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Standard belt cross sections

• Commercially available belts are made to one


of the standards shown in Figures 7-5
through 7-8. The alignment between the inch
sizes and the metric sizes indicates that the
paired sizes are actually the same cross
section. A “soft conversion” was used to
rename the familiar inch sizes with the
number for the metric sizes giving the
nominal top width in millimeters.
Fig. 7-5 Heavy-duty industrial V-belts

• Fig. 7-6 Industrial narrow-section V-belts


• Fig. 7-7 Light-duty, frictional horsepower
(FHP) V-belts.
• Fig.7-8 Automobile V-belts
• The nominal value of the included angle
between the sides of the V-groove ranges
from 30° to 42°. The angle on the belt may
be slightly different to achieve a tight fit in the
groove. Some belts are designed to “ride out
” of the groove somewhat.
Many automotive applications use
synchronous belt drives similar to that called a
timing belt in Fig.7-3(C ) or V-ribbed belts
similar to that called a poly-rib belt in Fig. 7-3
(d).
The Society of Automobile Engineers(SAE)
give dimensions and performance standards for
automobile belts.
类型 结构
简图

普通 V 带 抗拉体为帘布芯或绳芯,
楔角为 40° ,相对高度近
似为 0.7 ,梯形截面环形

窄V带 抗拉体为绳芯,楔角为 40
° ,相对高度为近似为
0.9 ,梯形截面环形带

联组 V 带 将几根普通 V 带或窄 V
带的顶面用胶帘布等距粘
结而成,有 2 、 3 、 4 或
5 根联成一组

齿形 V 带 抗拉体为绳芯结构,内周
制成齿形的 V 带

大楔角 V 带 抗拉体为绳芯,楔角为 60
° 的聚氨酯环形带

宽V带 抗拉体为绳芯,相对高度
近似为 0.3 的梯形截面环
形带
附表 11-2 V 带截面尺寸和单位长度质量(摘自 GB11544-
89 )
Z A B C
截面 Y D E
SPZ SPA SPB SPC

顶宽
6.0 10.0 13.0 17.0 22.0 32.0 38.0
b(mm)

节宽
5.3 8.5 11.0 14.0 19.0 27.0 32.0
bp(mm)

高度
4.0 6.0 8.0 11.0 14.0 19.0 25.0
h(mm)

楔角 40°

单位长度
质量 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.30 0.60 0.87
(kg/m)
7-4 V-belt drive design
• Abbreviated examples of the data available
from suppliers are given for illustration.
• Catalogs contain extensive data, and step-by-
step instructions are given for their use.

带传动是通过摩擦来传递运动和动力的,当摩擦力不足以传
递运动时将无法正常工作。另外,带也可能折断。因此,带的
主要失效形式为打滑和疲劳破坏。所以,带传动的设计 准则 应
为:在保证带传动不打滑的条件下,具有一定的疲劳强度和寿
命。
The basic data required for drive selection are the following:
• The rated power of the driving motor or other prime mover;
• The service factor based on the type of driver and driven
load;
• The center distance;
• The power rating for one belt as a function of the size and
speed of the smaller sheave;
• The belt length;
• The size of the driving and driven sheaves;
• The correction factor for belt length;
• The correction factor for the angle of wrap on the smaller
sheave;
• The number of belts;
• The initial tension on the belt;
Guidelines to make many design decision are
given here:
• Adjustments for the center distance must be
provided in both directions from the nominal
value.
• If fixed centers are required,idler pulleys
should be used. It is best to use a grooved
idler on the inside of the belt,close to the
large sheave.
• The nominal range of center distances
shouldD2 <be
C < 3( D2 + D1 ) (7-8)
• The angle of wrap on the smaller sheave should be greater
than 120°.
• Most commercially available sheaves are cast iron, which
should be limited to 6500-ft/min belt speed.
• Consider an alternative type of drive, such as a gear type or
chain, if the belt speed is less than 1000ft/min;
• Avoid elevated temperatures around belts;
• Ensure that the shafts carrying mating sheaves are
parallel and that the sheaves are in alignment so
that the belts track smoothly into the grooves.
• In multibelt installations, matched belts are required.
Match numbers are printed on industrial belts, with 50
indicating a belt length very close to nominal. Longer
belts carry match numbers above 50;shorter belts
below 50;
• Belts must be installed with the initial tension
recommended by the manufacturer. Tension should
be checked after the first few hours of operation
because seating and initial stretch occur.
Design Data
• Catalogs typically give several dozen pages of design
data for the various sizes of belts and sheave
combinations to ease the job of drive design. The data
typically are given in tabular form (see reference 2).
Graphical form is also used here.
• The data given here are for narrow-section
belts:3V,5V,and 8V. These three sizes cover a wide
range of power transmission capacities. Fig.7-9 can be
used to choose the basic size for the belt cross section.
The power axis is design power, the rated power of the
prime mover times the service factor from Table 7-1.
• Fig.7-10,11,12 give the rated power per belt for the three
cross sections as a function of the pitch diameter of the
smaller sheave and its speed of rotation. The labeled
vertical lines in each figure give the standard sheave
pitch diameters available.
• The basic power rating for a speed ratio of 1.00 is
given as the solid curve. A given belt can carry a
greater power as the speed ratio increases, up to
a ratio of approximately 3.38. Further increases
have little effect and may also lead to trouble with
the angle of wrap on the smaller sheave.
Figure 7-13 is a plot of the data for power to be added to the
basic rating as a function of speed ratio for the 5V belt size.
The catalog data are given in a step-wise fashion. The
maximum power added, for ratios of above 3.38, was used
to draw the dashed curves ( 虚线 )in figures 7-10,7-11,and
7-12. In most cases, a rough interpolation between the two
curves is satisfactory.
Figure 7-14 gives the value of a correction factor,Cθ,as a
function of the angle of wrap of the belt on the small sheave.
Figure 7-15 gives the value of the correction
factor( 修正系数 ),CL,for belt length. A longer belt
is desirable because it reduces the frequency
with which a given part of the belt encounters
the stress peak as it enter the small sheave.
Only certain standard belt lengths are available
(Table 7-2).
Belt tension

• The initial tension given to a belt is critical


because it ensures that the belt will not slip under
the design load. At rest, the two sides of the belt
have the same tension. As power is being
transmitted, the tension in the tight side increases
while the tension in the slack side decreases.
Without the initial tension, the slack side would go
totally loose, and the belt would not seat in the
groove; thus, it would slip.
The process of belt design

• 1. Counting of Pca
Pca = K A P

2. Selection of belt type


see Slide No.23 and No.24
3. Confirm D1 and D2
附表 11-4 V 带轮的最小基准直径 Dmin ( mm )

槽型或带型 Z A B C SPZ SPA SPB SPC

Dmin 50 75 125 200 63 90 140 224

附表 11-7 V 带轮基本直径系列
πD1 n1
v= ( m / s) v ≤ v max
60 × 1000
对于普通 V 带, vmax=25~30m/s ;对于窄 V 带,
v =35~40m/s 。
Dmax
2
=iD1
4. Confirm center distance a and basic length Ld

0.7( D1 + D2 ) < a 0 < 2( D1 + D2 )


π
( D2 + D1 ) + ( D2 − D1 )
2

Ld′ ≈ 2a 0 +
2 4a 0

Ld − Ld′
a ≈ a0 +
2
a min = a − 0.015 Ld
a max = a + 0.03Ld
• 5. Checking computation of smaller wrap
angles
D2 − D1
a1 ≈ 180 −

× 60 
a
D2 − D1
a 2 ≈ 180 +

× 60 
a
D2 − D1
α 1 ≈ 180 −

× 60  ≥ 120 
a
• 6. Confirm the belt number

Pca
z=
( P0 + ∆P0 ) K a K L


11.8,11.9,11.10
附表 11-8 包角系数 Kα

小带轮包角 Kα 小带轮包角 Kα
( ) ( )
180 1 145 0.91
175 0.99 140 0.89
170 0.98 135 0.88
165 0.96 130 0.86
160 0.95 125 0.84
155 0.93 120 0.82
150 0.92
附表 11-9 长度系数 KL

基准 KL
长度
Ld(mm
)
普 通 V 带 窄 V 带

Y Z A B C D E SPZ SPA SPB SPC

400 0.96 0.87


450 1.00 0.89
500 1.02 0.91
560 0.94
630 0.96 0.81 0.82
710 0.99 0.82 0.84
800 1.00 0.85 0.86 0.81
900 1.03 0.87 0.81 0.88 0.83
1000 1.06 0.89 0.84 0.90 0.85

1120 1.08 0.91 0.86 0.93 0.87


1250 1.11 0.93 0.88 0.94 0.89 0.82
1400 1.14 0.96 0.90 0.96 0.91 0.84
1600 1.16 0.99 0.93 0.84 1.00 0.93 0.86
1800 1.18 1.01 0.95 0.85 1.01 0.95 0.88
2000 1.03 0.98 0.88 1.02 0.96 0.90 0.81
2240 1.06 1.00 0.91 1.05 0.98 0.92 0.83
2500 1.09 1.03 0.93 1.07 1.00 0.94 0.86
2800 1.11 1.05 0.95 0.83 1.09 1.02 0.96 0.88
3150 1.13 1.07 0.97 0.86 1.11 1.04 0.98 0.90
3550 1.17 1.10 0.98 0.89 1.13 1.06 1.00 0.92
4000 1.19 1.13 1.02 0.91 1.08 1.02 0.94
4500 1.15 1.04 0.93 0.90 1.09 1.04 0.96
5000 1.18 1.07 0.96 0.92 1.06 0.98
附表 11.10 载荷 G 值 ( N/ 根)
带速 ( m/s )
小带轮直径
截 型 D1 ( mm ) 0~10 10~20 20~30

50~100 5~7 4.2~6 3.5~5.5


Z
>100 7~10 6~8.5 5.5~7

75~140 9.5~14 8~12 6.5~10


普 A
>140 14~21 12~18 10~15

V
125~200 18.5~28 15~22 12.5~18
带 B
>200 28~42 22~23 18~27

200~400 36~54 30~45 25~38


C
>400 54~85 45~70 38~56

67~95 9.5~14 8~13 6.5~11


SPZ
>95 14~21 13~19 11~18

100~140 18~26 15~21 12~18


SPA
窄 >140 26~38 21~32 18~27
V
带 160~265 30~45 26~40 22~34
SPB
>265 45~58 40~52 34~47

224~355 58~82 48~72 40~64


SPC
>355 82~106 72~96 64~90
• 7. Confirm initial tension F0

Pca  2 .5 
F0 = 500  − 1 + qv 2
zv  Ka 
8. Counting the pressure to shaft Q

β  π α1  α1
Q = 2 zF0 cos = 2 zF0 cos −  = 2 zF0 sin
2 2 2  2
Tension of belt

Tension of belt scheduled time


Automated tension