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Presentation On

Resist Printing
Subject: Textile Finishing
Presented To: Mr. Safdar
Definition of Resist Printing

Resist Printing involves a two step process

in which a design pattern is printed on a
White or Dyed Fabric with a Chemical or
Wax. That will prevent the dyes from
penetrating the fabric. When it is dyed, the
color is absorbed only where there is no
resisting agent is applied. After dyeing the
resist is removed.
• Resist or Reverse printing is related to Discharge printing
where end results are often distinguishable. The Resist style
however offers an advantage of dyes if great chemical stability
where Discharge could not. It can be resisted to give prints of
high fastness standard results. Results can be obtained on both
White or colored pattern on pattern ground. Every class of
colorant is capable being resisted. Many techniques are
complex and time consuming. Before printing fabric should be
treated with the starch and calendared to give flat surface upon
which the resist print would form a perfect cover
Preparing Ground Color Pad-Bath
• Sodium alginate, guar gum, CMC, synthetic thickener etc
(Mignon NS: Senka Corporation--maleic acid copolymer)
are used as anti-migration agents. It is widely accepted
that sodium alginate with low viscosity is used since it
has great anti-migration effect, however, ammonium salts
of tartaric acid, citric acid etc are appropriate as pH buffer
for the stabilization of dyestuff inasmuch as organic acid,
such as maleic acid, tartaric acid etc, can easily lead to
In order to reduce the bleeding at pattern outlines, which
can be a disadvantage of the pre-pad method, it is more
effective to add organic acid. In addition, it is possible to
prevent halation which is caused by alkali during
steaming as long as the solid content of thickener in the
pad bath increases as little as possible so as not to affect
the hand of dried cloth.
For a pad bath, it is effective to add a degassing
penetrating agent (with less foaming) or auxiliary (Senka
Emulsyn) that softens the dried film if necessary.
• In addition, resist printing paste can be printed before the
ground color is printed with the Wet on Wet or Wet on
Dry method: the after-cover printing method, or resist
printing paste can be printed with the Wet on Wet or Wet
on Dry method after the ground color is printed: the pre-
cover printing method. Table 5 shows the advantages and
disadvantages of each method: For mass production with
a large ground color design, discharge printing on ground
dyeing or the ground-color pre-pad method are often
considered, and the pre-pad method is outstanding
because its great white dischargeability allows us to
choose dyestuff in wide variety. Since with the pad
method, any potential defect of the cloth becomes
distinguishable, it is recommended to use a high
performance padder (Roller Jet padder etc) in order to
carry out even padding with ground color. In addition, if
the hand of dried pad cloth is rough, it will be difficult to
place cloth on the printing table, therefore, it will be
necessary to choose an anti-migration paste which is
often used in pad-bath, and sometimes using suitable
dyestuffs or adding an auxiliary may be helpful.
• In the cover printing method which is suitable
for small lots, especially the after-cover
printing method, since the bleeding of pattern
outlines can easily occur, paste compound (a
compounded mineral thickening agent) with
physical resist-printing effect is
recommended. In the pre-cover printing
method, the paste layer prevents bleeding,
but the whiteness of discharge printing will
decrease. Base color printing: rotary screen
and gravure roll printing machines are
appropriate for cover printing since the paste
layer can be made comparatively thin by the
In order to have fair color development, since
with HPS (high-pressure steaming process),
bleeding can easily occur, and the dry heat
method will lead to a problem with discharge
effect, the hand of cloth and color
development, commonly HTS (high-
Pad-bath preparation
• Disperse dyestuff for ground color X g
• Water Yg
• Anti-migrating Thickener 20-30 g
• pH buffer 5g
• Penetrating Agent 0-5 g
• Senka Emulsyn 300 0-30 g
Preparing Cover-Printing Paste

• Considering leveling ground color and paste compound

that is appropriate for HTS (de-paste property, color
development), combining sodium alginate with modified
starch, mid-etherificated CMC is recommended.
Moreover, mixing O/W emulsion is appropriate to have
stable levelness of print and color development.
Examples of Cover-Printing

• Disperse dyestuff for ground color Xg

• Hot Water 200 g
• Stock Paste 500 g
• pH buffer (Orangic acid) 2g
• Reduction Inhibitor: Resist Liquid 10 g
• Printing Improver (Senkanol CN) 10 g
• High Color Depth Auxiliary for HTS:GTP-31 Senka
20 g
• Balancing Yg
Stock Paste

• Sodium Alginate with low Viscosity(7%) 300g

• Modified Starch 200 g
• Primogum F-30 20 g
• Water Xg
Difference b/w Discharge &
Resist Printing

• Difference is not only appearance but there processes are

also different.
• In Discharge Printing, discharging agent is applied on the
fabric and dye in printed areas is destroyed during
• In Resist Printing, resisting agent is applied on the
undyed fabric and effectively prevents the fixation or
development of the ground color. It is applied by an
appropriate dyeing technique such as Dyeing, Padding or
Color Padding.
Functions of Resist Printing

• Resisting Agent Functions either

Mechanically or Chemically or sometimes
in both ways.
Mechanical Agents

• It includes Waxes, Fats, Resin Thickeners,

and Pigments such as china clay of zinc
and titanium and sulphates of lead and
• Such mechanical agents forms a physical
barrier b/w the fabric and colorant.
Chemical Agents

• It includes a wide range of color compounds including

acids, alkalies, various salts, oxidizing and reducing
• They prevent fixation or development of the ground
colour by chemically reacting with the dye or with the
reagent necessary for its fixation or formation.
• Using indigo for a ground illustrates a combined
mechanical and chemical resist effect.
• After printing the fabric would be thoroughly dried to
consolidate the resist barrier.
Pad Application

• Nip Padding is preferred to Immersion Padding.

• Pad application of dye reduces the time of
contact and therefore the bleeding of soluble
resisting agents.
• Some thickening of Pad liquor may be necessary
to increase the volume of liquor carried onto the
Resist Under Aniline Black

• This particular colorant is formed on cellulosic material

by the oxidation of aniline.
• Recipe:
• Aniline Hydrochloride 80g
• Aniline 5g
• Targacanth Thickener 50 g
• Water 250 ml
Resist Printing under Reactive Dyes

• A wide range of colors, brighteners and good fastness

properties are available.
• Reactive dyes are now popular for both direct printing
and for plain dyeing. Most of the reactive dyes can only
be fixed on the cellulosic fibers in which the alkali is
• Recipe:
• Citric Acid 50 g
• Thickener 600g
• Water 1000g
White Resist

Two phase fixation process can be carried out for white


• Print the white material with acid, resist paste and dry.

• Pad with neutral dry liquor and dry.

• Nip pad material with fixation liquor, fix, wash off and
Vat Resist under Vat Dyed Grounds

• This is not a widely used style but used for

the fastness properties associated with vat
dyes are necessary.

• Material is first printed with normal in Vat

Print Paste of Sodium Thiosulphate.
Resisting Printing on Wool

• Various methods for resist printing on wool has been integrated. Bell
has explained some of these.
• Chemical resist product Sandosperse R is a reactive agent similar to
reactive dye is colorless.
• Bell and Levis described the reaction in which the resist agent with
Amino group in the wool, blocking the reactive sites.
• It is complimented by anionic repulsion. Pale shades are resisted to
white varying greater depth of shades.
• Sulphonic acid is used as non-anionic dye resist agent for wool was
patented by Sandoz in 1955. it is used at a concentration of 150-200
g/kg with similar quantities in urea and print paste, which also
incorporated thickener, non-ionic wetting agent and anti-foams. This
dyeing is carried out with selected reactive dyes from various reagents.
Wax Resist

• Wax resist applying on imperable

substance such as hot gum or wax onto the
fabric, which will resist the color when the
cloth is dipped into a dye bath. The resist
substance is later removed to reveal the
original color of the cloth.
Resist printing and discharge printing
with disperse dyestuff
• The active carbon resist printing method had been mainly used for
hand printing of high grade products until the 1960's. The active
carbon resist printing method is the most appropriate for white resist
printing since the method does not require the specific selection of
disperse dyestuff for ground dyeing, however, in the case of colored
resist printing, obtaining vivid shades is difficult with the method
due to the loss of dye fixation which is caused by the adsorption of
the effect color dyestuff into the active carbon. Active carbon resist-
printing agents available on the market are composed of a fine-grain
active carbon which is a pre-treated, thickening agent with high
solidity, a reinforcing agent for paste film (minerals: titanium
dioxide, talc etc) and water repellent. To have the best result in
physical resist printing, it is recommended carrying out hand
printing with Wet on Dry method with which it is possible to
produce a thick resist printing paste layer and print a printed ground
paste after drying.
• On the other hand, for the chemical resist printing method,
the following agents will be appropriate:
• Heavy metals:
• chelate resist printing-disperse dyestuff is chelated by
heavy metals to prevent dye fixation.
• Reducing agent:
• carry out reduction strip of disperse dyestuff by using
stannous chloride or sulfinate type Decrolin.
• Alkali agent:
• causes hydrolysis of disperse dyestuff by carrying out
the heat treatment of metallic alkali.
• The reduction method with stannous chloride is used widely, since
the use of dyestuffs is very flexible and they have high dye-fixing
efficiency, however, problems, such as machine corrosion caused by
the acid gas during the process, skin irritation, waste water treatment
and damage to the undercloth may occur.
The alkali resist printing method has already been practiced and can
substitute for the stannous chloride resist/discharge printing. It was
introduced as an economical method, being kind to the environment,
at the same time as Dispersal PC Dyestuff was put out in 1976 by
Characteristics of each resist printing agent and
discharge printing agent

• On printed page
Alkali Resists Printing and
Discharge Printing
• It is recommended to use sodium
carbonate, potash, caustic soda,
caustic potash, sodium bicarbonate,
sodium silicate, trisodium phosphate
or Remazol Salt FD etc as metallic
alkali, however, it is important to
choose the right kind, considering
the resist printing effect, the
sharpness of outline, the influence on
effect color dyestuff etc. In general,
sodium carbonate alone (solubility in
water: 21.6g/100cc, 20) will work just
Characteristics of each type of

• Printed on page
Mineral thickener: ECN-33 (Senka)

• Synthetic thickener: Primogum F-30

(Senka) CMC: GFN-120 (Senka)
• Sodium alginate : Primogum C-1 (Senka)
• Sodium alginate/CMC/CMS: Primogum F-
100 (Senka)
• CMS: M-print CE (Kyoto Seinori CO.,
Glycerin and polyethylene glycol are
recommended as appropriate solubilizing
agents, i.e. PEG 300. Comparing the effect
of glycerin and PEG 300, PEG 300 has
better resist printing effect, and glycerin
can be mixed 1: 1 since it has a great
effect on the bleeding of pattern outlines.
To have greater resist printing effect
(whiteness, sharpness, the dye efficiency
of effect color dyestuff),
• GTG-01 (made by Senka Corporation) is recommended as an
appropriate solubilizing agent.
When an alkali resistant thickener is chosen, it is important to
consider its resist printing effect, printability, paste removal
property. As the most appropriate amount of the above type
solubilizing agent used is about 10-15% within resist printing
paste, it is important to choose a paste agent which has small
fluidity and viscosity changes and also does not lower the
sharpness of pattern outlines. Since thickeners are different
from each other in their characteristics, it is necessary to use
one alone or in an appropriate mix after a total evaluation on
Primogum F-30

• This is a printing emulsion which has

been developed as being kind to the
environment and can be used as an
O/W emulsion paste since it easily
becomes emulsified and thickened
with water even under slow stirring.
Since Primogum F-30 is composed of
oil which does not include a high
boiling-point hydrocarbon (mineral
turpen), it does not lead to
environmental pollution.
A common half emulsion (a printing
• Primogum F-30 can improve printing
operation (transferability of print
paste, separation of screen mesh,
paste splashing etc), and at the
same time, the elements within its
components cannot be volatilized,
even in drying, but will remain in the
print paste. Therefore, the dried film
will stay soft, and there will be less
cracking. Moreover, the elements will
foster the diffusion of the dyestuff in
fixing (steaming) while obtaining
highly concentrated color
development. Thus, even when the
quality of feed steam is poor, stable
color development can be
Effect of Primogum F-30

• It is easy to prepare stock paste with

an O/W emulsion.
• Trouble at each stage will decrease.
• Efficiency of dye fixing will be
• Paste removal property will increase.
Finishing process

• There is the discharge printing method on dyed

cloth (dyestuff is fixed) and the resist printing
method in which a paste with alkali is over-
printed after pad-drying the ground color
(dyestuff is not fixed). Both methods are based
on an idea of printing on dry cloth.

• Characteristics on Printed page

After Discharge Resist Printing
After Cover Printing