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Historical Perspectives of Nursing and Concepts of Nursing

Teaching and Research Office of Fundamental Nursing Lan yutao

Objects
master Characteristics of nursing profession; comprehend Florence Nightingales deeds and her Contributions to nursing science; Concept and Dimensions of Nursing understand Historical Perspectives of Nursing

Introductions
Nursing began as a desire to keep people healthy and to provide comfort and assurance to the sick. Although the general goals of nursing have remained relatively the same over the centuries, ever-advancing science and the changing of societys needs have deeply influenced the practice of nursing.

Stages of Nursing
Nursing from Ancient times to the nineteenth century Early Civilization Christianity Middle Ages Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century

Early Civilization
Egyptian physicians are believed to have specialized in certain diseases (such as internal diseases, fractured bones, and wounds). They also hired women, later known as midwives, to assist with childbirth. These women were the first records nurses.

Early Civilization
Greece The Greeks believed in Apollo, the Greek god of healing and prayed to him for magic cures for their illness. 400 B.C., the famous Greek physician Hippocrates believed that disease had natural, not magical, causes.

Early Civilization
Roman Empire After 300 B.C., early physicians built on the groundwork of their Egyptian and Greek predecessors. The Romans are best known for advances in the health of the public.

Early Civilization
India In ancient India, early hospitals were staffed by male nurses who were required to meet four qualifications: knowledge of the manner in which drugs should be prepared for administration, cleverness, devotedness to the patient, and purity of mind and body.

Christianity
With the beginning of Christianity, nursing began to have a formal and more clearly defined role. Led by the belief that love and caring for others were important, women made the first visits to sick people, male gave nursing care and buried the dead. Nursing became a respected vocation.

Middle Ages
More hospitals were built. Nurses delivered custodial care and depended on physicians for direction. Nurse midwifery, as one of the oldest nursing roles, flourished. Much nursing care was provided by monks and nuns, which was segregated by sex.

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


The extensive population growth in cities, the lack of hygiene and sanitation and the increasing poverty in urban centers resulted in serious health problem. Society changed from one with a religious orientation to one that emphasized warfare, exploration, and expansion of knowledge.

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


Many monasteries and convents closed, leading to a tremendous shortage of people to care for the sick. Women who had committed crimes were recruited into nursing in lieu of serving sentences. The only acceptable nursing role was within a religious order where services were provided as part of Christianity charity.

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


Period of Nightingale Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 in a wealthy family;

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


Period of Nightingale her education included the mastery of several ancient and modern language, literature, philosophy, history, science, mathematics, religion, art and music;

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


Period of Nightingale she was determined to become a nurse since she believed she was called by God to help others and to improve the well-being of mankind; she visited Kaiserswerth and received nurses training at 1850 for three months;

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


Period of Nightingale the outbreak of the Crimean War gave Nightingale an opportunity for achievement; Nightingale and her nurses transformed the military hospitals by setting up diet kitchens, a laundry, recreation centers, and reading rooms, and organizing classes for orderlies;

Fifteenth to Nineteenth Century


Period of Nightingale after the war, Nightingale established the Nightingale Training School for Nursed at St. Thomas hospital in London; the school served as a model for other training school; as the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale established the first nursing philosophy based on health maintenance and restoration.

Stages of Nursing
Development of modern nursing In the early twentieth century, a movement toward a scientific, research-based defined body of nursing knowledge and practice was seen;

Stages of Nursing
Development of modern nursing Nursing Education: in 1923, the Rockefeller Foundation funded a survey on nursing education, which recommended that nursing schools be independent of hospital and on a college level; in 1924, one of the schools of nursing was set up at Yale University;

Stages of Nursing
Development of modern nursing Nursing practice: by 1920s, nursing specialization was developing; the concept of the clinical nurse specialist arose; from period of Nightingale, the system of nursing management has been improving.

Nursing in China
Ancient nursing practice the concept of holism; care on the basis of differential diagnosis; From the middle period of 19th century to the middle of the 20th century During the latter half the 20th century

Concept of Nursing
3 stages of the concept of nursing: disease centered, patient centered and human health centered International Council of Nurses, in 1973, nursing is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery , preventing disease or peaceful death.

Concept of Nursing
The American Nurses Association, in 1980, nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems.

Tasks of Nursing
Relieving pains Maintaining health Restoring health Promoting health and wellness

Body of Nursing knowledge


Fundamental knowledge: physical science fundamental medical psychological and social science Knowledge specific to nursing: clinical nursing: fundamental nursing, specialty nursing, community nursing nursing management nursing education

Characteristics of a Profession
Has practitioners who are motivated by altruism Can be taught through a process of professional education. Is basically intellectual (as opposed to physical). Improves its techniques by the use of scientific method. Functions autonomously.

Nursing as a Profession, Kelly,1981


The services provided are vital to humanity and the welfare of society. There is a special body of knowledge which is continually enlarged through research. The services involve intellectual activities; individual responsibility (accountability) is a strong feature.

Nursing as a Profession, Kelly,1981


Practitioners are educated in institutions of higher learning. Practitioners are relatively independent and control their own policies and activities (autonomy). Practitioners are motivated by service (altruism) and consider their word an important component of their lives.

Nursing as a Profession, Kelly,1981


There is a code of ethics to guide the decisions and conduct of practitioners. There is an organization (association) which encourages and supports high standards of practice.

Dimensions of Nursing Practice


Clinical Nursing: fundamental nursing, to meet basic needs of clients; specialty nursing, based on nursing science and specialty theories, knowledge and skills; Community-based health care, directed toward a specific population or group within the community

Dimensions of Nursing Practice


Nursing Education: based on nursing science and education theories; controlled by the state education and health care guide. Nursing Management: systematic management of factors as nursing professional staff, technologies, equipment, information, financing. Nursing Research:

Forms of nursing in hospital


Case managementcared by some fixed nurses Functional nursingcentered by orders Nursing in groups Primary nursing Systematic holistic nursingphilosophy, responsibility, forms

Case management

Functional nursing
Orders, Fundamental nursing

Shifts of nurses: day/night shift

Nursing in groups
Group A Group B