machine
3. Gang – LEFT column for Operator 1, RIGHT for Operator 2
4. Multimachine – 2 charts are taped next to each other. On the 1st
chart, LEFT column for Operator, RIGHT for Machine 1. On the 2nd
chart, LEFT column for Machine 2, RIGHT column for Machine 3.
5. L-H/R-H – LEFT column for Left Hand, RIGHT for Right Hand
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime :Multi
Activity Chart
 The main sections :
9. These are the activity areas where the actual activities are recorded.
10. Total Utilization is how much time this activity was working. Idle time
is NOT included.
% Utilization is the total utilization divided by the total time of that
activity.
11. Total normal time is how long it takes each activity to complete a
cycle and includes both working time and idle time.
12. Allowances are the time added to normal time to make the time
standards realistic. These include personal time, fatigue and delays.
A ballpark figure of 10% is typically used.
13. Standard time = normal time + allowances (in secs/unit).
14. Hours per unit = standard time (secs/unit)/(3600 secs/hour)
15. Pieces per hour = inverse of hours per unit = 1/(hours per unit)

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Pieces Per Hour  Cycletime
 Pieces Per Hour Cycletime
1 Hour

Cycletime

Cycletime

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime :Operations Analysis
Chart
 What it is : A chart used to describe
 a single activity
 usually one operator using tools 100% operator controlled
 Example : Packing operation.

X
100 AX250
Feb.26,’0 0930 Packing operation for shipment.
Bruce 5
Lee

SH CHEAH
OPERA
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Operations Analysis Chart
Activity Activity
1 Fold carton box, insert kimcell.
04 Insert PCBA and pack into
7 carton.
Idle.
This side is left blank
These activities need to
be analyzed, for example
:
Why 10 secs to prepare
box? Can it be prepared
Why idle time of 7 secs?
How to eliminate this?
What can operator do if
cannot eliminate?

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Operations Analysis Chart
14 secs
67%
21 secs
10%
24 secs
0.0067
150

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Operator/Machine Chart
 What it is : A chart that shows the activities
and inter-relationship of the operator and the
machine. The chart shows what each is doing
at any moment in time.
 Example : An operator running a marking machine.

7 BY300
5
Feb.26,’0 1500 Ink marking
5 EPROM.
Jackie Chan

## Operator Ink Mark Machine

SH CHEAH
OPERA
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Operator/Machine Chart
Operator Ink Mark Machine
7 Idle. Mark unit. 7
5 Inspect EPROM.

## Can the work sequence be

The high percentage of idle
rearranged to utilize the
time represents a waste of
idle time to do inspection? capacity. How to minimize?
Can the inspection be
eliminated to reduce the
cycletime?

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Operator/Machine Chart
14 secs 7 secs
67% 33%
21 secs
10%
24 secs
0.0067
150

TOTAL UTIL
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Gang Chart
 What it is : A chart to show the activities of two
or more people when their activities intertwine.
When more than two people are involved, tape
two or more charts side by side.
 Example : Solder joint touch-up and inspection.

8 LT800
5 ‘05
Feb.26, 1700 Solder joint touch-up and
Ali inspection.
Bakar
Touch-up operator Inspection operator

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Gang Chart
Touch-up operator Inspection operator
Picks up unit. Inspects for
Idle. 12
16 solder joint defects.
Passes unit to touch-up 4
operator.
Touch-up solder joints. Idle.
26 Returns unit to inspection 26
operator.

unit. 1

## All the idle time add up to

one operator time. Does it
make sense to train one
operator to perform both
cycletime as well as the
idle time?

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Gang Chart
26 27 secs
secs
49% 51%
53 secs
10%
59 secs
0.016
63

TOTAL UTIL
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Multi-Machine Chart
 What it is : A chart similar to the
charts are taped to the side of the 1st chart. On
machine takes up one column.
 Example : 1 operator running 3 ink markers.

## Operator Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Left/Right Hand Chart
 What it is : A chart that tracks the separate
activities of each hand of an operator. Each
hand’s activity is broken down into detailed
elements.
 Example : Operator inserting PTH components into
PCBA.

X
65 AT540
Feb.26, ‘05 1030 PTH insertion into
Muru PCBA.

## Left Hand Right Hand

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Left/Right Hand Chart
Left Hand Right Hand
5 Pick-up PCBA. Pick-up component. 5
1 Idle (Holding PCBA). Align and insert component 1
2 into PCBA. 2
Pass PCBA to next 4
1 Idle. operation.
Idle. 9
3

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Analyzing Cycletime
Left/Right Hand Chart
5 secs 21 secs
17% 70%
30 secs
10%
33 secs
0.009
109

TOTAL UTIL
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Work Station Design
 Having a work station that is designed to ease
the task of the operator will help in maximizing
work efficiency = reducing cycletime.
 A well designed work station supports motion
economy.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Work Station Design
 Some key considerations :
 Work station tables – to promote
“mirror image” hand motions.
 Component trays should be
located between normal reach m
um
xi
and maximum reach positions of M
a

the operator.

No
Ideal lighting position is over the

rm

al
work area and slightly over the
back (to avoid glare). Properly
located lighting will reduce
fatigue.
Light Location

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Work Station Design
 Some key considerations :
 Work table height should be
constant and ideally at elbow
height of the seated person.

##  Use chairs which can be

 Chairs should be comfortable
with back supports.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Work Station Design
 Some key considerations :
 Frequently used tools should
be located nearby the work
station.
 Incorporate fixtures to replace
the human hand for holding
parts as much as possible.
 Locate reject bins or baskets
close to the work station to
prevent unnecessary
movement by the operator.
 Use chutes to take advantage
of gravity to move parts.
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Work Station Design
 Some key considerations :
 Align the work station to the product flow.

IN
IN
O
U
T

O
U
T

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Motion Economy
 Economic motion minimizes processing time
and hence contributes to cycletime reduction.
 This is strongly related to and supported by
work station design.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Motion Economy
 Some key considerations :
 The hands should :
1. Operate as mirror images
2. Start and stop motions at
the same time
3. Move in opposite directions
4. Be working at all times.
 Use fixtures to replace hands
holding parts where possible.
 Use foot operated control
devices where possible to free
up the hands.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Motion Economy
 Some key considerations :
 Use ballistic motions where possible :
fast motions using one set of muscles
and not trying to end the motion
using other muscles, example,
throwing a part into a bin.
 Use controlled motions, i.e. which
require control at the end of the
motion, only for activities needing
safety or quality considerations.
 Use curved continuous motions

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Line Balancing
 One technique which sees almost immediate
impact in a cycletime reduction exercise is line
balancing. By balancing the production line,
obvious line imbalances or bottlenecks can be
removed. This increases the effective line
capacity and reduces cycletime.
 Refer to section on Theory of Constraints.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Removing NVA
value to the product. They just add cost.
 Major NVA activities are inspection, product movement
and waiting time. By removing or reducing these
activities, the cycletime is reduced accordingly. Waiting
time is one of the major contributors to long cycletime.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Removing NVA
 While removing inspection needs to be justified with quality
improvement, others such as eliminating a staging area
(shown below), can be easily justified.

## ISSUING STORE STAGING AREA

PRODUCTION LINE

ISSUING STORE

PRODUCTION LINE

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Removing NVA
 Examples of elimination of handling and
transportation. Improvement from A to D.

A
Double Handling

B
Transportation

C
Inventory on conveyor

D
No waiting

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Quick Set-ups
 In handling multiple models, the process of
changing from one model to the next is NVA. It
cycletime.
 Quick set-ups, therefore, reduce product
cycletime.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Quick Set-ups
 Internal setup : Setup activities done on the machine
while the machine is down.
 Example : Changing over of tools, dies, jigs and
materials while the machine is down.
 External setup : Setup activities done before and
after the machine is down and do not add to the
machine downtime.
 Example : Preparing in advance the necessary jigs,
tools, the next die and materials and removing the
detached die and jigs after the machine is up.
Machine down Machine up

## External setup Internal setup External setup

– prepare tool, – change tool, – remove
die, materials die, materials detached tool, die
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Quick Set-ups
Steps in Shortening Set-up Time
1. Separate the internal set-up tasks from the external set-
Example :
 Preparation of dies, fixtures etc.  Attachment and detachment
 Transfer of dies  Adjustment of location, height,

pressure, etc.
 Test run

## 2. Convert internal set-up to external set-up

Example : Preheating dies is a way of converting internal
set-up to external set-up
SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Quick Set-ups
3. Improve internal set-up
Example 1 : Reduce internal set-up by eliminating adjustment

Standardized
Die Height

Blocks

Locating Pin

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Quick Set-ups
4. Improve external set-up
Reduce/eliminate time wasted searching for tools, dies and fixtures by
designating areas by color coding shelves and assigning addresses for each
storage area.
Reduce time wasted in transferring dies by storing frequently used dies close
to the machine.
88B

Color
Machine coding

## Die storage area

SH CHEAH
(close to the point of use)
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Lot Size Reduction
 Typically, the larger the lot size, the longer the
waiting time. Traditionally, large lot sizes were
preferred due to high set-up times. However,
with large lot sizes, WIP builds up and product
cycletime lengthens.
 Reducing lot size reduces product cycletime.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Lot Size Reduction
 Example : Processing time 1 min./unit
Time Lot size : 3 Time Lot size : 1

0 min A B C 0 min A B C

1 min A B C
3 min A B C
2 min A B C

A B C 3 min A B C
6 min

4 min A B C

9 min A B C
5 min A B C

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Parallel Processing
 Parallel processing means processing 2 or more
operations at the same time. In set-up time
language, it means converting internal time to
external time.
 Parallel processing, therefore, reduces set-up
time.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Parallel Processing
Example : Reducing internal set-up by using Parallel
Operations
Parallel Operations on a Press Machine
machine stop 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 machine start

## Internal/ Required time

Step No. Operation External (min) Performed by
1 Look for new die I 3 Operator
2 Transfer new die I 10 Operator
3 Remove used die I 2 Operator
4 Attach new die I 2 Operator
5 Transfer new material I 10 Operator
7 Transfer used die I 10 Operator

## Before improvement (Total Internal Set-up Time : 57 Min)

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Parallel Processing
1 2 5 4 6a 7
(Set-up assistant)
3 6b (Operator)
machine machine
stop start
Internal/ Required time
Step No. Operation External (min) Performed by
1 Look for new die E 3 Assistant
2 Transfer new die E 10 Assistant
5 Transfer new material E 10 Assistant
4 Attach new die * I 2 Assistant
6a Adjust ** I 7 Assistant
3 Remove used die * I 2 Operator
6b Adjust ** I 8 Operator
7 Transfer used die E 10 Assistant

## Note : *, ** : conduct operations simultaneously

After improvement (Total Internal Set-up Time : 10 Min)

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
WIP Reduction
 Work In Progress (WIP) or inventory, when not
being processed, is accumulating cycletime.
Therefore, to reduce cycletime, drive down
WIP.

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SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
WIP Reduction

## Raw material Finished products

to customers

Sea of inventory

Machine
breakdown Quality
problems
Poor
scheduling
Absenteeism
Long set-up times

Inventory Covers
SH CHEAH Problems
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
WIP Reduction
 The only ‘justifiable’ WIP is that which Proces Proces
is used to prevent a process from s1 s2
being linedown. WIP
 For example, the WIP shown should
only serve to prevent Process 2 from
stopping because of instability in
Process 1 due to :
 Machine downtime
 Low yields
 Quality issues
 Batch processing waiting time
 However, as WIP represents “waiting
inventory” and should be driven
down.

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
FIFO
 FIFO stands for First In First Out. This is a flow sequence
where the first product processed flows through and gets
completed first, and so on.
 By implementing FIFO, no WIP gets bypassed and line
issues are forced to be addressed, easing the
subsequent product flow and hence reducing cycletime.
 The only time FIFO should be bypassed is when there is
an abnormal lot such as extremely low yield lot, quality
question etc.

## Proces Proces Inspection Pack

s1 s2
WIP WIP

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Kanbans
 A Kanban is a card used in the Toyota Production
System or JIT. It is used to request or pull materials in a
Pull Production System.
 In Malaysia, typically Kanban squares are used in the
place of Kanban cards. By defining the Kanban quantity,
WIP, production flow and hence cycletime can be
controlled.

## Proces Proces Inspection Pack

s1 s2
WIP WIP

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Kanbans
 What is the Kanban system?

## • An information system that harmoniously controls the

production of the
necessary products in the
necessary quantities at the
necessary time in
every process of a factory and also among companies
• It utilizes a pull system that is dictated by customer orders
• It is a sub-system that supports the Toyota Production
System or lean manufacturing

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Kanbans
PROCESS 1 WIP PROCESS 2 WIP FG STORE FG CUSTOMER

3 2 1

## Process 1 receives a Process 2 receives a Customer places order

Production Ordering Production Ordering and FG Store ships FG
Kanban from its Kanban from its available to Customer.
Kanban location. Kanban location. At the same time, a
It starts production It starts production Withdrawal Kanban is
and at the same time and at the same time issued from FG Store to
issues a Withdrawal issues a Withdrawal Kanban location of
Kanban to Kanban Kanban to Kanban Process 2 and WIP from
location of Raw Matl location of Process 1 Process 2 is “pulled” to
Store FG Store
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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Leveled Production
 When there are two models to a product, say models A
and B. Typically, these models will be loaded as A,A,A,A
A,B,A,B,A,B,A,B.
 The advantage of leveled production with regards to
cycletime is huge if A and B are sold as a set.

## Proces Proces Inspection Pack

s1 s2
WIP WIP

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Leveled Production
 Example : Models A and B (a set) are processed through
Processes 1 and 2. Each take 1 minute to process for
each process. Two sets are processed.

Tim Tim
e e A
1 min 1 A 2 1 min 1 2

2 min 1 A 2 A 2 min 1 B 2 A

3 min 1 B 2 A A 3 min 1 A 2 B A

4 min 1 B 2 B A A 4 min 1 B 2 A B A

## Set completion : 4 min Set completion : 3 min

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Eliminating Wastes
 Wastes are elements in the Production area
that add cost but not value. Eliminating these
wastes will see the cycletime drop
tremendously.

## Proces Proces Inspection Pack

s1 s2
WIP WIP

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Eliminating Wastes
 Kiyoshi Suzaki refined waste classification
into seven categories :
 Waste from overproduction
 Waste of waiting time
 Transportation waste
 Processing waste
 Inventory waste
 Waste of motion
 Waste from product defects

##  Henry Ford, “If it doesn’t add value, it’s

waste.”

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Flow Smoothing / Layout
 Like water flowing through a pipe, a short and
direct production layout will tend to produce a
smooth and fast production flow.
 Use a product-centric layout instead of a
process-centric layout to shorten product
cycletime.

## Proces Proces Inspection Pack

s1 s2
WIP WIP

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
Flow Smoothing / Layout
 Layout/flow guidelines :
 Product should flow towards

SHIPMENT

SHIPMENT
the shipment area.
 No backflow where possible.
 No cross flows.

SHIPMENT

SHIPMENT
 Do not use excess floor
WALLED OFF
space. FOR FUTURE
EXPANSION
 Keep area compact and
defined.

SHIPMENT
 Identify all inventory areas
and kanbans.

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Methods of Cycletime Reduction
5S
 A properly executed 5S environment can help
reduce cycletime.
 A neat and properly defined work area means
that tools and parts can be easily found.
Searching time and waiting time can be
minimised or eliminated resulting in reduced
cycletime.

## Proces Proces Inspection Pack

s1 s2
WIP WIP

SH CHEAH
CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Simulation
 A cycletime simulation can reveal the
theoretical leadtime and cycletime for the
product. This will be the theoretical limit for the
product cycletime.
1. Define the lot size, the processes and the UPH for each
process.
2. Compute the lot completion time for each process.
3. List the Processes down the first column.
4. List an Hour timeline across the top row.
5. Plot the Lots as they move diagonally down from top left
to bottom right of the table.

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Simulation
Lot Size : 3,000

## 1 Process Assembly Mark Test

UPH 1,200 2,000 1,500
Lot Completion Time 2.50 1.50 2.0

Lot Size
Lot Completion Time
UPH
=

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Simulation
Timeline 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(hr)
Process
4
Assembl Lot Lot Lot
1 2 3
y
3 Mark Lot Lot Lot 5
1 2 3

## Test Lot Lot Lot

1 2 3

Cycletim
2.5hrs

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Metrics
 Metrics related to cycletime are :
 Cycletime
 Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE)
 Workstation Turnover Time (WTT)

PCE WTT
Proces Proces Inspection Pack
s1 s2
WIP WIP

e
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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Metrics
 Unit of measurement – weeks/days/shifts/hours/mins
 Total leadtime can be :
 measured (from time piece parts are issued to
receiving completed product at Finished Goods)
 computed from Little’s Law :
WIP
(units)
Average Completion
(time) =
Rate

## Effective Line Capacity

(units/time)

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Metrics
 Cycletime
 Unit of measurement – weeks/days/shifts/hours/mins
 Although cycletime is defined as the time taken for the next
product to be produced, the average cycletime is generally
computed as follows :

## Available Production Time

Cycletime (time)
(time/unit)= Number of Products Produced
(unit)

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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Metrics
 Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE)
 PCE indicates how efficiently the process is converting
WIP into finished products.
 PCE is a ratio.
 Any process with low PCE will have large NVA activities
and hence opportunities to for cycletime reduction.
 It is common to get PCE’s of less than 10% before
improvement.
 The Process Chart can be used to collect the required

PCE =
Total(time)
(time)
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CYCLETIME REDUCTION
Cycletime Metrics
 Workstation Turnover Time (WTT)
 It is the time taken to set-up and perform one cycle of
work at a specified workstation.
 Unit of measurement - hours/mins/secs.

WTT =
the workstation

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