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WELL TESTING: INTRODUCTION

A fin de caracterizar el comportamiento de los yacimientos de petrleo y gas,


y para predecir su comportamiento futuro, es esencial seguir la evolucin de
las presiones del fluido y las tasas de produccin en el tiempo. Acceder a la
misma es relativamente sencillo y la produccin de lquido tiende a ser
medido con una precisin razonable.

Presiones del reservorio son determinados por pruebas de pozos.

Durante una prueba, una respuesta de la presin transitoria es creado por
un cambio temporal en la tasa de produccin. La respuesta tambin suele ser
monitorizados durante un periodo de tiempo relativamente corto en
comparacin con la vida del yacimiento, en funcin de los objetivos de la
prueba.

Para la evaluacin, de las pruebas se suele realizar en menos de 2 das.

En el caso que de las pruebas del reservorio alcancen el lmite
despus de varios meses de datos de la presin puede ser necesario
Nota: Las presiones tienden a ser medidas en el fondo del pozo, mientras que
las tasas de produccin tienden a ser medidos en la superficie
WELL TESTING: INTRODUCTION (2)
Informacion obtenida desde el well testing
Well testing, often called pressure transient analysis (PTA), is a powerful tool for reservoir
characterization. The following information can be extracted from well tests:
Permeability The value obtained from a well test is much more useful than that from core
analysis, because it represents the in-situ, effective permeability averaged over a large
distance (tens or hundreds of metres).
Skin (damage or stimulation) Most wells are either damaged or stimulated, and this has
a direct effect on the deliverability of the well. The skin is a measure of the completion
effectiveness of a well. A positive skin (typically +1 to +20) represents damage, while a
negative skin (typically -1 to -6) represents improvement.
Average reservoir pressure This parameter, which is either measured directly or
extrapolated from well test data, is used in material balance calculations for determining
hydrocarbons in-place.
Deliverability potential The IPR (inflow performance relationship) or the AOF (absolute
open flow) is used in forecasting a wells production.
(Well productivity index (PI), flow rate per day per unit drawdown pressure)
Reservoir description Reservoir shape, continuity, and heterogeneity can be determined
from pressure transient tests
Fluid samples The reservoir fluid composition and its PVT (pressure-volume-
temperature) properties can have a significant effect on the economics and production
operations.
Well testing is also an integral part of good reservoir management and fulfills government
regulations. (From: Mattar and Dean, 2008)
TIPOS DE WELL TESTS
Drawdown tests:
La presin de fondo fluyente (FBHP) es utiliza para el anlisis.
Idealmente, el pozo debe estar produciendo a un caudal constante ... a
veces difcil de lograrlo

Build-up test:
El aumento del BHP despus del cierre se utiliza para el anlisis. Antes
de la prueba de restitucin, el pozo debe haber estado fluyendo el tiempo
suficiente para llegar a un caudal estabilizado. El caudal de de flujo es
controlada con precisin (p.e, 0)

Injection/Falloff test:
Lquido que se inyecta en el reservorio. Aumento la presin durante la
inyeccin, y el (fallof) cada despus del cierre, seran analizados.
Propiedades de los fluidos inyectados son diferentes a los fluidos del
yacimiento ... ms difciles de interpretar con confianza.

Interference test:
El BHP controlado en una restitucion se lo observa, as que tan lejos esta
del pozo en produccion.
Deruyck et al., 1992
TIPOS DE WELL TESTS (cont.)
Gas well test:
Anlogo a los pozos de petrleo, pero algunas diferencias. p.e, la prueba
delAbsolute Openhole Potential (AOFP) - y est abierto a la Patm (y / o una
sucesin de relativamente baja contra presin). Adems, el flujo de Darcy no
puede ocurrir, por no mencionar el hecho de que el gas es altamente
compresible
CUANDO SE EJECUTAN LAS PRUEBAS:
Production test:
El pozo se ha sidocompletado como un pozo de produccin, generalmente
como un pozo entubado con una terminacin permanente (por ejemplo,
perforaciones). El pozo es controlado en la superficie, desde la cabeza del del
pozo.
Drill stem test (DST):
El pozo se completa con un fondo temporalmente con el cierre de vlvulas, y
el aislamiento que se consigue mediante los packers. El pozo puede ser
entubado y perforado o hueco abierto. Por lo general, se lleva a cabo
inmediatamente despus de la perforacin con el vstago de la broca, pero es
ms comn para realizar la prueba en la tubera de produccin actual.
La Duracin de la prueba suele ser relativamente corto en comparacin con
una prueba de produccin.
Informacion obtenida durante
el proceso de produccion
Vella et al., 1992
Prueba de un pozo entubado :
la vlvula de prueba de fondo
del pozo y la vlvula de
presin se combinan con la
separacin en la superficie y
el equipo de medicin de
flujo, para obtener la
informacin de la restitucin,
la disminucin de presin y la
acumulacin de datos de
caudal. Las muestras de
fluido de la formacin se
toman en la superficie para su
anlisis..
Reverse circulation valve
Downhole test valve
Packer
Pressure data
Pressure
recorder
Fm. being tested
Deruyck et al., 1992
In the following slides, we will study the pressure response
during a conventional well test (constant production rate)
TRANSIENT FLOW (EARLY)
p
r
p
i
Outer flow boundary
FBHP response dominated by skin and reservoir permeability.
No information about reservoir boundaries.
FBHP or p
wf
r
e
FLUJO STEADY STATE VERDADERO
(P.e., Suporte muy activo del Acuifero, Waterflooding)
p
r
p
i
Lmite de flujo abierto
Que normalmente no se logra en condiciones naturales.
final p
wf
e i
r r p p = = at ,
r
e
r
t
p
all at , 0 =
c
c
SEMI (or PSEUDO) STEADY-STATE FLOW (LATE)
p
r
p
i
Limite de flujo externo
FBHP respuesta dominada por los limites del reservoirio
p
wf1
t
1
t
2
p
wf2
e
r r
r
p
= =
c
c
at , 0
r
e
e
r r
t
p
< =
c
c
all at constant,
DIFFUSION EQUATION FOR RADIAL FLOW
Esta ecuacion es derivadad en base a la ley de consevacion de la masa y Darcy
Top view
Side view
Assumptions:

Homogeneous
Isotropic
Fully penetrating well
Single-phase flow
Constant viscosity
Small & constant compressibility

p.e.., undersaturated oil
t
p
k
c
r
p
r
r r c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c | 1
FLUJO TRANSIENT :
APPROX. SOLUTION FOR INFINITE-ACTING RESERVOIR
p
r
p
i
FBHP response dominated by skin and reservoir permeability.
Note la dependencia logaritmica en el tiempo.
FBHP or p
wf
r
e
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= S
r c
kt
h k
B Q
p p
w
i wf
2
4
ln
4
2
| t

MECHANICAL SKIN FACTOR: S
Considera la posibilidad de que el pozo fluyente con un cuadalat Q. Sin tomar en
cuenta permeabilidad daada en las cercanias del pozo, el prfil dela presion es
la linea punteada . Sin embargo, en el caso de que el pozo esta daado, la
actual presion requireda para alcanzar el caudad de flujof Q como se muestra con
la linea continua. El incremenro de la caida en las cercanias del fue definido por
Van Everdigen como:
p
Q
S
kh
QB
p
skin
t

2
= A
MECHANICAL SKIN FACTOR: S
Si se conoce el radio y la permeabilidad de la zona daada,
se puede resolver de la siguiente manera S
skin
p
QB
kh
S A =

t 2
S
kh
QB
p
skin
t

2
= A
Reordenando tenemos:
w
a
a
a e
r
r
k
k k
S ln

=
r
w
k
e
k
a
r
a
r
e
p
e
p
wf
CONDITIONES QUE ORIGINAN EL SKIN
Positivo skin (afectada produccion)

Formation damage
Partial well penetration
Perforations
Negativo skin (stimulated produccion)

Hydraulic fractures
Acid fractures
Acid wash/squeeze
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX (PI)
PI es un mtodo popular de cuantificar el desempeo del pozo. Se
incluye el efecto SKIN. Se expresa en unidades de caudal de
produccin por da y por unidad de caida de presin ... en las unidades
de campo mtrico: SMC / da / kPaI
( ) . , , , , , etc h S r k f PI
p p
Q
PI
w
wf i
=

=
SEMI (PSEUDO) STEADY-STATE FLOW SOLUTION
FBHP response dominated by reservoir boundaries
(area A; shape factor C
A
).
Note the linear dependence on time.
(
(

+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= S
A c
kt
r C
A
h k
B Q
p p
w A
i wf
|
t
t
2 4
ln
2
1
2
2
p
r
p
i
p
wf
t
1
r
e
p
e
SHAPE FACTORS & SEMI STEADY-STATE FLOW (1)
La ecuacion del influjo en semi steady-state inflow equation aparece
ser restrictiva, ya que solo aplica for a un pozo productor desde el
centro de un area de drenaje de forma circular.

Obviamrente, los reservoirios que no son circulares en general, ni el
pozo(s) producto estara en centro del mismo .

Ademas, cuando de tiene pozos multiple estan produciendo de un
reservorio comun , cada uno asumira su propia~area de drainage fija.
Los factores de forma Dietz Shape Factors (C
A
) fueron derivados para
permitir el uso en la ecuacion del influjo semi steady-state para una
serie de diferentes geometrias.
(
(

+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= S
A c
kt
r C
A
h k
B Q
p p
w A
i wf
|
t
t
2 4
ln
2
1
2
2
FACTORES DE FORMA & SEMI STEADY-STATE FLOW(2)
Variables usudas en los slides precedentes en well testing [SI units]:

r = radial distance [m]
r
w
= wellbore radius [m]
r
e
= outer radius of the reservoir[m]
p = fluid pressure [Pa]
p
wf
= flowing bottomhole pressure [Pa]
p
i
= initial reservoir pressure [Pa]
p
e
= current reservoir pressure at the outer boundary [Pa]
| = porosity
= Eulers number = 1.781
= fluid viscosity [Pas]
c = fluid compressibility, isothermal [Pa
-1
]
k = (effective) permeability [m
2
]
t = time [s]
S = skin factor
Q = fluid production rate [stcm/s]
B

= fluid formation volume factor [rcm/stcm]
h = reservoir thickness [m]
A = reservoir area (in plan view) [m
2
]
C
A
= reservoir shape factor
EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(1)
Un pozo ha sido probado por la produccin con un caudal
constante de
240 scm/d en un periodo de 100 hours. Se tiene la certeza por
las evidencias ,de seismica y geologicas , de que el pozo esta
drenando un bloque aislado de un bloque del well is draining
reservoir el cual tiene una forma deaproximadamente de 4:1 de
una forma rectangular . La prueba extendeda se efectuo con el
proposito de confirmar esto, y to measure other properties of
the reservoir. Following are the known reservoir properties, and
the flowing bottomhole pressures that were measured during
the test. Q: 240 stcm/d
h: 6.00 m
r
w
: 0.10 m
phi: 0.18
c: 2.18E-06 /kPa
: 1 mPas
B
o
: 1.2 rcm/stcm
p
i
: 24115 kPa
Time p
wf
(hours) (kPa)
0.0 24115
1.0 20098
2.0 19981
3.0 19898
4.0 19836
5.0 19767
7.5 19623
10.0 19499
15.0 19251
20.0 19030
30.0 18624
40.0 18259
50.0 17893
60.0 17535
70.0 17191
80.0 16832
90.0 16481
100.0 16129
15000
17000
19000
21000
23000
25000
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (hours)
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

B
H
P

(
k
P
a
)
EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST (2)
Consider the early time flow data, for which we expect the transient
inflow equation to hold true:
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= S
r c
kt
h k
B Q
p p
w
i wf
2
4
ln
4
2
| t

We can re-work this equation like this:
( ) | | t
h k
B Q
S
r c
k
h k
B Q
p p
w
i wf
ln
4
2
4
ln
4
2
t

| t


(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
[Recall that ln(a b) = ln(a) + ln(b)]
We see that a plot of p
wf
against ln(t) should have a slope of:
h k
B Q
t

4

no time-dependent terms
... and an intercept of:
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
S
r c
k
h k
B Q
p
w
i
2
4
ln
4
2
| t

EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(3)
h k
B Q
t

4

A plot of p
wf
against ln(t)
should have a slope of:
kPa 25 . 201
4
=
h k
B Q
t

From the regression
line, we see that:
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
( )( )( ) m 6 4 Pa 10 25 . 201
s Pa 10 rcm/stcm 2 . 1 d/s 10 157 . 1 stcm/d 240
4 Pa 10 25 . 201
3
3 5
3
t t

=

h
B Q
k
es millidarci 220 m 10 20 . 2
2 13
~ =

k
y = -201.25x + 21756.86
R
2
= 0.99
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
8 9 10 11 12 13
ln(t sec)
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

B
H
P

(
k
P
a
)
pwf (kPa)
early
Linear (early)
EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(4)
Pa 10 21757 2
4
ln
4
3
2
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
S
r c
k
h k
B Q
p
w
i
| t

( )( )
( )( )( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )( )( )

)

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|





=

2 1 9 3
2 13
3 3
3 5
2 13
m 1 . 0 Pa 10 18 . 2 s Pa 10 18 . 0 781 . 1
m 10 2 . 2 4
ln 10 25 . 201 Pa 10 21757 24115
s Pa 10 rcm/stcm 2 . 1 d/s 10 157 . 1 stcm/d 240
m 6 m 10 2 . 2 2t
S
45 . 3 = S
y = -201.25x + 21756.86
R
2
= 0.99
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
8 9 10 11 12 13
ln(t sec)
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

B
H
P

(
k
P
a
)
pwf (kPa)
early
Linear (early)

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
3
4
ln
4
Pa 10 21757
2
w
i
r c
k
h k
B Q
p
B Q
h k
S
| t

t
The y-intercept of our regression tells us that:
Which can be solved for S as follows:
EXAMPLE PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST (5)
Consider the late time flow data, for which we expect the semi
steady-state inflow equation to hold true:
We can re-work this equation like this:
We see that a plot of p
wf
against t should have a slope of:
no time-dependent terms
(
(

+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= S
A c
kt
r C
A
h k
B Q
p p
w A
i wf
|
t
t
2 4
ln
2
1
2
2
t
A c h
B Q
S
r C
A
h k
B Q
p p
w A
i wf
| t


(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4
ln
2
1
2
A c h
B Q
|

... and an intercept of:


(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
S
r C
A
h k
B Q
p
w A
i
2
4
ln
2
1
2 t

EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(6)
y = -9.836E-03x + 1.967E+04
R
2
= 1.000E+00
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
0 100000 200000 300000 400000
Time (sec)
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

B
H
P

(
k
P
a
)
pwf (kPa)
late
Linear (late)
A plot of p
wf
against t
should have a slope of:
From the regression
line, we see that:
A c h
B Q
|

Pa/s 836 . 9
kPa/s 10 836 . 9
3
=
=

A c h
B Q
|
( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )( ) Pa/s 836 . 9 Pa 10 18 . 2 18 . 0 m 6
rcm/stcm 2 . 1 d/s 10 157 . 1 stcm/d 240
Pa/s 836 . 9
1 9
5

= =
c h
B Q
A
|
hectares 4 . 14 m 10 44 . 1
2 5
= = A
EXAMPLE PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST (7)
The y-intercept of our regression tells us that:
Which can be solved for C
A
as follows:
Pa 10 967 . 1
4
ln
2
1
2
7
2
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
S
r C
A
h k
B Q
p
w A
i
t

y = -9.836E-03x + 1.967E+04
R
2
= 1.000E+00
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
0 100000 200000 300000 400000
Time (sec)
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

B
H
P

(
k
P
a
)
pwf (kPa)
late
Linear (late) ( ) ( ) | | S
r
A
p
B Q
h k
C
w
i A
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
7
4
ln
2
1
Pa 10 967 . 1
2
ln
2
1

t
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
45 . 3
m 1 . 0 781 . 1
m 10 44 . 1 4
ln
2
1
Pa 10 412 . 2 Pa 10 967 . 1
s Pa 10 rcm/stcm 2 . 1 d/s 10 157 . 1 stcm/d 240
m 6 m 10 2 . 2 2 2
ln
2
2 5
7 7
3 5
2 13
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+


=

t
A
C
( ) 69 . 7 04 . 2 ln = =
A A
C C
Error: These
two terms
should be
multiplied by 2.
See next slide
for correct
version.
EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(7)
The y-intercept of our regression tells us that:
Which can be solved for C
A
as follows:
Pa 10 967 . 1
4
ln
2
1
2
7
2
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
S
r C
A
h k
B Q
p
w A
i
t

y = -9.836E-03x + 1.967E+04
R
2
= 1.000E+00
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
21000
0 100000 200000 300000 400000
Time (sec)
F
l
o
w
i
n
g

B
H
P

(
k
P
a
)
pwf (kPa)
late
Linear (late) ( ) ( ) | | S
r
A
p
B Q
h k
C
w
i A
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
7
4
ln
2
1
Pa 10 967 . 1
2
ln
2
1

t
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
45 . 3 2
m 1 . 0 781 . 1
m 10 44 . 1 4
ln Pa 10 412 . 2 Pa 10 967 . 1
s Pa 10 rcm/stcm 2 . 1 d/s 10 157 . 1 stcm/d 240
m 6 m 10 2 . 2 2 2
ln
2
2 5
7 7
3 5
2 13
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+


=

t
A
C
( ) 69 . 7 04 . 2 ln = =
A A
C C
Corrected version
These two terms have been corrected here.
The final answer that was originally given was correct.
EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(8)
Here is the closest match
from the table of Dietz
shape factors.
( ) 69 . 7 04 . 2 ln = =
A A
C C
EJEMPLO PRESSURE DRAWDOWN TEST(9)
Reservoir shape:
hectares 4 . 14 m 10 44 . 1 Area
2 5
= =
45 . 3 factor Skin =
es millidarci 220 m 10 20 . 2 ty Permeabili
2 13
~ =

Here is what we have interpreted for this reservoir:
DIMENSIONLESS VARIABLES
Its actually much more convenient to
convert our well test data to dimensionless
form, then perform type-curve matching to
obtain our reservoir parameters.
( ) ( )
t r i D D D
w
D
w
D
p p
QB
kh
t r p
cr
kt
t
r
r
r
,
2
2
,
;
=
= =

t
|
PRESSURE DERIVATIVES
More advanced well test analyses often involve fitting to both the
dimensionless pressure type-curves, as well as its derivative.
Deruyck et al., 1992
In the preceding slides, we saw how pressure data from a
drawdown test in an oil well could be used to calculate k, S, A and
C
A
. What about estimating initial reservoir pressure (p
i
)?

One way to estimate p
i
is using the bottomhole shut-in pressures
(p
ws
) recorded during a pressure build-up test.

The so-called Horner plot involves graphing:
t
t t
vs p
ws
A
A +
ln .
where t is the length of time that the well was flowed prior to the
build-up test, and At is the time since shut-in.

If we could shut-in the well to infinite time, p
ws
would reach p
i
.

Linear extrapolation of the data to ln[(t+At)/At] = 0 is equivalent to
extrapolating the data to infinite shut-in time.
ESTIMATING RESERVOIR PRESSURE:
HORNER PLOT ANALYSIS
t
t t
A
A +
ln
ws
p
(DST Test)
At

t

APPENDIX A

Extra Stuff
Regarding Well Testing
The hypothesis of slightly compressible fluids (i.e., small, constant
compressibility) used for oil-well test analysis of not valid for gas
systems.

Recall that gas compressibility is strongly dependent on
pressure... in fact, so is gas viscosity.
GAS WELL TESTING (1)
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0 10000 20000 30000 40000
Pressure (kPa); T = const = 360K
G
a
s

V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

(
m
P
a

s
)
= 0.85; temperature = 200F).
G
a
s

c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

In 1966, Al-Hussaniy et al. demonstrated that the radial flow equation can
be linearized approximately (i.e., rendered into a form that we can solve
analytically) by replacing all pressure terms with the so-called gas
pseudo-pressure, m(p).

The pseudo-pressure, also called the real gas potential, is defined as:
GAS WELL TESTING (2)
where:
p = the pressure of interest
p
0
= a reference pressure (chosen arbitrarily, usually a value
less than the lowest pressure to be experience in the
well test)
= gas viscosity
z = gas z-factor
( )
}
=
p
p
p
z
p
p m
0
d 2

The radial diffusion equation then becomes:


GAS WELL TESTING (3)
Remember the transient inflow equation for oil?
( ) ( )
t
p m
k
c
r
p m
r
r r c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c | 1
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= S
r c
kt
h k
B Q
p p
w
i wf
2
4
ln
4
2
| t

Heres the analogous solution for gas inflow:
( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ' 2
4
ln
4
2
S
r c
kt
h k
B Q
p m p m
w
i wf
| t

GAS WELL TESTING (4)
Transient gas inflow equation:
( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ' 2
4
ln
4
2
S
r c
kt
h k
B Q
p m p m
w
i wf
| t

Note that the skin factor has been expanded to account for non-
Darcy flow effects:
Q D S S + = '
Where D is called the non-Darcy flow coefficient.

With more time, we could go on to do an example calculation
analogous to the one we did last lecture for an oil well.

Please note that the transformation between p and m(p) is not as
stinky as it might seem.
Gas pseudo-pressure, as calculated in Table 8.1 (Gas gravity = 0.85; T = 200F)
m(p),
psi/cP
p, psi
For an oil reservoir below the bubble point, we really shouldnt
pretend that the total fluid compressibility (i.e., oil + gas + water) is
small and constant.

There is also a multiphase pseudo-pressure, which linearizes the
inflow equations and allows us to make use of the well test
analysis techniques presented in the last lecture.

SOLUTION GAS DRIVE RESERVOIRS
( )
}
=
p
o o
ro
p
B
k
p m
0
d 2

where:
p = the pressure of interest

o
= oil viscosity
B
o
= oil formation volume factor
CORRECTION FOR VARIABLE FLOW RATES
The mathematical basis for well test analysis assumes constant
flow rate throughout the test. If rates have varied over time, once
technique that allows you to use conventional interpretation is by
calculating an equivalent flow time (t
e
).
WORK-AROUNDS FOR TESTS OF NON-CONSTANT RATE
See also Superposition Methods, in any textbook
on well test analysis.
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