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Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body


P. Abundo 1, C. Trombetta 2, C. Foti 3 and N. Rosato 1
1 2 PhD 3

Medical Engineering Service, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome

student in Advanced Technology in Rehabilitation Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome

Tor Vergata University, Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Public Health Department, Rome

February 9th 2010

Index
Analysis of vibration peculiar parameters

Safety of workers subject to vibrations

Vibration producing methods

Vibration human body effects

Negative effects
Therapeutic application in rehabilitation medicine

Biomedical vibration applications

Positive effects

Hormonal effect Neuro-muscular system effect Bone tissue effect

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body

Paolo Abundo

Analysis of vibration peculiar parameters

Period = T [s]
Frequency =1/T [Hz]

Movement Amplitude [m]


Velocity [m/s] Acceleration [m/s2]

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Analysis of vibration peculiar parameters

Acceleration V t
1 2 Acceleration Root Mean Square a (t )dt T 0
T

Human body feels more the variation of a stimulus than its persistence Vibration intensity

Resonance frequency Vibration is amplified and the maximum vibration amplitude is theoretically infinite

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Vibration producing methods

Centripetal force generated by a body rotating around a non barycentric axis Rotating mass (m) Uniform circular motion
Non barycentric rotation axis Mass

Circumference radius equal to eccentricity (e)


Costant angular velocity in amplitude ()

F (t ) m2e

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Vibration producing methods

Piezoelectric effect Jacques and Pierre Curie (1880)

~MHz

Crystals specific property Mechanical stress (contraction or expansion) Alternating current

Crystal material thickness Alternating current Frequency Crystal wave vibration frequency Optimize vibrating head dimensions and weight
(Barium titanate - BaTiO3)

Policrystal ceramic

Topaz

Quartz

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Vibration producing methods

Magnetic-dynamic transducer
Alternating current through coils

Membrane Electric coils Permanent magnet Alternating current

Varying intensity magnet

Permanent magnetic field

N= Coils number L= Coils lenght I= Coils current m= Magnetic Permeability

N B H I L

Coils vibrations

Membrane vibrations

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Biomedical vibration applications

Biomedical vibration applications

Piezoelectric or electromagnetic Lithotripter (urological)

Piezoelectric surgical scaler (dental)

Piezoelectric Ultrasound probes


Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Biomedical vibration applications

Ultrasound rehabilitation therapy (piezoelectric)

Rehabilitation Vibration Therapeutic Exercise (oscillating masses)

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Vibrations human body effects

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Vibrations Frequency Bands


0 - 2 Hz low frequency oscillations, generated by means of transportation (buses, airplains, ships); 2 - 40 Hz middle frequency oscillations, generated

by machine tools and industrial plant;


> 40 - 50 Hz high frequency oscillations generated by a lot of vibrating tools used in industrial field Acceleration Time Exposure Contact Area Contact Force Ergonomical and environmental factors Tissues Resonance Frequency
Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Body Effects

Vibrations human body negative effects

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Negative effects: vibration wave energy transferred from the oscillation source to the exposed body causes different effects on human tissues and organs crossed
Human Body Human body doesnt vibrate like a single mass with only one natural frequency, every body part has a its own resonance frequency

Tolerable vibration energy level


Long terms damages

Human body deterioration


Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Vibrations human body negative effects

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Vibration Direction

Vibration Touch point


Lower efficiency degree

Whole Body Vibrations

Low-middle frequency vibrations

Decrease of fatigue threshold Local negative effects

Hand Arm Vibrations

High frequency vibrations Middle - High frequency vibrations

Local Vibrations

Local negative effects (not only on HA system)

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Safety of workers subject to vibrations

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In order to limit the negative effects of vibration on workers Hand Arm System

D.Lgs 81/08
Asum (a x
2

ay az )
2 2

A(8) Asum

Te 8

Te = daily exposure time to vibrations (hour) 8 = reference time (hours) ax, ay,az = r.m.s. acceleration values (in m/s2) along x, y, z axis (ISO 5349-1: 2001)

Equivalent Acceleration Exposure Limit Value = 5 m/s2

Whole Body
Equivalent Acceleration Exposure Limit Value = 1 m/s2

A(8) AMax

Te 8

Te= daily exposure time to vibrations (hour) 8 = reference time (hours) AMax = Maximum value among ax, ay, az ax, ay,az = r.m.s acceleration values (in m/s2) along axis x, y, z (ISO 2631-1: 1997)

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Vibrations human body positive effects

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Reduced Exposure Time

Specific Oscillation Frequency

Positive Effects

Mechanical Skeletal and neuromuscular system

Metabolic Adaptations Hormonal effects

Bosco C., Colli R., Introini E., Cardinale M., Tsarpela O., Madella A., Tihanyi J., Viru A. - Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Clinical Physiology. 19(2): 183-187, 1999.
Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Therapeutic applications of vibration energy in rehabilitation medicine

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By using.

Whole Body Vibrations


Propagating to the whole human body

Vibrating Platforms

Hand Arm/Local Vibrations


involving Hand-Arm System or specific body part Vibrating Tools
Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Hormonal effects

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Testosterone and growthhormone concentration

Cortisol concentration

Vibration frequency 20-50 Hz

Significant statistical improvement of testosterone and GH serum concentration after whole body vibration exercise (10 times for 60 s, with 60 s rest time - B before, A after)
Bosco C., Iacovelli M., Tsarpela O., Cardinale M., Bonifazi M., Tihanyi J., Viru M., De Lorenzo A., Viru A. - Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol. 81: 449-454, 2000; Kvorning T., Bagger M., Caserotti P. Effects of vibration and resistance training on neuromuscular and hormonal measures. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Mar;96(5): 615-25
Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Neuro-muscular system effect

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Strengthening of the stimulation input, through the spindle motor-neural connections (stretch reflex)
Locally applied vibrations to the muscle and to tendon structure (10-40 Hz)

Whole Body Vibrations (1-50 Hz)

Muscle spindle receptors activation


Hagbarth e Eklund, 1966; Johnston e coll, 1970; Arcangel e coll., 1971; Armstrong e coll., 1987; Matyas e coll., 1986; Samuelson e coll., 1989; Bosco e coll., 2000; Y. Nishihira, T. Iwasaki, A. Hatta, T. Wasaka, T. Kaneda, K. Kuroiwa, S. Akiyama, T. Kida, K. Ryol - Effect of whole Body Vibration Stimulus and Voluntary Contraction on Motoneuron Pool, Advances in Exercise and Sports Physiology, Vol. 8, No. 4 - 03/03/2004
Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Tonic Vibration Reflex

Neuro-muscular system effect

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Human explosive power improvement

Better motor unit synchronization Improvement of synergistic muscles coordination

Increase of contractile ability in muscular area subject to vibration exercise induces an evident right-shift of force-velocity curve and of force-power one

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Bone Tissue effect

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Vibration Therapeutic Exercise

Muscular function improvement

Effective stress on insertion bone

Bone mass development

Positively interfere on bone metabolism, also in osteoporotic degeneration case


Rubin e coll., Nature, 441: 603-604, 2001; Miyamoto K., Mori S., Tsuij S., Tanaka S., Mashiba T., Komatsubara S., Akijama T., Kawanishi J., Norimatsu H. - Whole Body Vibration Exercise in the Elderly People; P506F IBMS Osaka 2003

therapy of choice concerning the geriatric medicine and the osteoporosis prevention
Rubin C., Turner A.S., Bain S., Mallinckrodt C., McLeod K. Low mechanical signals strengthen long bones. Nature, 412(6847), 603604, 2001.

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

Bone Tissue effect

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Upper and lower limb bone fractures treatment

More quickly bone reparation

Mechanical factor

Bone tissue adaptive response

Bone Deformation

Signal proportional to the applied load


osteocyte

Increase of bone forming


osteoblast

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo

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Conclusions

IF

Vibration Energy Patient application

By

Positive stimulus for the whole body

THEN

Qualified clinicians Using appropriate devices/procedures Using specific frequency

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body

Paolo Abundo

Conclusions

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Application fields In rehabilitation plans in which, an optimization of methods aimed at extensibility of muscle-tendon complex improvement, is required; In geriatric patologies, to improve myo-osteo-articular functionality and in osteoporotic patients;

In sport field as alternative/complementary training method oriented to


an explosive-force improvement; In workplans oriented to painful pathologies such as in chronic low backpain therapy

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body

Paolo Abundo

Conclusions

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Last, but not least

if applied in non specific way, WBV treatments could have non positive effects

Importance of application mechanisms

The optimum is obtained localizing vibrations to a specific body part

When a systemic response is required When a local response is required

Whole body vibrations Local vibrations

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body

Paolo Abundo

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Thanks for the attention


Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body
P. Abundo 1, C. Trombetta 2, C. Foti 3 and N. Rosato 1
1
2 PhD 3

Medical Engineering Service, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome

student in Advanced Technology in Rehabilitation Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome

Tor Vergata University, Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Public Health Department, Rome

February 9th 2010