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COMMISSIONING

HYDRO POWER STATION

INTRODUCTION
Following are the main components of a Hydroelectric Power Plant Dam Reservoir Power intake (Penstock)

Power house
Turbine Draft tube Main inlet valve Generator Bus Duct Field Excitation System Governing System SCADA System Station Transformer Balance of Plant Protection system & switchgear LV/ HV distribution DC, UPS Battery

Switch Yard

Dome
Stator

Rotor
Generator Shaft

Turbine Shaft
Spiral Casing

Stay Ring
Runner

Draft Tube

COMMISSIONING
Testing of new equipments to check its conformity with contractual specifications, as well as operation of the equipment until formally accepted by the Customer.

Definition

Commissioning usually occurs after first erection of a new unit.

COMMISSIONING
Pre-commissioning tests Prior to filling waterways After filling waterways

Commissioning activities consist of various tests:

Initial Run test

Test Run

READINESS CRITERION
Commissioning activities in hydro project begin with the filling of waterways on the down stream side (common tailrace) and up stream side (Head Race or Penstock) of the machine. This implies readiness of hydro set which broadly comprises of following equipments and their readiness criteria :
1. Draft Tube and Liner, Spiral casing, Tail Race Channel, Penstock and gates etc. for their erection and checks from the point of view of cleanliness, civil grouting work for the hollow portions between metal and concrete contact surfaces etc. It is to be ensured that there is no impediments in the free flow of water from any projecting lumps of concrete/reinforcement rods etc.

2.

3.

The grouting plugs have been welded and flush grinded as per Drawing requirement and no obstruction exists from any local bending of metallic liners etc. in the water path.
Painting work of underwater parts with black anticorrosive paint has been completed.

4.

READINESS CRITERION
The Machine itself has been made ready mechanically along with its auxiliaries. This will include the following major equipments/systems/works and other preparations :

Turbine & Turbine Pit :


1. Runner blade and chamber clearances have been checked and found OK to ensure that no rubbing is likely to occur during start up and running. Air inflated repair seal of Turbine shaft is OFF and cooling water to working seal will be available when CW system is charged. Turbine bearing oil is at proper level neither too high nor too low let the drawing be followed at this stage. Keep record of pumping holes in the skirt if provided-whether plugged and how many. Manual/Auto greasing of guide vanes etc. has been done for smooth operation.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Easy mobility along with sufficient lighting both AC/DC provided in the pit.

READINESS CRITERION
6. Dry stroking of guide apparatus/ MIV have been done upto full rated oil pressure of OPU through governor. Record Opening/Closing and damping times. Dowelling work etc. of bearing housing etc. has been completed. Fulfillment of all requirements given in O&M manuals/check lists of the project to be ensured. De-watering of draft tube checked twice by closing the draft tube gates.

7. 8.

9.

10. Turbine top cover drainage system is operational and in Auto to avoid turbine pit flooding during first filling of TRC and subsequently during penstock filling etc. Preferably additional pumping arrangement, not dependent on Electric Supply (i.e. Air Operated) be provided as quantity of leakage water from shaft, Guide vane cup seals, etc. is not known at this time. This is more necessary when starting a machine after a long delay after erection.

READINESS CRITERION
Generator & Generator Barrel : 1. Generator and its sub assemblies have been fully erected as per drawing and cleaned with dry compressed air/cloth. Check top and bottom air guide clearances which should be at least 8-10 mm ( as per drawing requirement) from the rotor fan blades. Stator/Rotor gap must be free from any foreign object which is usually checked by taking a rope all around the gap along the full height of the stator core.

2.

3.

Check and ensure that Generator barrel/bracket areas are free from foreign objects, hanging wires/cables, loose electrical connections, loose clamps etc.
Bearing vapour seal segments may not be assembled in position during initial runs to avoid likelihood of rubbing until performance in terms of vibration and wobble is proved up to full speed (This is not applicable for vapour seals of wool felt type). Initial bedding of slip ring carbon brushes, cleaning of slip rings etc. has been done. Carbon brushes to be kept disengaged from the slip rings, during initial runs as no excitation is to be given during this time. Should be in for proper bedding .

4.

5.

READINESS CRITERION
6. Dowelling of stator frame/brackets etc. has been done and secondary concreting of Stator and lower bracket foundations have fully cured. Epoxy grouting of foundation bolts to be ensured. Tightening of all bolts and their locking particularly of the rotor/rotor lead clamps/pole to pole joints etc. to be carefully checked. Generator Barrel water mist Fire Extinguishing system commissioned and kept ready in manual/Auto mode, which is to be switched on prior to voltage build up/ synchronisation/loading. Brake system is already tested for reliable lifting and release 10 times from HP compressor/pressure reducer air system or L P air system along with Limit Switch operation for indication/control. Free operation of brakes to be ensured. Auto operation of Brake is to be disabled during initial period (Brake Air Pressure should be adjusted for 4-5 Kg/cm2 ). Brakes should be applied at a speed as given in design which is usually 20 to 25% of rated speed). Required oil should be filled up in air filter unit.

7.

8.

READINESS CRITERION
9. Generator bearings oil should be at proper level as per Drawing and this should be marked in gauge glass. Operation of low/high level float switches should be checked.

10. Performance of HS Lube system to be proved. Check lifting of Rotor from HS lube pressure by 4 dial gauges placed at X and Y positions i.e at 4 points to know amount and uniformity of lift all around. The HS Lube pressure should not exceed specified design value. Safety relief valve to be adjusted depending on the pressure required for jacking. HP lub oil pressure switches/gauge to be adjusted for normal & low pressure. Ensure no loose connections in the electrical circuits to avoid sparking and consequent fire hazard in these enclosed spaces.

PRE- REQUISITES FOR COMMISSIONING


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 440 V 3 Phase AC supply 240 V 1 Phase A.C. supply 220 V DC or 110 V D.C. Power supply system 48 V DC Power supply system Dewatering, Drainage and leakage collection system and their pumping arrangement. 11 KV or 13.75 KV along with cable etc. for commissioning of excitation system. 24 V DC power supply system. The intake gates, draft tube gates and butterfly valves are tested for safe and reliable operation and equipped with operator personnel and telephonic connection .

9.

Oil supply system.

10. Compressed air system. 11. Completion of cable laying , termination @ earthing

12. 240 V AC UPS supply.

PRE- REQUISITES FOR COMMISSIONING


13. Readiness of water conducting system . 14. Civil works in the vicinity of active and sensitive electrical and mechanical

machinery/equipment are finalized. Floors are clean and dry.


15. Station earthling system is in full and reliable condition. 16. Main fire fighting system for the power house cavern in safe operating condition, including the portable fire extinguishers. 17. Ventilation, illuminations, communication, and Air-conditioning available

on a permanent base.
18. Readiness of protective covers, guards ladders and covering of floor holes and pits.

PRE-COMMISSIONING TEST/CHECKS
Test between completion of erection of the equipment and initial run. Tests/Checks prior to filling waterways Tests/Checks after filling of waterways

Precommissioning Tests:

TEST/CHECKS PRIOR TO
FILLING WATERWAYS
1.

Inspection of all the turbine waterways and removal of all foreign or loose objects. Calibration of scales for wicket gate opening and where applicable, for runner blades, needles and deflectors including their cam relationships; and also measurement of clearances. Operation of pressure oil units, MIV, governors, automatic and manually operated starting and stopping devices and signaling devices. Oil levels and pressures in governing system; Condition of all oil filters.

2.

3.

4.

TESTS/CHECKS PRIOR TO
FILLING WATERWAYS
5.

Protective devices such as oil level and temperature alarms and relays, with adjustment if needed. Times of opening and closing of governing elements, i.e. wicket gates, runner blades of turbines with movable blades, needles and deflectors of impulse turbines. MIV opening and closing times.

6.

7.

8.

Bearing and seal clearances and functioning of hydrostatic lubrication system.

TESTS/CHECKS PRIOR TO
FILLING WATERWAYS
9.

Operation of drainage pumps and dewatering pumps. Oil, grease and water supply to all bearings and seals requiring lubrication or cooling.

10.

11.

Operation of braking system of the unit.

TESTS/CHECKS
AFTER FILLING WATERWAYS
1.

The Tail water gate shall be opened first after filling the draft tube and spiral case up to tail water level through a filling valve of the draft tube gates. Check for leaks is to be made. The whole waterway should be filled slowly and manually through a bypass valve of the penstock.

2.

Operation of emergency protection devices which actuates the intake gate/MIV and closure of guide vanes and stoppage of machine is to be checked. If the protective devices and emergency closing system work satisfactorily, and no unusual leakage or deformation is observed, Initial run of the Machine can be initiated.

3.

INITIAL RUN
After the permission for initial run, locking devices and brakes are released and the turbine wicket gates or needles are opened under manual control, slowly as per manufacturers recommendations and bring the speed up to at least the minimum stated value.

If any noise, scraping or other abnormal phenomena is observed, the unit should be shut down immediately and thorough inspection is to be carried out to find out the cause of the problem and rectify the same.

INITIAL RUN
Time Unit speed Servomotor stroke Temperature of bearing Shaft run out

Measurements Items:

Instruments to be used:

Tachometer Dial indicator

TEST RUN

Test Run consists of :

Mechanical Spinning without Excitation Spinning with Excitation Synchronization with the grid Load run and Load Rejection Tests

MECH. SPINNING WITHOUT EXCITATION


1.

The unit is kept under manual control at or above starting speed until bearing temperatures are stabilized. If any temperature is excessive or increases too rapidly, the unit shall be shut down and the causes of this phenomenon is to be investigated and corrected. If all goes well, the unit speed shall be increased in prearranged steps up to the rated value, remaining at each successive speed until the rate of rise of all bearing temperatures is satisfactory to the manufacturer's recommendation.

2.

3.

MECH. SPINNING WITHOUT EXCITATION


During each speed step of test run, at least the following measurements / observations should be made: 1. Deformation of covers and bearing supports 2. Noise or vibration in the turbine and/or generator 3. Operating conditions for the oil pressure and other pumps. 4. Condition of oil in the bearings and pressure oil systems. If water is observed in oil, the leaks shall be located and eliminated. If oil foaming is observed, the cause shall be located and eliminated. 5. Temperatures of bearings and lubricating oil. 6. Shaft run out at turbine and generator bearings and axial displacement of rotating parts is measured. 7. At some agreed speed value, the action of braking system shall be checked.

MECH. SPINNING WITHOUT EXCITATION

Instruments to be used:

Tachometer Vibration meter (Structure) Dial indicator Thermometer

SPINNING WITH EXCITATION


After bearing run, the machine is prepared for short circuit test. For this test, we do three phase shorting at generator terminal then the excitation is increased from zero up to the full load stator current. During this test, operation and stability test of differential protections are also checked. After SCC test, we go for high voltage test for stator winding.

BASIC TEST CIRCUIT FOR SCC TEST

SCC TEST
B

SCC TEST

SCHEMATIC CONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR SCC TEST

HV TEST FOR STATOR WINDING


Used for testing the dielectric strength of generator stator winding insulation. For less than 10MW, test voltage (r.m.s.) shall be 1000V+2*Rated voltage; subject to minimum of 1.5kV. For machines with a rated voltage 6 kV or greater, when power frequency equipment is not available, then by agreement a DC test may be carried out at a voltage 1.7 times the r.m.s. values to be chosen in case of AC test. For more than 10 MW, Test Voltage (r.m.s.) shall be

For voltage less than and equal 2*Rated voltage + 1000 V to 24kV For voltage more than 24kV Subject to agreement

OCC TEST

After successfully completing the HV test, OCC test is carried out. In OCC test, excitation cable is restored and voltage is build up to rated voltage in steps of 1KV. Then, Open Circuit Characteristic Curve is drawn. Operation of Stator earth fault protection is also checked by creating actual earth and performance test of all voltage relays is also carried out .

BASIC TEST CIRCUIT FOR OCC TEST

SCHEMATIC CONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR OCC TEST

SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE GRID


Finally the machine is synchronized with the grid at the partial load.
Phase sequence of Generator voltage and Grid voltage must be the same.

The following conditions must be satisfied:

Two voltages must be equal, i.e. IV1I - IV2I=0. The generator frequency must be nearly equal to the Grid frequency, i.e. f1- f2 0.

At the instant of synchronizing, the two voltages must be almost co-phasal, i.e. 1 2 0.

SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE GRID

The degree of criticality of these parameters are in the following order: , V, f. The inertia of the incoming machine being very small against that of the grid, even with considerable f, the machine will easily be pulled into synchronism. Voltage difference, if large, can result in heavy exchange of VAR and can result in voltage fluctuations, if large enough leading to instability. Large can result in heavy exchange if MW, often good enough to cause torsional damage to the shaft system.

LOAD RUN AND LOAD REJECTION TESTS


When the generator and switching equipment has been declared ready for operation , the unit is synchronized. During the load rejection tests, all necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure that rated values of penstock and turbine stresses will not be exceeded. Such precaution may include setting governor timing. When adjustments are made on governor or regulating devices all tests which might be affected by the adjustment shall be repeated.

LOAD RUN AND LOAD REJECTION TESTS


To check the output of the unit with an agreed accuracy. To check the unit for instability, vibration or cavitations in the range of guaranteed loads. To check the functioning of governor and regulating devices, as well as that of the entire unit. To determine the momentary pressure and speed variations of the unit and to find their extreme values. To adjust the closing times of the wicket gates, needle valves and deflectors to minimize over speeding of the unit within the permissible limit of pressure variation To permit testing of the operation of other hydraulic and electrical equipment, including protection and other automatic devices.

PURPOSES:

LOAD RUN AND LOAD REJECTION TESTS


PROCEDURE: The load shall be increased in steps and load rejection test made at successively higher loads up to the maximum expected to be placed on the unit. For example: rejections may be made at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the rated load as well as from the maximum load that may be agreed upon.

Two rejections shall be made at each load. One rejection is made under governor control to no load gate or needle opening, the other may be an emergency shutdown by stop solenoid. If specified, load rejection tests shall be made by means of the emergency valve or by any other emergency device. After the completion of each load rejection test, the pressure rise and turbine speed rise data shall be analyzed to ensure that the specified safe limits will not be exceeded during the next higher load rejection test.

LOAD RUN AND LOAD REJECTION TESTS


Observations, Measurements and Recordings:
Head and tail water level Generator output. Wicket gate or needle opening (where applicable) Pressure at turbine inlet and outlet Pressures and levels in oil pressure systems Operating times of oil pressure pumps. Temperatures in bearings. Noise levels, if values are specified in the contract. Abnormal noises if any. Vibration and other displacement of rotating and fixed parts. Action of air-admission devices if any.

Applicable for Steady State Operation:

LOAD RUN AND LOAD REJECTION TESTS


Observations, Measurements and Recordings:
Head and tail water levels Generator output Strokes and closing times of wicket gates or needles where applicable. Pressure at the turbine inlet and outlet. Level variations at intake and surge tanks Pressure drop in the oil pressure system in the process of governing, and variation of level in the oil pressure reservoir. Noise levels, if values are specified in the contract. Abnormal noises, if any. Vibration and other displacement of rotating and fixed parts. Action of braking jets in case of Pelton turbine.

Load rejection and subsequent tests:

COMMERCIAL RUN
After meeting all the contractual requirements of operation, the machine can be declared ready for Commercial Run.

ILLUSTRATIVE PHOTOGRAPHS

Generator Barrel & Turbine Pit

LOWERING OF STATOR

STATOR SECTION

GENERATOR ROTOR

LOWERING OF ROTOR

DRAFT TUBE ERECTION

STAY RING SPIRAL CASING

HYDROSTATIC TESTING

TURBINE RUNNER

TURBINE SHAFT

TOP COVER & TURBINE ASSEMBLY

LOWER BRACKET

ASSEMBLY OF MIV

BUTTERFLY TYPE

SPHERICAL TYPE