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THE HUMAN EYE AND

THE COLOURFUL
WORLD

Anchli Singh,
Class XA
The Human Eye
The human eye is a significant human
sense
organ. It allows humans conscious light
perception, vision, which includes color
differentiation and the perception of depth.
The human eye has a 200° viewing angle
and can see 10 million colors
The Human Eye
Human eye is like a camera
Its lens system forms an image on the light sensitive
screen called the retina. Light enters the eye through a thin
membrane called the Cornea. The eyeball is
approximately spherical in shape with a diameter of 2.3
cm. Most of the refraction for the light rays entering the
eye occurs at the outer surface of the cornea. The
crystalline lens merely provides the finer adjustment of
focal length required to focus objects at different distances
on the retina. We find the structure called the Iris behind
the cornea. Iris is a dark muscular diaphragm that controls
the size of the pupil. The pupil regulates and controls the
amount of light entering the eye. The eye lens forms an
inverted real image of the object on the retina. The Retina
is a delicate membrane having enormous number of light
sensitive cells. The light-sensitive cells get activated upon
illumination and generate electrical signals. These signals
are sent to the brain via the optic nerves. The brain
interprets these signals ad finally processes the
information so that we perceive objects as they are.
Power of accommodation
• Accommodation of the Eye
The process by which the ciliary muscles change the focal length of an eye lens to focus distant or
near objects clearly on the retina is called the accommodation of the eye.

• Power of Accommodation
The ability of the eye to focus objects lying at different distances is called the power of
accommodation of the eye.

• How Does an Eye Focus Objects at Varying Distances?


To focus on distant objects the ciliary muscles relax making the eye lens thin.
As a result the focal length of the eye lens increases and we see the distant objects.
But to focus on nearby objects the ciliary muscles contract making the eye lens thick. As a result
the focal length of the eye lens decreases and we see the nearby objects.
In short it is the adjustment of the focal length of the eye lens which enables us to focus on objects
situated at different distances.

• Near point or Least Distance of Distinct Vision


Near point or least distance of distinct vision is the point nearest to the eye at which an object is
visible distinctly.
For a normal eye the least distance of distinct vision is about 25 centimeters.
However, it varies with age of the person. For example, for infants it is only 5 to 8 cm.
Far Point
Far point of the eye is the maximum distance up to which the normal eye can see things clearly. It
is infinity for a normal eye.

• Range of Vision
The distance between the near point and the far point is called the range of vision.
Defects of vision and correction
MYOPIA
• You must have seen some people holding books very close to their eyes. This is
because they suffering from myopia (short sightedness). A myopic person cannot
see distant objects clearly because the far point of his eye is less than infinity.
• Myopia is an eye defect due to which the eye is not able to see distant objects
clearly. This occurs when the light rays entering the eye converge in front of the
retina in the vitreous body. Here you can see the formation of image in a normal
eye and in a myopic eye.
• In the case of a normal eye the rays of light from the object fall on the eye and
converge on the retina but in the case of a myopic eye the light rays are focused
in front of the retina.
Defects of vision and correction
MYOPIA
Myopia is the defect of the eye due to which the eye is not able to see the distant objects
clearly.
CAUSES
* the elongation of the eye ball, that is, the distance between the retina and eye lens is increased
* decrease in focal length of the eye lens

A myopic eye forms the image of a far off object in front of the retina because of the increase
in converging power of the eye lens. Therefore myopia can be rectified by using a suitable
divergent or concave lens. The ray diagram shows how a concave lens helps in focusing the
light on the retina.

This defect is commonly known as nearsightedness.


Defects of vision and correction
HYPERMETROPIA
• You must have seen middle aged people holding a book away from their eyes to read
properly. This is because they are not able to see the nearby objects clearly. We say that
those people are suffering from Hypermetropia (long sightedness).
• Hypermetropia or Hyperopia is an eye defect in which distant vision is clear while near
vision is blurred.
• This occurs when the light rays entering the eye converge behind the retina.
• You can see the formation of image in a normal eye and in a Hypermetropic eye.
• In the case of a normal eye the rays of light from the object fall on the eye and converge on
the retina but in the case of a hypermetropic eye the light rays are focused behind the
retina.
Defects of vision and correction
HYPERMETROPIA
Hypermetropia is the defect of the eye due to which the eye is not able to see the near objects
clearly.

CAUSES
• Shortening of the eyeball, that is, the eyeball becomes smaller
• Increase in focal length of the eye lens

Let us now see how this defect is rectified. A long sighted eye forms image of a nearby object behind the
retina. Thus, long sightedness is due to the decreased converging power of the lens. Therefore
Hypermetropia can be rectified by making the eye lens more convergent. This is done by placing a
convex lens of suitable focal length before the eye lens as shown in the figure.
Defects of vision and correction
PRESBYOPIA

The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. For
most people, the near point gradually recedes away. They find it difficult to see
nearby objects comfortably and distinctly without corrective eye-glasses. This
defect is called Presbyopia.

It arises due to gradual weakening of the ciliary muscles and diminishing


flexibility of the eye lens. Sometimes, a person may suffer from both Myopia
and Hypermetropia. Such people often require biconcave and convex lenses.
The upper portion consists of a concave lens for distant vision and the lower
part consists of a convex lens that facilitates near vision.
Dispersion of White Light By a Glass Prism
Even though all colours of the visible spectrum travel with the same speed in vacuum, the speed of the
colours of the visible spectrum varies when they pass through a transparent medium like glass and water.
That is, the refractive index of glass is different for different colours.

When a polychromatic light (multi coloured or light containing more than one wavelength) like white light is
incident on the first surface of the prism it gets refracted. But each constituent of the white light gets refracted
through a different angle, i.e., white light gets dispersed. When these colours are incident on the second
surface of the prism they again undergo refraction (they get refracted from a denser to rarer medium) and the
colours are separated further. Thus a beam of white light incident on a prism splits into its constituent colours
to form a spectrum.

Each constituent of the white light is deviated towards the base of the prism. Violet colour suffers the
maximum deviation and red the least. The spectrum obtained is impure as the colours in the spectrum do not
have any sharp boundaries i.e., each colour merges gradually into the next.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
Atmospheric refraction is the shift in apparent direction of a celestial object caused by the
refraction of light rays as they pass through Earth’s atmosphere.
TWINKLING OF STARS
The twinkling of stars and variation in size of the Sun are due to atmospheric refraction of
starlight. Do stars really twinkle? No, stars do not twinkle. Let us now learn about why they
appear to do so. The rays of light coming from the stars travel through the layers of air of
varying densities. These rays get refracted continuously and they bend towards the normal as
the refraction is from a rarer to a denser medium. The movements of air and convection
currents cause a change in the density of the layers of air. As a result, the position of the image
of the star goes on changing after every short interval. These different positions of the images
formed at short intervals of time give the impression that the star is twinkling.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
ADVANCE SUNRISE AND DELAYED SUNSET
At dusk or dawn the Sun appears to be larger than at noon. This is because when the
sun is near the horizon the rays of light coming from the sun have to pass through
layers of air of increasing density.

Due to continuous bending of light the sun appears to be larger. At noon, the sun
appears to be smaller than at dusk or dawn. This is because the rays of light that fall
normally on the surface of the earth do not get refracted.
SCATTERING OF LIGHT
Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light or
moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more
localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. A large number of
molecules are present in the earth’s atmosphere. These molecules scatter light in various
directions. The air is composed of many tiny particles including dust and water vapour. As the
sunlight passes through the air, the shorter blue light waves are reflected and refracted by the
particles while the other coloured light waves being longer are unaffected and are not
reflected by the water vapour or dust in the air. Blue, therefore, is scattered the most and this
explains the bluish colour of the sky. At sunset or sunrise, the sunrays have to cover large
atmospheric distances to reach us and most of the blue light gets scattered and doesn’t reach
us. The sky as well as the sun, at sunrise and sunset, therefore looks reddish.
SCATTERING OF LIGHT
TYNDALL EFFECT
The earth’s atmosphere is a heterogeneous mixture of minute particles. These particles include smoke, tiny
water droplets, suspended particles of dust and molecules of air. When beam of light strikes such air
particles, the path of the beam becomes visible. Similarly the path of a beam of light passing through a true
solution is not visible. However, its path becomes visible through a colloidal solution where the size of the
particles is relatively larger. The phenomenon of scattering of light by the colloidal particles gives rise to
Tyndall effect. Tyndall effect is the visible scattering effect of light on particles along the path of a beam of
light passing through a colloid system.
What have we learnt?
• The ability of the eye to focus both near and distant objects, by adjusting its focal
length is called the accommodation of the eye.
• The smallest distance at which we can see objects clearly is called the Near Point of
the eye or the least distance of distinct vision. For a young adult the normal vision is
about 25 cm.
• The common refractive defects of vision include myopia, hypermetropia and
presbyopia.
• Myopia- short sightedness, is corrected by using a concave lens.
• Hypermetropia-far sightedness, is corrected by using a convex lens.
• Presbyopia uses both types of lens for correction.
• The splitting of white light into its components and colours is called Dispersion.
• Scattering of light causes blue colour of the sky and the reddening of the sun at
sunrise and sunset.
Thank you all for
your
kind attention and
patient listening!!!