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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
Ging vin : Nguyn Vit m
in thoi/E-mail : 0912699394/damnvptit@gmail.com
B mn : V tuynKhoa VT1
Hc k/Nm bin son : K I/2009-2010
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 2
Tn hc phn:
Truyn dn v tuyn s (Digital radio transmission)
Tng lng kin thc:
60 tit
L thuyt: 50 tit; Thc hnh: 10 tit
nh gi
Chuyn cn : 10 %
Thc hnh/Th nghim/Bi tp/Tho lun: 20 %
Kim tra gia k : 15 %
Thi kt thc : 55 %
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 3
Hc liu bt buc (HLBB):
Bi ging: Truyn dn v tuyn s, Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng, 2010
Hc liu tham kho (HLTK):
1. Nguyn Vit m, M phng h thng vin thng v ng dng Matlab, Nh xut bn Bu in, 2007
2. TS. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, C s truyn dn v tuyn s, Nh xut bn Bu in, 2001
3. Dr. Bernard Sklar, Digital Communications, Prentice-Hall, 2004
4. Dr. John G. Proakis, John, Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill, 2001
5. Dr.Maria-Gabriella Di Benedetto and Dr. Guerino Giancola, Understanding Ultra Wide Band Radio
Fundamentals, Prentice-Hall, 2004
6. Dr. David Tse and Dr. Pramod Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, Cambridge
University Press, 2005
7. Dr. Hsiao-Hwa Chen and Dr. Mohsen Guizani, Next Generation Wireless Systems and Networks, John
Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006
Hc liu b tr (HLBT):
Cc ti nghin cu khoa hc v chng trnh m phng:
1. Nghin cu m hnh lp vt l 802.16e trong WiMAX di ng v m phng knh ng xung. M s:
09-HV-2007-RD-VT.
2. Phn b ti nguyn thch ng v lp lch ng cho h thng v tuyn th h sau. M s: 01-HV-2008-
RD-VT.
3. Xy dng cc m hnh truyn dn thch ng a lp cho cc h thng thng tin di ng th h sau. M
s: 101-06-KHKT-RD.
4. Xy dng phn mm m phng knh phainh cho thng tin di ng. M s: 06-HV-2003-RD-VT.
5. Nghin cu iu ch thch ng cho my thu thng minh trong thng tin di ng. M s: 02-HV-2004-
RD-VT.
6. Nghin cu m phng h thng truyn dn v tuyn s dng my thu pht thng minh trn c s
OFDM thch ng. M s: 12-HV-2005-RD-VT.
Ti liu tham kho:
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 4
Kin thc: Do c im c bn ca truyn dn v tuyn l: (i) ti nguyn vn c b
hn ch; (ii) cht lng b nh hng nghim trng bi phainh ngu nhin, trong
khi nhu cu chin dng ti nguyn v tuyn ngy cng gia tng cng nh yu
cu v tnh a dng, cht lng v dch v ngy cng cao. T lch s pht trin
cng nh xu th tt yu ca cc h thng truyn dn v tuyn l khm ph ti
nguyn, khai thc trit & hiu qu ti nguyn, cc gii php nhm tng dung
lng nhng vn m bo cht lng, cng nh bi ton phn b ti nguyn cng
bng mm do,v,v.... s cht lc, tch hp cc k thut c bn cng vi cc k thut
tin tin, tnh kh thi nh cc cng ngh nh FPGA...s c hi t trong cc h
thng v tuyn th h sau. L mn hc c s ca chuyn nghnh thng tin v
tuyn, ni dung kin thc ca mn hc ny c s dng mt cch chn lc
thit k v xy dng cc h thng thng tin v tuyn cc mc ti u khc
nhau, v phc v cho cc mn hc tip theo nh: Cc cng ngh v mng truy
nhp; Thng tin di ng; Cc chuyn thng tin v tuyn.
Mc tiu hc phn:
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 5
K nng: Xy dng m hnh v chng trnh m phng cc phn t v
h thng truyn dn v tuyn s in hnh nhm: (i) trc quan ha
nguyn l hot ng dng biu din tn hiu v h thng trong min
thi gian, min tn s,v,v,.... (ii) tnh ton, phn tch, nh gi hiu
nng, ti u cc tham s i lp cng nh u nhc im ca cc h
thng thng tin v tuyn. Quy hoch, khai thc, qun l v bo dng
h thng thng tin v tuyn.
Thi , chuyn cn: Nhn thc r v tr, vai tr ni dung ca mn hc
trong phn tch, thit k, qun l khai thc cc h thng thng tin v
tuyn. Cp nht v lm ch cc k thut cng ngh tin tin.
Mc tiu hc phn:
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 6
Trang b cho sinh vin in t-Vin thng cc kin thc c bn nn tng, c
trng ca thng tin v tuyn:
Cc khi nim c bn trong truyn dn v tuyn s: Knh truyn, sng mang, tn hiu
bng tn gc v thng bng, phn tp, ghp knh khng gian v,v...
L thuyt v knh v tuyn: Knh v tuyn, c tnh knh v tuyn, m hnh v dung
lng knh v tuyn, phng php m phng v phn tch nh gi hiu nng.
Cc k thut iu ch/gii iu ch s, m phng v phn tch nh gi hiu nng.
Cc k tht m ha knh kim sot li, m phng v phn tch nh gi hiu nng.
Cc m hnh knh, dung lng knh v phng php m phng.
Cc phng php qun l v phn b ti nguyn v tuyn in hnh, m phng v
phn tch nh gi hiu nng.
nh hng ca truyn sng v tuyn v bin php khc phc.
Phn tch, tnh ton ng truyn dn v tuyn s: La chn v tnh ton cc thng
s, phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s mt t, phn tch ng truyn v tinh.
Truyn dn bng siu rng UWB, m phng v phn tch nh gi hiu nng.
Thit b v h thng truyn dn v tuyn s: Cu hnh h thng, quy hoch tn s, cc
phn t c trng ca thit b v tuyn, qun l khai thc, o nh gi v nh v s c.
Tm tt ni dung hc phn:
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 7
Ni dung hc phn:
Chng 1: Tng quan v truyn dn v tuyn s
Chng 2: Cc dng tn hiu trong truyn dn v tuyn s
Chng 3: Khng gian tn hiu v iu ch
Chng 4: Knh v tuyn v dung lng knh v tuyn
Chng 5: M ho knh kim sot li v tuyn s
Chng 6: Gim cp cht lng ng truyn dn v bin
php chng phainh
Chng 7: Thit b v h thng truyn dn v tuyn s
Chng 8: Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
Chng 9: H thng truyn dn bng siu rng UWB
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 8
1
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 9
1.1. Vai tr truyn dn v tuyn s
1.2. c im truyn dn v tuyn s
1.3. Bin php nng cao hiu nng in hnh
1.4. S khi chung knh truyn dn VTS
Ni dung
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 10

RSC
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{
M ng lin tng i

K hiu:
LS: Tng i ni h t,TS: Tng i qu giang
BS: Tr m v tuyn gc, H: M y cm tay
RSC: B tp trung thu bao xa, TE: Thit bu cui
RSC
1.1. Vai tr truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 11
ng trung k s ni cc tng i s.
ng truyn dn ni tng i chnh vi tng i v tinh (tp trung
thu bao t xa)
ng truyn dn ni thu bao vi tng i chnh hoc tng i v
tinh.
B tp trung thu bao v tuyn.
Kt ni my di ng vi mng vin thng (h thng TTD).
Kt ni my cm tay v tuyn vi tng i ni ht (h thng in
thoi khng dy s).
1.1. Vai tr truyn dn v tuyn s
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 12
1.2. c im ca truyn dn v tuyn s
Nhc im:
Mi trng h=>Cht lng truyn dn chu nh hng (b phainh)
ngu nhin bi:
Thi tit kh hu.
a hnh: mt t, i ni, nh ca cy ci...
Ngun nhiu trong thin nhin: phng in trong kh quyn, pht x ca cc
hnh tinh khc (khi thng tin v tinh)...
Nhiu cng nghip t cc ng c nh la bng tia la in
Nhiu t cc thit b v tuyn khc (MAI, nhiu ph,.).
Vn an ninh: D b nghe trm, s dng tri php ng truyn thng tin.
Suy hao trong mi trng ln.
Tnh di ng tng i gia pht v thu (dch tn Doppler).
Ti nguyn hn ch.
u im:
Linh hot
Di ng
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 13
Ti nguyn v tuyn, s dng hiu qu ti nguyn, cc khi
nim c bn
Nu coi b ng tn truyn dn chim 5% tn s sng mang trung tm
, ,

=
=
B ng tn cho php

TD V tuyn t i GHz
GHz GHz
f
10 05 0 5
0
0
1
. , ,

= = =


B ng tn cho php
TD Quang t i =1500nm
G
GH
Hz
z GHz
c
f
5
8
5
5
9
2 10 0 0
3 10
2 10
150
1
0
10
1
0
0
5
5
r ng b ng t n cho php TD Quang gp k hong 10 l n
Gii php s dng hiu qu ti nguyn
1.2. c im ca truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 14
iu ch, ghp knh.
a truy nhp, quy hoch tn s, iu ch m ha thch ng AMC,
MIMO, quy hoch mng, m ha ngun tin hiu qu, nn tn hiu, phn
b ti nguyn thch ng, lp lch ng, iu khin truy nhp mi trng
MAC
Knh truyn dn (sng mang), knh ng ln UL v knh ng
xung DL, phn b ti nguyn cho knh.
(Bng tn, rng bng tn, bng thng, ph tn, dung lng, tc
bit) ca knh, tn s trung tm. Tn hiu bng tn c s, tn hiu thng
bng (thng di).
Can nhiu, lc nhiu, bng tn bo v, m ha sa li.
Ti nguyn v tuyn, s dng hiu qu ti nguyn, cc khi
nim c bn
1.2. c im ca truyn dn v tuyn s
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 15
( )
S h
T
dng - c, s dng ht, s dng hiu qu ti nguyn iu ch, g p knh, a truy nhp
i nguyn v tuyn tn s, thi gian, m, khng gian
=>
= f
Kt h p v i nhau to thnh ph- ng ph p a truy nhp m i
: Frequency Division Multiple Access
: Time Division Multiple Access
: Code Division Multiple Access
: Space Division Access
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
SDMA
Cc phng php a truy nhp c xy dng trn c s phn chia ti
nguyn v tuyn cho cc ngun s dng (knh truyn dn) khc nhau
Ti nguyn v tuyn v s dng hiu qu ti nguyn
(a truy nhp)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 16
Ti nguyn v tuyn v s dng hiu qu ti nguyn
(a truy nhp)
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TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 17
Phng php ghp song cng FDD v TDD:
Phng php ghp song cng theo tn s (FDD: Frequency Division Duplex)
l phng php m tn hiu pht/thu ca mt my thu bao ng thi c
pht/thu trn hai bng tn tn con khc nhau.
Ch ghp song cng theo thi gian (TDD: Time Division Duplex) l ch
m tn hiu pht/thu ca mt my thu bao c pht/thu trn cng tn s
nhng khong thi gian pht thu khc nhau.
t
f
Khong
bo v
t
f
ng
ln
ng
xung
ng xung
ng ln
FDD TDD
Phn cch song
cng Y A
rng bng
tn X A
rng bng
tn X A
rng bng
tn X A
Ti nguyn v tuyn v s dng hiu qu ti nguyn
(Ghp song cng FDD v TDD)
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 18
FDD thng p ng nhu cu ca th trng ni khng th s dng
TDD do quy nh tn s hoc trin khai FDD thun li hn; bng thng
ng ln/xung ca FDD c nh v bng nhau dc trung tm ti hai
tn s sng mang khc nhau.
TDD i hi c cc bin php chng nhiu, tuy nhin TDD c li im
sau:
TDD cho php iu chnh t l ng ln/ng xung h tr hiu qu
lu lng ng ln/ng xung khng i xng.
TDD m bo tnh i ln knh ng ln v ng xung v th h tr
tt hn cho truyn dn thch ng, MIMO v cc cng ngh anten tin tin
vng kn khc.
TDD ch cn mt knh mang tn s v th cho php thch ng tt hn i
vi cc cp pht tn s khc nhau trn th gii
Thit k my pht thu TDD t phc tp hn v v th r tin hn.
Ti nguyn v tuyn v s dng hiu qu ti nguyn
(Ghp song cng FDD v TDD)
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 19
Ti nguyn truyn thng v DWDM
T l p vt l
Cc phng php ghp knh c xy dng trn c s phn chia ti nguyn
truyn thng kh dng cho cc ngun pht (knh truyn dn) khc nhau
( )
T
S
h
i nguyn truyn thng tn s, thi gian, m , khng gian
dng - c, s dng ht, s dng hiu qu ti nguyn
Diu ch, g p knh, a truy
= f
nhp, c c c chthch ng, iu khin lung.v.v..
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 20
Nguyn l ghp knh
Xu hng tt yu ca NGN: S dng ht, s dng hiu qu ti nguyn v
m bo cht lng => phn chia ti nguyn kh dng, gn, cp pht,
phn b, nh tuyn mt cch hiu qu => c ch ng & thch ng =>
tng tnh phc tp trong qun l ti nguyn (nh tuyn, iu khin lung,
ti nguyn a ch) <= tnh a dng v dch v
C th ni rng: Cc h thng ghp knh to ra cc
ti nguyn (tn s, thi gian, m, khng gian) c
tnh duy nht v khai thc trit tnh duy nht
vo mc ch truyn thng
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TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 21
Ti nguyn ca truyn dn quang-DWDM
WDM, CWDM,
DWDM <=> s
dng ht ti
nguyn
Ti nguyn ca h thng WDM c hiu l ca s truyn dn ca si quang, WDM
cho php truyn nhiu bc sng quang trn cng mt si quang
Trin khai a
truy nhp,
chuyn
mch, IP =>
s dng hiu
qu
Thut ton qun
l ti nguyn v
cp pht phn b
i ch IP, gn,
phn b, nh
tuyn, iu khin
lung
Ngun pht quang rng ph nh trong khi ti nguyn
rng bng tn ca si quang rt ln => WDM
Cng phn
nh ti
nguyn kh
dng <=> tnh
a dng
(phc tp) v
cu hnh,
qun l cng
cao <=> a
dng v dch
v cng cao
<=> hiu qu
s dng ti
nguyn cng
cao <=> dung
ha v ti u
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 22
Qu trnh pht trin ca DWDM
S khc nhau c bn gia WDM v DWDM
l mc ghp => DWDM t c dung
lng ln hn.
DWDM l gii
php khai thc
trit ti
nguyn ph
tn ca si
quang ?
Cng phn
chia nh n v
ti nguyn =>
hiu qu cng
cao, p ng
tnh a dng
ca loi hnh
dch v.=>
tng mc
qun l, phn
b,.
IP OVERWDM
Overall
reduction of
equipment costs
and management
complexity
Improved
bandwidth
efficiency
Phn loi ti nguyn:
(ti nguyn t
nhin, ti nguyn
nhn to)
Ti nguyn logic,
giao thc (ti
nguyn a ch);
Ti nguyn ph , tn
s, (giao din)
Khi nim: knh
logic, knh vt l;
giao din v giao
thc; chng giao
thc/giao din vt l
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 23
M hnh h thng WDM

MUX/
DE-
MUX

Si quang

1
,
2
, ...
N

'
1
,'
2
, ... '
N

Rx
1

Knh 1
Knh 1


Knh N
Knh N'

1

'
N

'
1

Rx
N

Tx
N

Tx
1


N

Tx
1

Knh 1
Knh 1


KnhN
KnhN
'

1

'
N

'
1

Tx
N

Rx
N

Rx
1


N

MUX/
DE-
MUX

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B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 24
1.3. Bin php nng cao hiu nng in hnh
T chc quy hoch s dng ti nguyn v tuyn hp l: FD,
TD,CD,SD
T chc cu hnh h thng hp l
S c thit b: H thng d phng
S c ng truyn: Phn tp khng gian, phn tp tn s, phn tp phn
cc, phn tp gc, phn tp thi gian
S dng cc cng ngh x l s phc tp:
M ho knh chng li
an xen
Ngu nhin ho
Cn bng thch ng
Mt m ho tn hiu.
Hon thin cc mch in v tuyn
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B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 25
1.4. S khi knh truyn dn v tuyn s

SM
KTD
KTD
KTD
SM
GDMT
TD
GDMT
TD
GDMT
TD
GDMT
TD
u vo s
K GD
Khi x l
bng gc pht
C v
BNT
KCS
Knh mt t
ng ln
Knh v tinh
Tn hao
v tuyn
Nhiu
Tp m
Nhiu
Tp m
Tn hao
v tuyn
ng xung
Tn hao
v tuyn
Nhiu
Tp m
Pht p
v tinh
KTN
BHT, KTT
v GC
K GD
Khi x l
bng gc thu
MY PHT
MY THU
u ra s
K hiu:
KGD: Khuych i+giao din C v BNT: iu ch v bin i nng tn
SM: Sng mang
BHT, KTT, GC: Bin i h tn, khuych i trung tn v gii iu ch
KCS: Khuych i cng sut KTD: Knh truyn dn
KTN: Khuych i tp m nh GDMTTD: Giao din mi trng truyn dn
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 26
Lp
khun
M ho
ngun
Mt
m
M ho
knh
Ghp
knh
iu
ch
Tri
ph
a
thm
nhp
TX
Lp
khun
Gii
m
ngun
Gii
mt
m
Gii
m
knh
Gi
ghp
knh
Gi
iu ch
Gii
tri
ph
a
thm
nhp
RX
K

n
h
Ngun
tin
Nhn
tin
D ng sng s
ng b Lung bit
u
vo s
u ra
s
C c bit
knh
C c bit
knh
T c c
ngun kh c
n c c ni
nhn kh c
Tu chn
Bt buc
1.4. S khi knh truyn dn v tuyn s
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 27
Pha pht
Khi K v giao din ng s:
Phi khng vi ng s
Khuych i v cn bng cp ng truyn s
Bin i m ng vo m my
Ti sinh tn hiu s
Khi phc xung ng h
Khi x l s bng tn gc pht:
Ghp thm cc thng tin iu khin v qun l ng truyn
Mt m ho cc thng tin quan trng
M ho knh chng li
Ngu nhin ho tn hiu s trc khi a ln iu ch
Khi iu ch v bin i nng tn: iu ch sng mang bng tn hiu s
chuyn i tn hiu s ny vo vng tn s cao thun tin cho vic truyn dn.
i vi my pht i tn, iu ch c thc hin trung tn, khi bin i nng
tn chuyn tn hiu trung tn pht vo vng tn s v tuyn trc khi pht.
Khi khuych i cng sut: Khuych i cng sut pht n mc cn thit.
1.4. S khi knh truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 28
Pha thu:
Khuych i tp m thp LNA:
Bin i h tn, khuych i trung tn v gii iu ch:
Vi my thu i tn trc khi gii iu ch, tn hiu thu c bin i
vo trung tn thu (do sut hin tn s nh gng nn khi bin i h
tn thng lm thm nhim v trit tn s nh gng), khuych i
trung tn, lc nhiu knh ln cn v cn bng thch ng cng nh cn
bng tr nhm cc phn t ca knh truyn dn .
Gii iu ch tn hiu thu phc hi tn hiu s
1.4. S khi knh truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 29
X l s bng tn gc thu:
Gii ghp xen
Gii m knh
Gii ngu nhin
Phn lung cho lung s chnh v lung s iu khin qun l ng
truyn
Cn bng thch ng vng thi gian gim thiu nh hng ca
phainh
Khuych i v giao in ng s:
Khuych tn hiu s n mc cn thit trc khi a ra ngai my
Bin i m my vo m ng
Phi khng vi ng s
1.4. S khi knh truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 30
Giao din mi trng truyn dn:
H thng anten-phi v cc thit b siu cao tn cho
php cc my thu v my pht giao tip vi mi trng
truyn dn v tuyn.
Giao din mi trng truyn dn v mt s mch siu
cao tn c kho st cc gio trnh Anten-truyn
sng v k thut siu cao tn.
1.4. S khi knh truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 31

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 32
Knh
) t ( n
) t ( s
r(t) s(t) * h( , t) n(t)
Knh v tuyn
(B lc tuyn tnh
ph thuc thi gian)
h( , t)
) t ( n ) t ( s ) t ( a ) t ( r
L
1 k
k k
+ =

=
t
M hnh truyn tn hiu qua knh v tuyn
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 33
CC HIU NG: Cc h thng thng tin v tuyn di ng
chu nh hng ln ca hai nhn t mi trng:
- Truyn a ng
- Hiu ng Doppler
CC NH HNG:nh hng ca tn s Doppler dn n
n ph tn tn hiu
n max n
max c
0
n c n
0
f : f cos
v
f f
c
v
f : f cos
c

= o
=
= o
S
X
Y
v
d
n
o
d
n
o
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 34
Khong cch pht thu
C

n
g

s
u

t

t
h
u

(
d
B
m
)
Che chn + Suy hao
Suy hao
Pha inh xung quanh
Che chn + Suy hao
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 35
0



x(t)
0 1
L 2
L 1
y(t)
0
0
1
L 2
(L 2)
L 1
(L 1)
1 L 2 L 1
M hnh ng tr a nhnh
B
A
Rx
Tx
C
0
1
2
3
Hng chuyn ng
Thnh phn LOS
M hnh elip ca Parsons v Bajwa
0
, 0,1,.....,L 1 t = t + At =

t
`

)
x x
x x
gc t i kh c nhau
Tn s Doppler kh c nhau
T R
C c - ng truyn c ng di c ng
T R
C
A

= t =
`

)
x x
x x
gc t i bg nhau
Tn s Doppler bng nhau
T R
C c - ng truyn di Tr
T R
A
B
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 36
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( , )
, ( )
( , )
, .
( , ). . ( )
, ( )

t
=

=
t
t =
t =
| t
|
o t t
t


L
i t
L
i
h t
h t
t e t
e
t t
t t
1
0
1
0
t0
t1
t2
t3
t4
t
( ) t |
0
( ) t |
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
3
( ) t |
4
( ) t |
0 0
( ) t |
1 0 ( ) t |
2 0
( ) t |
0 1
( ) t |
1 1
( ) t |
2 1
( ) t |
3 1 ) (
L
t

|
1 1
) (
L
t

|
1 0
) (t |
3 0
( ) t |
0 2
( ) t |
1 2
( ) t |
2 2
( ) t |
3 2
( )
L
t

|
1 2
( ) t |
0 3
( ) t |
1 3
( ) t |
2 3
( ) t |
3 3
( )
L
t

|
1 3
( ) t |
0 4
( ) t |
1 4
( ) t |
4 2
( ) t |
3 4
( )
L
t

|
1 4
0
1 2 3
L 1
0
(t )
1
(t )
2
(t )
3
(t )
4
(t )
p
ng
xung
kim ph
thuc
thi gian
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 2
t, a t, (t) t, (t) | t = t + t
( )
( )
t, :
t, : c
(t) :
| t

t
`

t
)
Bin
pha a - ng truyn th
tr
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 37
c tnh knh v tuyn di ng
m
Kh
Ph
C
C
ax
C
d
C
i nim t- ng quan; nht qu n
n t n trong min thi gian ,
hn lc trong min tn s (B )
Phn t n trong min tn s f ,
hn lc trong min thi gian (T )
t

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 38
Tnh ph thuc thi gian
t
t
1
t
1
t
( , ) h t t
1
( , ) h t t
t
t
2
t
2
t
( , ) h t t
2
( , ) h t t
u
vo
u
vo
b) p ng xung kim ca h thng thay i theo thi gian
t
t
t
1
t
1
t
( ) h t ( ) h t
t
2
t
2
t
u
vo
u
vo
t
a) p ng xung kim ca h thng khng thay i theo thi gian
1 2
( , ) ( , )
( )
h t h t
h
t t
t
1 2
( , ) ( , ) h t h t t t
Dng
hm
khng
thay i
Dng
hm
thay i
PSD
u vo
PSD
u ra
2
0
( ) ( )
xx
S f A f f d
2
0
( ) . ( )
yy
hh
S f A S f f =
f
0
f
0
f
f
0
0
B A
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 39
Tnh ph thuc tn s
Tr rt nh
Tr rt ln
Knh
Tn
hiu
vo
x(t)
Tn
hiu
ra
y(t)
Hm truyn t
ca knh
X(f)
X(f)
Hm truyn t
ca knh
Y(f)
Hm truyn t knh phng trong
bng tn tn hiu (knh phainh
phng)
Hm truyn t knh khng
phng trong bng tn tn hiu
(knh phainh chn lc tn s)
Y(f)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 40
Trung bnh ha
( , ) h t t
1
( ) t t
2
( ) t t
L lch
tr a
ng
t
3
( ) t t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
t
1
t
1
t
1
t
p ng xung kim knh v ly trung bnh cc thnh
phn tn x
Cc ng truyn kh phn gii
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 41
Cc loi phainh phm vi hp
C s phn loi
Loi Phainh
iu kin
Tri tr a ng
Phainh phng
B<<B
C
; T>10o
t
Phainh chn lc tn s
B>B
C
; T<10o
t
Tri Doppler
Phainh nhanh
T>T
C
; B<f
d

Phainh chm
T<<T
C
; B>>f
d

B l rng bng tn tn hiu; B
C
l bng thng nht qun; f
d
l tri
Doppler; T l chu k k hiu; v o
t
tri tr trung bnh qun phng.

Phn loi knh pha inh phm vi hp
Mi quan h: WSSUS vi kh phn gii; LTV v Doppler
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 42
Cc dng tn hiu trong truyn dn
v tuyn s
2
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 43
2.1. M u
2.2. Cc dng hm tn hiu
2.3. Hm t tng quan v mt ph cng sut
2.4. Tn hiu ngu nhin
2.5. Tn hiu nh phn bng gc
2.6. Tn hiu bng thng
2.7. nh hng ca hn ch bng thng v nh l Nyquist
2.8. nh hng ca cc c tnh ng truyn
2.9. Cu hi v bi tp
Ni dung
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 44
2.2. Cc dng hm tn hiu
Phn loi trn c s cc tiu ch:
1. Tn hiu c cc gi tr thay i theo thi gian => Tn
hiu tng t, tn hiu s
2. Mc c th m t hoc d on tnh cch ca hm
=> Tn hiu tt nh v tn hiu ngu nhin.
3. Thi gian tn ti tn hiu (hm) => hm qu , hm v
tn (tun hon)
4. Tn hiu kiu nng lng, tn hiu kiu cng sut
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 45
(1) Thay i cc gi tr theo thi gian:
Tng t: Hm lin tc theo thi gian, c xc nh mi thi im, nhn
gi tr dng, khng hoc m (thay i t t v tc thay i hu hn).
S: Hm nhn tp hu hn gi tr dng, khng hay m (thay i gi tr tc
th, ti thi im thay i tc thay i v hn cn cc thi im khc
bng khng), in hinhg l hm nh phn.
Ri rc: Tn hiu x(kT) ch tn ti v xc nh ti cc thi im ri rc, c
c trng bi mt chui s.
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 46
(2) Mc m t, d on tnh cch ca tn hiu:
Tn hiu tt nh: Xc nh c gi tr ti mi thi im v c m hnh
ha bi cc biu thc ton r rng, VD x(t)=5cos(10t)
Tn hiu ngu nhin: Tn ti mc bt nh trc khi n thc s xy
ra, khng th biu din bng mt biu thc ton r rng, nhng khi xt
trong khong thi gian di dng sng ngu nhin c coi l mt qu
trnh ngu nhin c th: (i) biu l mt qui tc no ; (ii) c m t
dng xc sut v trung bnh thng k. Cch m t dng xc sut ca
qu trnh ngu nhin thng rt hu hiu c tnh ha tn hiu, tp m,
nhiu,.... trong h thng truyn thng.
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 47
(3) Thi gian tn ti ca tn hiu:
Qu : l tn hiu ch tn ti trong mt khong thi gian hu hn
V tn: l tn hiu tn ti mi thi im, thng dng m t
hot ng ca h thng trong trng thi n nh (VD:hm tun hon,
l hm v tn c cc gi tr c lp cc khong quy nh, x(t) =
x(t+T0) vi - < t < ).
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 48
2
2
1
2
( )
( ) ( ).
( ) ( )
cng sut chun ha

x(t) l in p hoc dng in
Cng sut tc thi p(t)


trn in tr R
N ng l- ng v cn


g
R
v t
p t i t R
R
p t x t
= O

=
=
-
=
-
/ 2
2
/ 2
/ 2
2
/ 2
( )
1 1
( )
sut trung bnh ca tn hiu
tiu t n trong khong -T/2 n T/2

T
T
x
T
T
T T
x x
T
E x t dt
P E x t dt
T T

=
= =
}
}
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 49
Tn hiu nng lng
/ 2
2 2
/ 2
0 lim ( ) ( )
N ng l- ng ca tn hiu trn ton b thi gian
T
x
T
T
E x t dt x t dt

< = = <
} }
Thc t, thng pht tn hiu c nng lng hu hn (0<E
x
<). Tuy
nhin m t: (i) tn hiu tun hon tn ti mi thi im (nng lng
v hn); (ii) tn hiu ngu nhin c nng lng v hn => nh ngha lp
tn hiu cng sut.
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 50
Tn hiu cng sut
/ 2
2
/ 2
0 lim ( )
Cng sut tn hiu hu hn trn ton b thi gian
T
x
T
T
P x t dt

(
< = <
(

}
Tn hiu nng lng v cng sut loi tr tng h nhau: Tn hiu
nng lng c nng lng hu hn nhng cng sut trung bnh
bng 0; Tn hiu cng sut c cng sut trung bnh hu hn nhng
c nng lng v hn; Cc tn hiu tun hon v ngu nhin thuc
loi tn hiu cng sut;
Cc tn hiu tt nh v khng tun hon thuc loi tn hiu nng
lng.
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 51
(4) Tn hiu kiu nng lng v kiu cng sut:
Tn hiu kiu nng lng nu,
2
( ) [ ] , [J] E s t dt

= <
}
Tn hiu kiu cng sut nu c nng lng v hn nhng cng sut
trung bnh hu hn.
0
0
0
/ 2
2
0 / 2
/ 2
2
/ 2
1
( ) ,
1
( )
lim
V i tn hiu tun hon, chu k T
[w]

t
tb
t
t
T
tb
T
P s t dt
t
P x t dt
T

= <
= <
}
}
Note:
(1) Hm tn hiu kiu
nng lng s c
cng sut bng
khng
(2) E=PT
2.2. Tn hiu v phn loi tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 52
Mt ph ca tn hiu c trng cho s phn b cng
sut hoc nng lng ca tn hiu trong min tn s. Khi
nim ny c bit quan trng khi ta xt vic lc trong cc h
thng truyn thng, khi ny ta dng mt ph nng lng
ESD (Energy Spectral Density); mt ph cng sut PSD
(Power Spectral Density) c lng tn hiu v tp m ti
u ra b lc.
Mt ph nng lng ESD v mt ph sng sut PSD
2.3. T tng quan ACF, mt ph cng sut PSD,
mt ph nng lng ESD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 53
Mt ph nng lng ESD: l nng lng tn hiu trn mt rng bng tn n v [J/Hz].
2
2
( ) ( )
Mt phn ng l- ng ESD
N ng l- ng trong min thi gian
N ng l- ng trong min tn s
N ng l- ng v ng tn s m v d- ng bng nhau
(x(t) l thc,

x
E x t dt X f df


= =
} }
0
2 ( )
|X(f)| l hm chn => ESD i xng)


x x
E f df

=
}
2.3. T tng quan ACF, mt ph cng sut PSD, mt
ph nng lng ESD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 54
Mt ph cng sut PSD
/ 2
0
2
/ 2
0
0
2
1
( )
( )
lim
0
T/2
x
T
-T/2
Nu tn hiu tun hon c chu k T
Cng sut trung bnh ca tn hiu kiu cng sut gi trthc
1
P
T
T
x
T
P x t dt
T
x t dt

=
=
}
}
0
0
/ 2
2
2
/ 2
0
1
( )
Min tn s
Min thi gian
0

Dnh l Parseval cho tn hiu tun hon gi trthc

Mt phcng sut PSD ca tn hiu tun hon chu k T
T
x n
T
n
P x t dt c
T

=
= =

}
2
0
0
( ) ( )
( ) 2 ( )

Cng sut trung bnh chun ha ca tn hiu gi trthc

x n
n
x x x
G f c f nf
P G f df G f df
o

=
= =

} }
0
2
( ) Note:
j nf t
n
n
x t c e
t

=
=

2.3. T tng quan ACF, mt ph cng sut PSD, mt
ph nng lng ESD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 55
2 1
( ) lim ( )
x T
T
G f X f
T

=
Lu : Nu x(t) l: (i) khng tun hon => khng biu din dng
chui Fourier c; tn hiu cng sut (c nng lng v hn), th n
khng c bin i Fourier. Tuy nhin, vn c th biu din PSD ca tn
hiu ny trong gii hn nht nh. Nu ta ct tn hiu cng sut khng
tun hon x(t) bng cch quan st trong khong thi gian (-T/2, T/2),
th x
T
(t) c nng lng hu hn v c bin i Fourier l X
T
(f). Khi ny,
ta c th biu din mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu khng tun hon
x(t) trong vng gii hn theo biu thc
2.3. T tng quan ACF, mt ph cng sut PSD, mt
ph nng lng ESD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 56
1
( ) lim ( ). *( ).
1
( ) ( ). *( ).
Nu s(t)=s(t+T), T l chu k

ACF: nh gi mc ging nhau gi a
tn hiu s(t) & phin bn

T
T
T
s t s t dt
T
s t s t dt
T
o
o
o
o
| t t
| t t
+

+
= +
= +
}
}
dch thi ca n s(t+ ) t
nh ngha: ACF ca mt tn hiu tt nh kiu cng sut s(t) chun ha:
2.3. T tng quan ACF, mt ph cng sut PSD, mt
ph nng lng ESD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 57
Khi nim: Mt tn hiu ngu nhin (qu trnh ngu nhin)
X(t) l tp hp cc bin ngu nhin c nh ch s theo t.
Nu c nh t = t
i
, th X(t
i
) l mt bin ngu nhin. S th hin
thng k ca cc bin ngu nhin c th c trnh by bng
hm mt xc sut (pdf: Probability density function) lin
hp ca chng. S th hin ca mt qu trnh ngu nhin c
th c trnh by bng cc hm mt xc sut (pdf) lin
hp ti cc thi im khc nhau. Tuy nhin, trong thc t ta
khng cn bit pdf lin hp m ch cn bit thng k bc 1
(trung bnh) v thng k bc 2 (hm t tng quan l ).
2.4. Cc tn hiu ngu nhin
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 58
2.4. Cc tn hiu ngu nhin
Trung bnh ca mt qu trnh ngu nhin X(t) l k vng
(trung bnh tp hp) ca X(t):





ACF ca qu trnh ngu nhin
| |
( )
of X(t) at time t
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
X X t
pdf
t E X t X t p x dx

= =
}
( ) ( ) 1 2 1 2
( , ) [X(t)X(t+ )]
( , )
X
X t X t
t t E
p x x dx dx
t
| t t

+

+ =
=
} }
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 59
2.4. Cc tn hiu ngu nhin
Nu trung bnh
X
(t) v hm t tng quan |
X
(t,t+t) khng ph
thuc thi gian, th X(t) l c coi l qu trnh dng ngha rng
(WSS: Wide sense stationary) => c th b qua bin ngu nhin
t v s dng |
X
(t) cho hm ngu nhin.
-j2 f
-
1 j2 f
-
2 j2 f
- -
0
: ( ) [ ( )]= ( )e
: ( ) [ ( )]= ( )e
P[ ]=E[X ( )]= (0)= ( )e ( )
X X X
X X X
X X
f F d
F f f df
t f df f df
t t
t t
t t
t
| t | t t
| t
|



=
u =
= u u
(
u = u
(

}
}
} }
PSD
ACF
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 60
0
t t =
0
0
t t = 0
=
0 0 0
( ) ( , ) x t x t =
( ) ( , ) x t x t =
0
( ) ( , ) x t x t =
0 0
( ) ( , ) x t x t
Ergodic SS WSS qu trnh ngu nhin c c c
Qu trnh ngu nhin
Hm
mu
S thc (phc)
Bin
ngu
nhin
All Random Processes: Mi qu trnh ngu nhin
WSS: Qu trnh ngu nhin dng ngha rng
SS: Qu trnh ngu nhin dng cht
Ergodic: Qu trnh Ergodic
2.4. Cc tn hiu ngu nhin
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 61
2.5 Cc tn hiu nh phn bng gc
( )
( )
K T
k
X t A p t kT

=
=

Biu din tn hiu nh phn ngu nhin bng gc


( )
2
sin
( )
:
( ) ( ) 1
x
Sinc x
x
Note
Sinc x dx Sinc x dx
t
t

= =

} }
X(t)
t

A
-A
0
-T T 2T 3T 4T
5T 6T 7T
-2T
0
A
1
A
2
A
1
A

2
A
3
A
4
A
5
A
6
A
7
A
8T
Mt thc hin ca tn hiu nh phn ngu nhin bng gc X(t)
:
:
1 0
( )
0
Trong :
l bin NN phn b ng nht c lp i.d.d, nhn gi tr A ng x c xut
l bin NN phn b u trong khong [0 n T] X(t) tr thnh WSS
nu

nu kh c
K
T
A
t T
p t

s s
=

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 62
| |
2
2
( ) ( ) ( )
1 ,
0 ,
( )
x
T
E X t X t
A T
T
A
| t t
t
t
t
= +

(
s

(
=

= A
ACF:
nu kh c
2 2
( ) . ( )
X
f A T Sinc fT u =
PSD
ACF v PSD ca tn hiu nh phn ngu nhin:
| | ( )
| | ( )
2
2
1 ; 1
1 ;
( ) ( )
0; 1
0;
( )
( ) .
Tam gi c n v
Hm tam gi c n v y 2T
Tnh cht t lc




T
T
t
t t
t T t
t t T
T t
t T
FT t SinC f
FT t T SinC Tf

s
s
| |
A = A = A =

|
> \ .

>

A =
A =
a FT
2.5 Cc tn hiu nh phn bng gc
a) Hm tng quan AFC
b) Mt ph cng sut PSD
-2
fT
( )
X
f u
2
A T
0 1 2 3 -1
-3
0
-T +T
( )
X
| t
2
A
t
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 63
Cc tr ti i l A
2
T ti f=0 v bng khng u tin ti f=k/T.
Cng sut trung bnh ca X(t)
2
(0) ( )
Khng ph thuc vo T
X X
f df A |

= u =
}
T PSD cho thy cng sut trung bnh
Tri rng trn bng tn rng nu T nh (tc bit cao ca tn hiu X(t));
Tp trung trn mt bng tn hp nu T ln (tc bit thp ca tn hiu X(t)).
Nhn xt:
Hm t tng quan ACF X(t) v X(t+t)
Mt ph cng sut PSD
Ging nhau nht ti t=0
Mc ging nhau nht nh khi 0<t<T do mt phn ca bit X(t) ging X(t+t).
Chng hn khi =0 v 0<t<T th X(t)=X(t+t)=A
0
khi 0<t<T-t
Hon ton khc nhau khi t>T, v ti mi thi im gi tr ca X(t) c lp vi
X(t+t) do chng cc on bit khc nhau
2.5 Cc tn hiu nh phn bng gc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 64
2.6 Tn hiu bng thng (1/2)
( )
:
( ) ( ).cos 2
c
f : tn s sng mang
gc pha ngu nhin phn b u trong [0,2 ]
khng ph thuc vo X(t) Y(t) thnh WSS
Y X
c
t t f t
u t
t u

= +
{ }
2
2
2 2
1
: ( ) ( ) )
2
1
: ( ) ( ) ( )
4
: ( ) ( ) )
2
: ( ) ( ) ( )
4
c
Nu X(t) l tn hiu nhphn ngu nhin, th

c
os(2 f

os(2 f
[ T] [
Y X
Y X c X c
Y T
Y c c
c
f f f f f
A
c
A T
f Sinc f f Sinc f f
| t | t t t
| t t t t
=
u = u + u +
= A
u = + +
ACF
PSD
ACF
PSD
{ }
T]
( )
Y
| t
-T
T
2
A /2
2
-A /2
4/
c
f T =
t
( )
Y
f u
( )
2
A T /4
c
f
c
f
1
c
f
T
+
2
c
f
T
+
3
c
f
T
+
1
c
f
T

2
c
f
T

3
c
f
T

1
c
f
T
+
2
c
f
T
+
3
c
f
T
+
1
c
f
T

2
c
f
T

3
c
f
T

f
T tng quan ACF v PSD ca tn hiu nhi phn X(t) c iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 65
Nhn xt:
Ph c tp trung ti ln cn tn s sng mang f
c

Nu s dng rng bng tn gii hn ti hai gi tr khng
u tin ca PSD, th rng ph ca Y(t) bng 2/T (lu
rng bng tn trong vi ba s thng c s dng l
rng bng Nyquist, trong trng hp ny rng bng
Nyquist bng 1/T).
Cng sut trung bnh ca Y(t): bng mt na
cng sut trung bnh ca X(t), trn hnh ta s dng f
c
=4/T.
2
(0) / 2
Y
A | =
2.6 Tn hiu bng thng (1/2)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 66
2.7. nh hng ca hn ch bng thng v nh l Nyquist
(1/5)
a) Hm truyn t ca b lc thng thp l tng
b) Xung kim u vo v p ng u ra
c) Dy xung kim u vo v p ng u ra
T
0
2T
0
3T
0
-T
0
-2T
0
-3T
0
0
h(t)
2f
0
2f
0
h(t) h(t-T)
t
0
0
T
t
T 2T 3T -T -2T -3T 0
t
| |
|
\ .
[
0
f
H(f) =
2f
f
0
: tn s ct
f f
0
-f
0
1
( ) t
T

( ) t
( ) ( ) x t t =
( )
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
y t t h t h t
f Sinc f t
= =
=

f
1
( ). ( )

( )
( )
Y f X H
f
f
H
f =
=
-f
0 f
0 f
| | ( ( ) ) f t X o = FT
( ) t
( ) t
T

1
0 0
t
1
2
1
2
1,
( )
0,


f
f
f
s

[ =

>

- c gi l khong c ch Nyquist

0
0
0
T
1
T T
2f
= =
1444444442 444444443
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 67
Nu rng bng tn ca ng truyn dn b hn ch =>
xung thu m rng y => ISI (InterSymbol Interference).
Cc im khng xut hin ti thi im kT
0
= k/(2f
0
) vi khc
khng, T
0
c gi l khong Nyquist.
Nu pht i mt dy xung kim o
T
(t) cch nhau mt khong Nyquist v tin hnh
phn bit cc xung ny ti kT
0
, th c th trnh c ISI (hnh c).
Nu T<T
0
, th s chng ln ca cc xung ny lm ta khng th phn bit c
chng. Ni mt cch khc rng bng tn cn thit phn bit cc xung
(cc k hiu) c tc k hiu R
s
=1/T phi bng 2f
0
=1/T
0
0
1
2 2
Gi i hn rng bng tn Nyquist
s
R
f
T
= =
2.7. nh hng ca hn ch bng thng v nh l Nyquist
(2/5)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 68
0
0 0
0
0
1, | | (1 )
1
1 sin (| | ) , (1 ) | | (1 )
2 2
0, | | (1 )
Phn nghing - c chuyn thnh

Roll(f)

o
khi f f
f f khi f f f
f
khi f f
o
t
o o
o
o
s

( | |

= s s +
( |
\ .

> +

2
0
0
cos (| | )
4 4
c tnh Cosin bnh ph- ng sau:
- c gi lc tnh dc

Roll(f) f f
f
t t
o


= +
`
)
Cosin
nh l Nyquist: Ngay c khi xp chng c tnh i xng kiu hm l ng vi tn
s ct f
0
vi c tnh ca b lc thng thp l tng, th im ct (im 0) vi trc
ca p ng xung kim vn khng thay i.
2.7. nh hng ca hn ch bng thng v nh l Nyquist
(3/5)
t
h(t) 1
f0 f
f0(1-o) f0 f0(1+o)
f0(1-o) f0 f0(1+o) f
t
t
Hnh 2.9. C c c tnh v p ng xung kim ca b lc
tho m n nh l Nyquist.
2f0
-3T0 -2T0 -T0 0 T0 2T0 3T0
0
0 0 0
0
0
1, | | (1 )
1
1 cos (| | (1 ) , (1 ) | | (1 )
2 2
0, | | (1 )
- c

Roll(f)

khi f f
f f khi f f f
f
khi f f
o
t
o o o
o
o
s

( | |

= + s s +
( |
\ .

> +

gi c tnh dc Cosin tng


BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 69

t
o=1
o=0,5
o=0
o=0
o=0,5
o=1
h(t)
1
Roll(f)
(1 )
0
f o +
(1 )
0
f o
0
f
T0 2T0 3T0 -T0 -2T0 -3T0 0
0
2f
f
b) p ng xung kim
( )
( )
0
0 0 2
0
cos 2
2 (2 )
1 4
h(t)
f t
f Sinc f t
f t
to
o
=

0
0 0
0
0
1, | | (1 )
1
1 sin (| | ) , (1 ) | | (1 )
2 2
0, | | (1 )

Roll(f)

o
khi f f
f f khi f f f
f
khi f f
o
t
o o
o
o
s

( | |

= s s +
( |
\ .

> +

c tnh ca b lc dc cosin
a) c tnh dc cosin
2.7. nh hng ca hn ch bng thng v nh l Nyquist
(4/5)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 70
Bng thng ti thiu cn thit
i vi truyn dn bng gc: Bng thng ti thiu cn hit phn bit cc
xung, hay bng thng Nyquist:
B
N
= f
0
(1+o) = R
s
(1+o)/2
i vi ng truyn dn bng thng: Bng thng Nyquist:
B
N
= f
0
(1+o) = R
s
(1+o)
trong R
s
l tc truyn dn hay tc k hiu.

Quan h gia tc k hiu v tc bit
R
s
=R
b
/k
trong k l s bit trn mt k hiu.
2.7. nh hng ca hn ch bng thng v nh l Nyquist
(5/5)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 71
2.8. nh hng ca cc c tnh ng truyn
Nhiu, tp m, t s tn hiu trn tp m, t s bit li
Ngun nhiu v tp m
T s tn hiu trn tp m
Tp m trng
Tp m Gauss trng cng (AWGN)
Tp m v cc quyt nh nh phn
Mo dng sng do c tuyn tn s ca ng truyn
c tnh pha tn
c tnh bin tn
Mu hnh mt (Biu hnh mt)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 72
Nhiu, tp m, SNR, BER (1/5)
Cc ngun nhiu v tp m
Cc ngun nhiu:
Cc tn hiu thu c my thu:
Sng iu ch khc gy nhiu vi tn hiu hu ch
Cc tn hiu do cc hin tng thin nhin hoc xung to ra nh: tia
chp, hay cc ngun xung nhn to....
Truyn sng nhiu tia vi ba s
Cc tn hiu th hin x l b li hay xp x ho nh:
Cc tn hiu sinh ra khi x l tn hiu truyn dn dn n pht i mt
tn hiu khc vi tn hiu m ngi pht nh pht
Cc tn hiu sinh ra khi tch sng v kt cu li tn hiu pha thu.
Cc ngun tp m:
Chuyn ng ngu nhin ca cc in t, ion, hay cc l trong cc vt
liu cu thnh thit b thu
Pht x ngn h
2.8. nh hng ca cc c tnh ng truyn
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 73
T s tn hiu trn tp m SNR
( )
10
10log ,
dB
Cng sut tn hiu (S)
SNR
Cng sut t p m (N)

SNR [dB]
S
N
=
| |
=
|
\ .
2.8. nh hng ca cc c tnh ng truyn
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 74
Tp m nhit c m t bi qu trnh ngu nhin Gaussian X(t) trung
bnh khng.
Mt ph cng sut ca X(t) l phng =>c gi l tp m trng.
[w/Hz]
Mt ph
cng sut
Hm t tng
quan
( ) ( )
0
N
N
2
f t = d t
( )
0
N
N
f
2
F =
Tp m trng
Nhiu, tp m, SNR, BER (2/5)
Hm mt xc sut
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
o

t o
=
2
2
1
exp
2
1
) (
x
x f
X
x
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 75
Tp m trng

T tng quan
Mt ph cng sut
Tp m trng
Hiu s thi gian t
Tn s
Mt ph cng sut
T tng quan
Tp m trng
bng thng hn
ch
0
2
N
W
Tn s
-W
0
0
0
0
0
2
N
0
w N
0
/ 2,
( )
0,
N
N f W
f
f W
<

u =

>

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 76
Tp m Gaus trng cng AWGN
2
2
1 1
( ) exp
2
2
1 1
( ) exp
2
2
Nu E[x]=0

[X]

X
X
x E
f x
x
f x
o
o t
o
o t

| |
=
(
|
\ .
(

(
| |
=
(
|
\ .
(

Phn b Gausian
Hm F
X
(x) cho bit xc sut in p tp m thp hn mc x
2
2
0
1 1
( ) ( ) exp
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
( ) exp{ } ;
2

1
trong: v i z=
x
X
z
u
F x P X x du
x
erf
Erf z u du
o
o t
o
t o

(
| |
= s =
(
|
\ .
(

(
| |
= +
( |
(
\ .

=
}
}
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 77

-2 -1 0 1 2
0,606fX(0 )
0,135fX(0 )
1,0
0,977
0,841
0,5
0,159
0,023
0
1
2
f
o t
=
Hm mt xc sut
Hm phn b xc sut
x
o
x
o
Hm phn b xc sut v mt xc sut ca tp m Gauss
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 78
t
X(t)
( )
X
f x
( )
X
f x dx
dx
in p tp m Gauss v hm mt xc sut
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 79
M hnh tn hiu thu




M hnh n gin: Tn hiu thu trong knh AWGN
) (t h
c
) (t s
i
x(t)
y(t)
AWGN
x(t)
y(t)
) (t s
i
Knh l tng

) ( ) ( t t h
c
o =
AWGN
i c
y(t) s (t) h (t) x(t) = * +
khi ph t tnhiu
-A x(t), khi ph t tnhiu
i
A x(t), 0
y(t) S (t) x(t)
1
+

= + =

+

Tp m v cc quyt nh nh phn
t nh "
t nh: y(t) , t nh "
, khng bit
u, quy 0"
Quy u quy 1"
u

>

<

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 80
Knh nh phn i xng (BSC)


e e
p (0) p (1)
e
p(1|0) p(0|1)
1 p (1) p(1|1) p(0|0)
=
- = =
1442 443 1442 443
[ ]
e e e e e
1
p p(0)p (0) p(1)p (1) p (0) p (1)
2
= + = +
1-p
e
(0)
u vo
iu ch
P
e
(1)

P
e
(0)
1
0 0
1
u ra gii
iu ch
1-p
e
(1)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 81
Knh nh phn i xng (BSC)
1-p
e
(0)
u vo
iu ch
P
e
(1)

P
e
(0)
1
0 0
1
u ra gii
iu ch


e e
p (0) p (1)
e
p(1|0) p(0|1)
1 p (1) p(1|1) p(0|0)
=
- = =
1442 443 1442 443
[ ]



2 2
2
2
e e e
e e
y A y A u 1 1
2 2
u
y A 1
z
2
2
A
u
p p(0)p (0) p(1)p (1)
1
p (0) p (1)
2
1 1 1
e dy e dy
2 2 2
1 1
e dy e dz
2 2
A
Q
- +

- -

s s
-
+

- -

s
s
= +
= +


= +

ps ps


= =
ps p


=



s


1-p
e
(1)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 82
[ ]


2 2
2
2
e e e
y A y A u 1 1
2 2
u
y A 1
z
2
2
A
u
1
p p (0) p (1)
2
1 1 1
e dy e dy
2 2 2
1 1 A
e dy e dz Q
2 2
- +

- -


s s
-
+

-
-

s
s
= +


= +

ps ps


= = =



s ps p


Tp m v cc quyt nh nh phn
y
2
1
2
1
( | 1)
2
y A
Y
f y e
o
to
+ | |

|
\ .
=
1
2
1
(1)
2
y A
e
u
P e dy
o
to
+ | |

|
\ .
=
}
U=0
A (bit 0) -A (bit 1)
2
1
2
1
( | 0)
2
y A
Y
f y e
o
to
| |

|
\ .
=
1
2
1
(0)
2
y A u
e
P e dy
o
to
| |

|
\ .

=
}
Cc hm mt
xc sut tn hiu
thu c iu kin
khi pht bit 0 (A)
v bit 1 (-A) vi
quyt nh ti u
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 83
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
erfc e
1
e
2
1 u
Q u erfc
2
2
erfc u 2 2
z
u
z
u
u dz
Q u dz
Q u
t
t


=
=
| |
=
|
\ .
=
}
}
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 84
2.8.3. Mo dng sng do c tuyn tn s ca ng
truyn
0
2A
A

u(e)


p

x
u
n
g
Dng sng
khng mo
Dng sng mo
Thi gian t
b) Bin i dng sng
a) c tnh pha tn
Tn s gc e
c tnh pha tn
Hnh 2.14. Mo dng sng xung do c tnh pha
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 85
Truyn dn tn hiu qua h thng tuyn tnh

Tn hiu tt nh:
Tn hiu ngu nhin:

Truyn dn khng mo (l tng):
Mi thnh phn tn s ca tn hiu khng ch n vi cng tr thi
gian, m cn c khuych i hoc suy hao nh nhau.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
Y X
f f H f F = F
( ) ( ) ( ) Y f X f H f =
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 86

0
2A
A
Tn s gc e
a) c tnh bin tn
A(e)

p

x
u
n
g
Dng sng
khng mo
Dng sng mo
b) Bin i dng sng Thi gian t
Hnh 2.15. Mo dng sng xung do cc k hiu nh hng trc tip n t
s bit li BER
Cc c tnh bin tn
2.8.3. Mo dng sng do c tuyn tn s ca ng
truyn
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 87
2.8.3. Mo dng sng do c tuyn tn s ca ng
truyn


S nhy cm vi sai
lch ng h
Mo cc im
ct khng
Thi im ly
mu ti u
D tr tp m
Lng mo nh
Hnh 2.16. nh hng ca ISI ln m mu mt
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 88
2.9. PHNG PHP BIU DIN V PHN TCH NH GI
TN HIU IN HNH
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
Biu
mt
Mu bit
M nh phn
NRZ trc lc
M nh phn
sau lc
Thi im ly mu
l tng
Xp chng
Thi im ly
mu l tng
(v tr mt m cc i)

m hnh mt ng
in p nh H
m hnh mt ngang
Thi im phn bit

Hnh 2.17. Biu mt i vi tn hiu
trc v sau b lc
Hnh 2.18a Biu mt thc t
Hnh 2.18b. Mu hnh mt b
gim cht lng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 89
2.9. PHNG PHP BIU DIN V PHN TCH NH GI
TN HIU IN HNH
T
s
=2T
b
0
t
2
t
1
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
6
t
6
t
-
11
I
0 t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4 t
5
t
6
t
7
t
1
-1
Q
I
Q
im tn hiu c
to ra trong khong
thi gian
T
s
=2T
b
(t 0 n t
1
)
T
s

=
2
T
b
im tn hiu c to ra trong khong
thi gian T
s
=2T
b
(t t
1
n t
2
)
t
I
Q
(
Q

t
h
e
o

t
)
(
Q

t
h
e
o

I
)
(I theo t)
Hnh 2.19. H to ba chiu th hin quan h gia: dng sng v biu tn x
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 90

3
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 91
Ni dung
3.1.Gii thiu chung
3.2. iu ch s v cc khun dng iu ch s
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu v biu din tn hiu
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
3.5. Tch sng kh ging nht
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh tp m Gauss trng cng, AWGN
3.7. Biu din tn hiu iu ch dng phc
3.8. K thut iu ch v gii iu ch PSK hai trng thi nht qun, BPSK
3.9. K thut iu ch v gii iu ch bn trng thi nht qun.
3.10. K thut iu ch v gii iu ch M trng thi nht qun
3.11. K thut iu ch OFDM
3.12. Mt ph cng sut ca cc tn hiu c iu ch
3.13. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
3.14. ng b sng mang v ng b k hiu
3.15. Tng kt
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 92
3.1. M u
Ti sao phi iu ch tn hiu? s dng c mi trng truyn dn
vo mc ch truyn thng cn phi:
c tnh ha, thng s ha mi trng truyn dn (xc nh, khm ph ti
nguyn truyn dn), chng hn nh xc nh ca s truyn dn quang, ca
s truyn dn v tuyn, di tn truyn dn ca cp ng...kh nng truyn
dn ca mi trng v tham s c trng.
c tnh ha ngun tn hiu cn truyn, chng hn: m thanh, hnh nh, d
liu, tn hiu in,.. => rng bng tn (lng tin) ca cc ngun tin v tham
s c trng ca ngun tin.
Dng cc sng mang (hay tn hiu) c cc thng s c trng ph hp vi
thng s c trng ca mi trng truyn truyn tn hiu tin tc bng cch
iu ch sng mang, bin i tn hiu, s kt hp gia chng, chng hn:
truyn tn hiu m thanh trn cp ng bng cch dng Micro bin i
thanh p thnh tn hiu in m tn; iu ch quang truyn tn hiu trn
mi trng cp si quang (ph hp ha gia thng s sng nh sng v ca
s truyn dn ca si quang); s kt hp gia iu ch sng mang RF (dch
ph tn ca tn hiu thng tin ln vng tn RF) v anten bc x sng in t
tng (chuyn tn hiu RF thnh in t trng) truyn dn tn hiu trn
mi trng v tuyn...
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 93
Gim kch thc anten: in thoi di ng,
anten c kch thc tiu biu bng
Nu truyn tn hiu bng c s (3000Hz), kch
thc anten l



Phi iu ch trn sng mang tn s cao RF
(v d 900MHz)
km 25
4 4
= =
f
c
25km
8cm
3.1. M u
t ph tn ca tn hiu vo mt di tn c ch
nh trc, t ph tn tn hiu thng tin vo ca
s truyn dn nhm: s dng ht ti nguyn ph
tn (ghp knh phn chia tn s FDM, WDM),
phn b ph tn, quy hoch v qun l ti nguyn
ph tn... Phc v cc k thut s dng hiu qu
ti nguyn....
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 94
Phn loi tn hiu v
iu ch: Da vo ti
nguyn ph tn v mc
ch truyn thng:
Tn hiu bng tn c s,
iu ch/gii iu ch
bng tn c s, truyn dn
tn hiu bng tn c s.
Tn hiu thng di (thng
bng), iu ch/gii iu
ch tn hiu thng bng
3.2. iu ch s v khun dng
iu ch s
Chuyn i tn hiu bng gc-tn hiu thng bng
trong min thi gian (vng trong)v min tn s
(vng ngoi)
Tn hiu bng tn gc phc
Tn hiu thng bng gi tr thc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 95
Baseband
signal
Bandpass
signal
Local oscillator
Minh ha tn hiu bng tn gc v tn hiu thng bng
3.2. iu ch s v khun dng iu ch s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 96
nh gi hiu nng: Trn quan im truyn thng, tiu ch
c bn nh gi v so snh cc phng php iu
ch/gii iu ch khc nhau l: hiu nng dung lng v
hiu nng cht lng (kh nng i ph nhc im ca
mi trng truyn dn: phainh, suy hao, nhiu... v hn
ch bng thng ca knh).
Hiu nng cht lng BER hay kh nng i ph nhc im v
cht lng (kh nng khc phc nh hng phainh, suy hao...)
ca mi trng truyn.
Hiu nng dung lng (hiu qu chim dng ph tn hn ch ca
mi trng truyn).
3.2. iu ch s v khun dng iu ch s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 97
Mc tiu thit k
1. Ti a tc s liu.
Mt s mc tiu i
lp nh: mc tiu
(1&2) i lp vi
mc tiu (3&4), v
vy cn la chn
mt gii php dung
ha (ti u) sao cho
tha mn nhiu mc
tiu.
2. Gim thiu xc sut li k hiu.
3. Gim thiu cng sut sut pht.
4. Gim thiu rng knh.
5. Ti a kh nng chng nhiu.
6. Gim thiu mc phc tp ca mch v ti a tn dng
ti nguyn (trang thit b & ph tn, khng gian, m, thi
gian).
Cc rng buc
rng bng tn cc tiu theo l thuyt Nyquist
L thuyt dung lng knh Shannon
Phn b ph tn.
Hn ch v k thut
Cc yu cu khc nh qu o v tinh
Dung ha iu ch v m ha c xem l thay i quan im khai thc hiu
nng xc sut li & hiu qu s dng bng thng
3.2. iu ch s v khun dng iu ch s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 98
Khng gian tn hiu l? L mt khng gian trc giao N
chiu.
Mc ch c bn ca khng gian tn hiu:
Trnh by vect ca tn hiu (chuyn tn hiu vo vect & ngc li).
Tch sng tn hiu (chuyn tn hiu thnh dng sng v ngc li).
Tnh nng lng tn hiu v khong cch Euclidean gia cc tn hiu.
c tnh hiu nng BER (nh gi hiu nng cht lng ca cc
phng php iu ch).
Khong cch Euclidean gia cc tn hiu:
Vi mc ch tch sng: Cc tn hiu thu c chuyn thnh cc
vect thu. Tn hiu c khong cch nh nht so vi tn hiu thu c
c tnh l tn hiu pht.
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 99
M y thu M y ph t
Ngun
bn tin
B ph t
vector
{ }
i
m { }
i
s
{ } ) t ( s
i
) t ( y
i
m
B t ch sng
B thu
vector
Y
Knh
Tp m
B iu ch
c tnh
(
(
(
(

=
N
2
1
Y
:
Y
Y
Y M ,..., 2 , 1 i ,
s
:
:
s
s
s
iN
2 i
1 i
i
=
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
M hnh ho h thng truyn thng
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 100
1
0
( ) . ( )
1, 2,...,
v i
N
note
i ij j
j
t T
s t s t
i M
|
=
s s

=

=

Tp cc sng mang c iu ch s
i
(t) c trnh by dng cc vector trong
khng gian tn hiu theo nguyn tc: Nu to c mt tp hu hn M tn hiu
nng lng gi tr thc {s
i
(t)}, i=1,..,M vi mi tn hiu c lu T giy, th tn hiu
iu ch s
i
(t) c trnh by bng t hp tuyn tnh ca NsM hm trc giao chun
c s gi tr thc {|
j
(t)}, j=1,...,N
Trnh by tn hiu iu ch/gii iu ch trong khng gian tn hiu:
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
0
( ). ( ) ( ). ( )
C c hm trc giao chun c s - c to ra bi th tc Gram-Shmit
1, nu i j, Unit Energy i 1,2,...,M
;
0, nu i j Orthogonality
T
i j ij i j
t t dt s s t t dt | | |
= =

= =

}
1
2
0
, 1, 2,...,
:
Hs khai trin

j 1,2,...,N
i
T
i
iN
s
s
i M
s
(
(
(
= =
( =
(

}
i
s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 101
( )
( )
1
2
2
1
.
.
.
D di vect:
Cosin ca gc gia hai vect:
N ng l- ng ca mi tn hiu iu




ch:
N
i i i ij
j
i j
i j
s s s s
s s
s s
=
= = -
-
-

( ) | |
2
2 2
1
0
2
2
2 2
1
0 0 0 0
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( )

Khong c ch clit gia hai vect tn hiu:





i k
T
N
i i ij i
j
T T T T
N
i k ij kj i k i i k k
j
E Note E
E s t dt s s
s s s s s t s t dt s t dt s t s t dt s t dt
=
=
= = =
= =
-
= +

} } } }
( )
i k
Nu hai tn hiu s (t) & s (t) trc giao th
i k i k
s s E E = +
Cc thng s c trng ca vect tn hiu:
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 102
To tn hiu s
i
(t) v khi phc cc h s s
ij
.
M hnh pht/thu tn hiu:
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
B tng quan
B tng quan
B tng quan
1
( ) t |
( )
N
t |
1 i
s
iN
s
( )
}
-
T
0
dt
( )
}
-
T
0
dt
2
( ) t |
2 i
s
( )
}
-
T
0
dt

1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
( )
N
t |
1 i
s
2 i
s
iN
s
) t ( s
i
1
0
( ) . ( )
1, 2,...,

;
N
i ij j
j
t T
s t s t
i M
|
=
s s
=
=

0
( ). ( )
T
ij i j
s s t t dt | =
}
ng b sng mang
0
( ). ( )
1, nu i j, Unit Energy
0, nu i j Orthogonality
T
i j
t t dt | |
=
=

=

}
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 103
1
( ) ( )
N
i ij j
j
s t s t |
=
=

}
T
0
1
( ) t |
}
T
0
( )
N
t |
1 i
iN
s
s
(
(
(
(

) (t s
i
1 i
s
iN
s
Waveform to vector conversion
1 2
( , ,..., )
i i i iN
s s s = s
1 i
iN
s
s
(
(
(
(

1
( ) t |
( )
N
t |
i1
s
iN
s
) (t s
i
Vector to waveform conversion
Chuyn vect vo dng sng v ngc li:
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 104
i
s
Vect tn
hiu
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
3
( ) t |
i1
s
i2
s
i3
s
Minh ha khng gian vect tn hiu ba chiu:
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 105
T
s
=2T
b
0
t
2
t
1
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
6
t
6
t
-
11
I
0 t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4 t
5
t
6
t
7
t
1
-1
Q
I
Q
im tn hiu c
to ra trong khong
thi gian
Ts=2Tb (t 0 n t1)
T
s

=
2
T
b
im tn hiu c to ra trong khong thi
gian Ts = 2Tb (t t1 n t2)
t
I
Q
(
Q

t
h
e
o

t
)
(
Q

t
h
e
o

I
)
(I theo t)
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 106
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
1 11 12
( , ) s s = s
2 21 22
( , ) s s = s
3 31 32
( , ) s s = s
1 11 1 12 2 1 11 12
2 21 1 22 2 2 21 22
3 31 1 32 2 3 31 32
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )



s t s t s t s s
s t s t s t s s
s t s t s t s s
| |
| |
| |
= + =
= + =
= + =
s
s
s
Pht lun phin
gia cc tn hiu
0
( ) ( )
T
ij i j
s s t t dt | =
}
T t s s 0
M i ,..., 1 =
N j ,..., 1 =
Minh ha
chiu cc tn
hiu ln
khng gian tn
hiu trc
chun
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 107
1 11 1 12 2 1 11 12
2 21 1 22 2 2 21 22
3 31 1 32 2 3 31 32
1 1 2 2 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )




s t s t s t s s
s t s t s t s s
s t s t s t s s
y t y t y t y y
| |
| |
| |
| |
= + =
= + =
= + =
= + =
s
s
s
y
Pht lun phin
gia cc tn hiu
Tn hiu thu u ra
b tng quan
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
1 11 12
( , ) s s = s
2 21 22
( , ) s s = s
3 31 32
( , ) s s = s
1 2
( , ) y y = y
Minh ha khng
gian tn hiu
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 108
Minh ha
khong cch
Euclic trong
khng gian tn
hiu
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
1 11 12
( , ) s s = s
2 21 22
( , ) s s = s
3 31 32
( , ) s s = s
1 2
( , ) y y = y
z s
d
,
1
d
2
s ,y
d
3
s ,y
2 2
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ; 1, 2, 3
i

Khong c ch Euclid gia c c tn hiu y(t) v s (t)
i i i
d s t y t s y s y i = = + =
i
s ,y
1
E
3
E
2
E
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 109
Khng gian tn hiu trc giao N chiu c c trng bi N
hm c lp tuyn tnh c gi l cc hm c s.
Cc hm c s ny phi tha mn iu kin trc giao
{ }
1
( )
N
j
j
t |
=
*
0
0
( ), ( ) ( ) ( ) ;
, 1,...,
1,
0,
1



nu i=j


nu , khng gian tn hiu - c g trc chun

i l
T
i j i j i ji
i
i
t T
t t t t dt K
i j N
K
i j
K
| | | | o
s s
< > = =
=

=

=

=
}
c trc c hun c (c s)
Cc hm trc giao chun c s c to ra bi th tc Gram-
Schmidt
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 110
Khng gian tn hiu trc chun 2 chiu





Khng gian tn hiu trc chun 1 chiu
1
2
1 2 1 2
0
1 2
2
( ) cos(2 / ) 0
2
( ) sin(2 / ) 0
( ), ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
( ) ( ) 1


T
t t T t T
T
t t T t T
T
t t t t dt
t t
| t
| t
| | | |
| |

= s <

= s <

< > = =
= =
}
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
0
1
( ) t |
T t
T
1
0
1
( ) 1 t | =
0
1
( ) t |
Minh ha trc chun c s
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 111
{ }
{ }
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1
( ) ( )
1. ( ) ( ) / ( ) / ( )
2. ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( )
(
Given a signal set compute an orthonormal basis
Define
For i=2,...,M compute
if
N
M
i j
i
j
i
i i i j j
j
i
s t t
t s t E s t s t
d t s t s t t t
d
|
|
| |
=
=

=
= =
-
= < >

{ }
1 2
) 0, ( ) ( ) / ( )
( ) 0,
( ), ( ),..., ( )
let
if do not assign any basis function
1. Renumber the basis functions such that basis is

This is only necessary i
i i i
i
N
t t d t d t
d t
t t t
|
| | |
-
= =
=
( ) 0 f for any in step 2
Note that N M
i
d t i =
s -
Dng th thc Gram-Schmidt tm cc hm trc chun c
s khi cho trc tp cc tn hiu
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 112
T t
) (
1
t s
T t
) (
2
t s
T
A
T
A
0
0
T t
1
( ) t |
T
1
0
1 1
2 1
1 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
s t A t
s t A t
A A
|
|
=
=
= = s s
1
( ) t |
-A A 0
1
s
2
s
2
2
1 1
0
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
0
2 2 1
( )
( ) ( ) / ( ) /
( ), ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0




T
T
E s t dt A
t s t E s t A
s t t s t t dt A
d t s t A t
|
| |
|
= =
= =
< > = =
= =
}
}
1
2
Minh ha th tc Gram-Schmidt: Tm cc hm c s v v khng gian tn
hiu cho cc tn hiu pht bng cch dng th tc Gram-Schmidt:
3.3. Khng gian tn hiu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 113
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
WGN

( ) X t

1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
( )
N
t |
1 i
s
2 i
s
iN
s
) t ( s
i
ng b sng mang
( ) ( ) ( )
i
y t s t X t = +
0
( ) ( )
, 1, 2,..,
T
j j
ij j
Y Y t t dt
s X j N
| =
= + =
}
B tng quan
B tng quan
B tng quan
1
( ) t |
( )
N
t |
( )
}
-
T
0
dt
( )
}
-
T
0
dt
2
( ) t |
( )
}
-
T
0
dt
N
Y
2
Y
1
Y
AWGN
| |
0 0
0 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, 1, 2,...,
j
ij j
Y j
i l- ng tt nh s Bin ngu nhin X
m E Y


T T
j j i j
T T ij j
i j j
ij j
Y Y t t dt s t X t t dt
E s X
s t t dt X t t dt
s X j N
| |
| |

= = +

( ( = = +

= +
`

= + =

)
} }
} }
2
2
0
N

j
ij
Y
s
o
=

=
i
s
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
3
( ) t |
i1
s
i2
s
i3
s
x
y
+x1
+x2
+x3
(Biu din tn hiu v tp m trong
khng gian tn hiu)
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 114
My thu
lc thch
hp
M N s
( ) ( )
j j
y y t T t | = -
N j ,..., 1 =
1 2
( , ,..., )
N
z z z = y
1
( ) ( )
N
i ij j
j
s t s t |
=
=
M i ,..., 1 =
( ) y t
1
y
1
( ) T t |
-

( )
N
T t |
-

N
y
Bank of N matched filters
Vect
quan trc
1
N
y
y
(
(
(
(

= y
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 115
My thu
tng
quan
}
T
0
1
( ) t |
}
T
0
( )
N
t |
1
N
y
y
(
(
(
(

= y
( ) y t
1
y
N
y
y
Bank of N correlators
Vect
quan trc
1 2
( , ,..., )
N
y y y = y
N j ,..., 1 =
0
( ) ( )
T
j j
y y t t dt | =
}
1
( ) ( )
N
i ij j
j
s t s t |
=
=
M i ,..., 1 =
M N s
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 116
Trong knh AWGN: x(t) c biu din:

( ) ( ) ( ) x t x t x t = +
Noise projected on the signal space
which impacts the detection process.
Noise outside on the signal space
( ), ( )
j j
x x t t | =< >
( ), ( ) 0
j
x t t | < >=
1
( ) ( )
N
j j
j
x t x t |
=
=

N j ,..., 1 =
N j ,..., 1 =
Vector representation of
1 2
( , ,..., )
N
x x x = x
( ) x t
independent zero-mean
Gaussain random variables with
variance
{ }
1
N
j
j
x
=
j 0
var(x ) N / 2 =
Tp m trng trong khng gian tn hiu trc chun
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 117
V cc phn t Y
j
ca vector ngu nhin Y c lp thng k nhau, nn
biu din hm pdf c iu kin ca vector ngu nhin Y khi pht
tn hiu s
i
(t) (tng ng vi k hiu tin m
i
c pht i) l tch ca
cc pdf c iu kin ca cc phn t ring l (cc phn t ca vector
ngu nhin Y l cc bin ngu nhin) nh sau:
j
Vector ngu nhin
Bin NN
gm N BNN
Y i Y j i
Tin hiu ph t
l vector (gi trmu
Gi trmu
ca vector NN)
ca bin NN
y m f y m f
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
j
N
j 1
Tin hiu ph t
Do c c phn t Y (bin NN) ca vector ngu nhin Y dc lp thng k
=
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
[
( ) ( )
j
N
Y i Y j i
j 1
y m f y m

f
=
=
[
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 118
V mi Y
j
l bin ngu nhin Gaus c trung bnh s
ij
v phng sai N
0
/2,
nn
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
Y
j
2
Y
j
j
2
2
y
:
2

j
0
j
2
Y j i
N
0
N
Y i Y j i
j 1
1
f y m e
1
e ,
N
y m f y m
j
j ij
y m
y s
f
o
o


=

`
=

)
[
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
Y
2 j
Y 1
j
j
2
0
1
1
/ 2
2
Y
1
N / 2
0
2
N
2
Y i
f y m e
= e
Likelihood Function
N
j
j
N
j ij
j
y m
N
y s
N
o
o
=
=

c im ca knh AWGN: (i) khng nh; (ii) phn b Gaus; (ii) mt ph


cng sut N
0
/2 phn b u trn ton b di tn xt; (iv) tc ng ln tn hiu
theo ton t cng.
Hm kh nng c trng knh AWGN
3.4. p ng ca cc b tng quan ln tp m
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 119
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
Tch tn hiu trong knh AWGN
Tch sng khong cch cc tiu d
min
Kh nng ging nht ML

Xc sut li k hiu trung bnh
Ranh gii min ln xc sut li
Gii hn trn ca xc sut li d trn khong cch cc
tiu.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 120
Bi ton tch tn hiu:
Cho vect quan trc y, thc hin nh x t y vo c tnh
ca k hiu pht sao cho gim thiu xc sut quyt
nh li trung bnh.
m

Modulator Decision rule m

i
m
y
i
s
x
Tch tn hiu trong knh AWGN
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 121
M hnh knh AWGN: y = s
i
+ x
Vect tn hiu S
i
=(s
i,1
, s
i,2
,.., s
i,N
) l tt nh.
Cc phn t ca vect tp m x=(x
1
,x
2
,...,x
N
) l cc bin ngu nhin
Gausian i.i.d c trung bnh khng v phng sai N
0
/2 . Hm pdf
vect tp m l




Cc phn t ca vect quan trc y = (y
1
,y
2
,...,y
N
) l cc bin ngu
nhin Gaussian c lp. Hm pdf ca n l
( ) ( )
2
2
0
1
0
1
/ 2 / 2
0 0
1 1
( ) e e
N
j
j
x
N
N
N N
f
N N t t
=


= =
x
X
x
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
0
1
0
1
/ 2 / 2
0 0
1 1
( | ) e e
j ij
y
N
i
j
s
N
N
i
N N
f
N N t t
=



= =
y s
Y
y s
2
ij
j=1
Note:
N
s =
i
s
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 122
Quy tc quyt nh ti u (MAP maximum a
posteriori probability):



Theo quy tc Bayes:
( ) ( )

Pr Pr
1,..., .
Quyt nu

ph t ph t ,
i
i k
m m
k i
m m
k M
=
=
>
=
y y

Quyt nu
p( | ) ( | )
hay cc i v i
p( ) ( )
i
k k
k k
m m
m f m
p p k i
f
=
=
Y
Y
y y
y y
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 123
Phn chia khng gian tn hiu thnh M vng
quyt nh Z
1
,Z
2
,...,Z
M
sao cho
ln[ .

Vector nm trong v ng nu
( | )
] cc i v i
( )
Ngha l
i
k
k
i
Z
f m
p k i
f
m m
=
=
y
y
y
y
y
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 124
Quy tc quyt nh theo kh nng ging nht ML
Khi cc k hiu ng xc sut, th lut quyt nh ti u MAP
(maximum posteriori probability) c n gin ha thnh ML:

ln[
Quyt nu

( | ) cc i v i
Quyt nu
( | )] cc i v i
i
k
i
k
m m
p m k i
m m
f m k i
=
=
=
=
y
y
y
y
Phn chia khng gian tn hiu thnh M vng quyt nh, Z
1
,Z
2
,..,Z
M
.
Pht biu li quy tc quyt nh kh nng ging nht ML:
ln[

Vector nm trong v ng nu
( | )] cc i v i
Ngha l
i
k
i
Z
f m k i
m m
=
=
y
y
y
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 125
1
1
2
( ).
Vector nm trong v ng nu
cc tiu v i

Vector nm trong v ng nu
cc i
trong l n ng l- ng ca
i
k
i
N
j kj k
j
k k
Z
k i
Z
z s E k i
E s t
=
=
=

y
z s
y
Quy tc quyt nh theo kh nng ging nht ML
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 126
S khi b tch sng ML
) (
1
, s
) (
M
s ,
1
2
1
E
M
E
2
1

Choose

the largest
y
m

3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht


BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 127
Minh ha vng quyt nh ML
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
1
s
3
s
2
s
4
s
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
4
Z
3.5. B tch sng kh nng ging nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 128
Xc sut li k hiu trung bnh
Quyt nh sai: Vi k hiu pht m
i
(tng ng vect tn hiu s
i
), xy ra
li quyt nh nu vect quan trc Y khng nm trong vng Z
i
.
( )
( ) ( )
( ) Pr
Pr Pr
c sut quyt nh i v i k hiu ph t
v - c ph t
- c ph t P
X s
r khng nm trong - c ph
ai
e i i i
i i i i
P m m m m
m m m Z m = =
-
= =
y
Pr( ) Pr(
( | )
t i
c sut quyt nh i v i k hiu ph t
- c ph t)Pr(y m trong v ng - c ph t)

X ng
( ) Pr( m trong v ng - c ph t)

i
i i i i
c i i i i
Z
m m m n Z m
P m n Z m f m d
P
-
| |
|
|
\ .
= =
= =
}
y

y y y
( ) 1 ( )
e i c i
m P m =
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 129
Khi cc k hiu ng xc sut:
)

( Pr ) (
1
i
M
i
E
m m M P = =

=
1 1
1
1 1
( ) ( ) 1 ( )
1
1 ( | )
i
M M
E e i c i
i i
M
i
i
Z
P M P m P m
M M
f m d
M
= =
=
= =
=

}
Y
y y
Xc sut li k hiu trung bnh
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 130
1
( ) t |
b
E
b
E
0
1
s
2
s
1
( | ) f m
Y
y
2
( | ) f m
Y
y

2
) 2 (
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
N
E
Q P P
b
E B

2 /
2 /
) ( ) (
0
2 1
2 1
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =
N
Q m P m P
e e
s s
Minh ha trng hp nh phn
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 131
Let A
ki
denote that the observation vector Y is closer to the symbol
vector S
k
than S
i
, when S
i
is transmitted.
Pr(A
ki
)=Pr(S
k
,S
i
) depends only on S
k
and S
i
.
Applying Union bounds yields
Bin gii vng
The probability of a finite union of events is upper bounded
by the sum of the probabilities of the individual events.

=
=
s
M
i k
k
i k i e
P m P
1
2
) , ( ) ( s s

=
=
=
s
M
i
M
i k
k
i k E
P
M
M P
1 1
2
) , (
1
) ( s s
Bin gii vng (Union bound)
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 132
Bin gii vng:
1
f
1
s
4
s
2
s
3
s
1
Z
4
Z
3
Z
2
Z
y
2
f
2 3 4
e 1 1
Z Z Z
P (m ) f (y|m )dy

=

y
1
f
1
s
4
s
2
s
3
s
2
A
y
1
f
1
s
4
s
2
s
3
s
3
A
y
1
f
1
s
4
s
2
s
3
s
4
A
y
2
f
2
f
2
f
2
2 2 1 y 1
A
P ( , ) f (y|m )dy =

s s
3
2 3 1 y 1
A
P ( , ) f (y|m )dy =

s s
4
2 4 1 y 1
A
P ( , ) f (y|m )dy =

s s

=
s
4
2
1 2 1
) , ( ) (
k
k e
P m P s s
Minh ha bin gii vng
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 133
Gii hn trn da vo khong cch cc tiu
gn v i hn so v i , khi ph t

ik
2 k i k i i
2
ik
0 0 0
d
P ( , ) Pr(y )
d / 2 1 u
exp( )du Q
N N N / 2


= - =

s s s s s
|
|
.
|

\
|
s s

=
=
=
2 /
2 /
) 1 ( ) , (
1
) (
0
min
11
2
N
d
Q M P
M
M P
M
i
M
i k
k
i k E
s s
k i ik
d s s =
min
,
min khong c ch cc tiu trong khng gian tn hiu:
ik
i k
i k
d d
=
=
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 134
2
( ) t |
1
( ) t |
1
s
3
s
2
s
4
s
2 , 1
d
4 , 3
d
3 , 2
d
4 , 1
d
s
E
s
E
s
E
s
E

i i s
i ,k s
min s
E E , i 1,.., 4
d 2E
i k
d 2E
= = =
=

=
s
Minh ha gii hn trn v
xc sut li k hiu trung
bnh da vo bin gii
vng
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 135
SNR l t s gia cng sut trung bnh tn hiu trn cng
sut trung bnh tp m, SNR cn c bin i vo dng
nng lng bit, v:
Cc tn hiu c pht trong khong thi gian mt k hiu => l tn
hiu nng lng (cng sut bng khng).
Thun li trong vic so snh khi pht nhiu bit trn k hiu.
b
b b
R
W
N
S
W N
ST
N
E
= =
/
0
b
R
W
: Bit rate
: Bandwidth
E
b
/N
o
trong truyn thng s
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 136
) (
1
t
0
1
s 2
s
b
E
b
E
Binary PAM
) (
1
t 0
2
s
3
s
5
2
b
E
5
6
b
E
5
6
b
E

5
2
b
E

4
s
1
s
4-ary PAM
T t
1
( ) t |
T
1
0
3.6. Xc sut li truyn dn trong knh AWGN
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 137
3.7. Biu din tn hiu iu ch dng phc
| | ( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( )
c c
c c
s(t) Re x(t) jy(t) c t j t
x(t)c t y(t) t
os sin
os sin
( = + e + e

= e e
s
( (
s(t) Re g(t)
g(t) A(t)
c
j t
ng mang
Bn tin
dng phc
bng gc
j t) j t)
e
e e
e
u u
(
(
=
(
(

=
2 2
1
A(t) x (t) y (t)
y(t)
(t) tan
x(t)

= +
u =
Mi tn hiu bng thng gi tr thc c trnh by khi s dng k hiu
phc sau:
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 138
3.8. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 139
Biu thc tn hiu iu ch, gii iu ch, s
( )
1
1 1
1
1 11 1
2 21 1
11
21
1
( ) . ( ) . ( )
( ) . ( ), 1
( ) . ( ), 2
"0"
"1"
2
( ) cos 2



N
i ij j i
j
b
b
c
b
s t s t s t
s t s t i
s t s t i
s E
s E
t f t
T
| |
|
|
| t u
=
=

= =

= =

= =

=
`

= +

( )
( )
11
1
21
2
( )
( )
( )
2
cos 2 , 1
( )
2
cos 2 , 2
2
cos 2 ( 1) , 1, 2&
b


0 t T
b c
b
s
S t
i
b c
b
s
S t
b c
b
t
E f t i
T
s t
E f t i
T
E f t i i
T
u
t u
t u
t t u

+ =

+ =

| |
|
= + + = s s
|
\ .
3.6.1. iu ch/gii iu ch BPSK
( ) ( ) ( )
i
y t s t x t = +
B tng quan
1
( ) t |
}
-
b
T
0
dt ) (
B quyt
nh
Ly mu
t i t = kTb
iu ch
) t ( s
i
B chuyn
i mc
1 i
s
i
b
1
( ) t |
( ) x t

<
>
0 y nu 1 Chn
0 y nu 0 Chn
1
1
y
1
11
1 1
0
21
"0"
( ). ( )
"1"


b
T
b
i i
b
s E
s s t t dt
s E
|

=

= =

=

}
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 140
3.6.1. iu ch/gii iu ch BPSK
B tng quan
b
0 E
b
1 E
Chuyn mc
Lung nh phn n cc
1 c
b
2
(t) cos(2 f t)
T
| = t
B dao ng
ni pht TLO
Tn hiu iu ch
BPSK
Khi phc
sng mang
Khi phc
nh thi
t
1
y(t)
b(t)

b(t)
a)
b)
Mch quyt
nh
t
2
Ly mu
1 b
1
t T
t
(.)dt
+
}
1 c
b
2
(t) cos(2 f t)
T
| = t
Ch
Ch
1
1
n 0 nu y >0
n 1 nu y <0

1
y
>
<
0D
1D
0
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 141
Hiu
nng
xc
sut
li
1
( ) t |
b
E
b
E
0
1
s
2
s
1
( | ) p m
Y
y
2
( | ) p m
Y
y
1 2
1 2
0
0
/ 2
( ) ( )
/ 2
2
(2)
e e
b
B E
P m P m Q
N
E
P P Q
N
| |

= = |
|
\ .
| |
= =
|
|
\ .
s s
b
E b
E
B i n g i i q u y t n h
i m b n ti n 1 i m b n ti n 2
2
Z V ng
1
Z V ng
1
|

3.6.1. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 142
1 2
1 2
0
0
/ 2
( ) ( )
/ 2
2
(2)
e e
b
B E
P m P m Q
N
E
P P Q
N
| |

= = |
|
\ .
| |
= =
|
|
\ .
s s
Bin gii
quyt nh v
cc hm kh
nng tng
ng vi cc
k hiu 0
v 1 c
pht i
( )
( )
1
0
N
E y
0
1
0
2
s y
y 0
1 1 y e
dy e
N
1
dy e
2
1
dy ) 1 | y ( f ) 1 ( p
0
2
b 1
2
1
y
2
21 1
1
1
}
} }



=
= =
t
o t
o

Bin gi i quyt nh
( )
( )
2
1
y
2
b 1
1
1
2 ) E y (
y
2 1
1 1 y
e
2
1
) t ( s y p
1 | y p ) 1 | y ( f
o
o t
+
=
=


di truyn d- c d
( )
( )
2
1
y
2
b 1
1
1
2 ) E y (
y
1 1
1 1 y
e
2
1
) t ( s y p
0 | y p ) 0 | y ( f
o
o t

=
=


di truyn d- c d
0
y
1
" 0 "
E s
b 11

+ =
" 1 "
E s ] y [ E
b 21 1

= =
2
N
] y [ Var
0 2
y 1
1
= = o
3.6.1. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 143
Ngun d
liu
MY PHT
So snh cc k
hiu
Tr
MY THU
Ngun tp m
Ngun tp m
| |

n d

E
P
[ ] d n
[ ]
d
x n
[ ]
q
x n
[ ]
d
y n
[ ]
q
y n
[ ]
d
n n
[ ]
q
n n
M hnh m phng h thng truyn thng n gin
3.6.1. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 144
Kt
qu
m
phng
3.6.1. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 145
3.6.1. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
Kt
qu
m
phng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 146
Kt
qu
m
phng
3.6.1. iu ch v gii iu ch BPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 147
3.6.2. iu ch v gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 148
| |
( )
1
1
1 1 2 2
2
( )
, 0 ( ) . ( ), 0
( ) ( )
0, 0,
0, 0,
2
sin 2 1 sin 2
4
i1 i2
s s



i
i i
i
c
s
t
t T s t s t t T
s t t
t t T
t t T
E i f
T
|
| |
|
t
t

(
s s + s s

(
= =


< >

< >

(

(

=
( )
( ) ( )
| |
1
2
2
( )
( )
2
cos 2 1 cos 2 , 0
4
0 , 0,
2
cos 2 ( ) , 0
0 , 0;
( )


trong :
i
t
c
t
s
c
t
E i f t t T
T
t t T
E
f t t t T
T
t t T
t
|
|
t
t
t u u
u

| |
|
|
|
\ .

| |

|
(
+ s s
|
(

|

\ .

< >

+ + s s
=

< <

(2 1)
4
i
t
=
Biu thc
tn hiu
iu ch,
gii iu
ch, s
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 149
| |
1
1 1 2 2
2
( )
, 0 ( ) . ( ), 0
( ) ( )
0, 0,
0, 0,
i1 i2
s s



trong :
4 im bn tin (M=4):
i i
i
t
t T s t s t t T
s t t
t t T
t t T
|
| |
|

(
s s + s s

(
= =


< >

< >

( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
2
sin 2 1 cos 2 1 , 1, 2, 3, 4
4 4
2
sin 2
( )
,
( )
2
cos 2

Khng gian tn hiu 2 chiu (N=2):
i
c
c
s E i E i i
f t
t
T
j
t
f t
T
t t
t
|
|
t
(
( (
= =
(
( (


(

(
(
(
=
(
(

(

1, 2 =
Biu din tn hiu trong khng gian tn hiu
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 150
T
s
=2T
b
0
t
2
t
1
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
6
t
6
t
-
1 1
I
0 t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4 t
5
t
6
t
7
t
1
-1
Q
I
Q
i?mtn hi?u du?c
t?o ra trong kho?ng
th?i gian
T
s
=2T
b
(t? 0 d?n t
1
)
T
s

=
2
T
b
i?mtn hi?u du?c t?o ra trong kho?ng
th?i gian T
s
=2T
b
(t? t
1
d?n t
2
)
t
I
Q
(
Q

t
h
e
o

t
)
(
Q

t
h
e
o

I
)
(I theo t)
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 151
Biu khng gian tn hiu cho h thng QPSK nht qun
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
im bn tin 3
(11)
im bn tin 4
(10)
V

n
g

Z
1
im bn tin 1
(00)
V

n
g

Z
2
im bn tin2
(01)
V

n
g

Z
3
V

n
g

Z
4
( )
2
1 c T
(t) sin 2 f t | = t
( )
2
2 c T
(t) cos 2 f t | = t
E
Bin gii
quyt nh
Bin gii
quyt nh
{ }
31 41
E
2
s s
=

{ }
21 11
E
2
s s
=

12
42
s
E
|||
2
s


=
`

)
22
32
s
E
|||
2
s


=
`

)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 152
S
khi
h
thng
QPSK
nht
qun
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
Lung nh
phn n cc
b(t)
2 c
2
(t) cos(2 f t)
T
| = t
Dao ng ni pht
TLO
Tn hiu iu
ch QPSK
Khi phc
nh thi
t1
2

b (t)
a)
b)
t2
DEMUX
0 / 2 E
1 / 2 E
Chuyn mc
0 / 2 E
1 / 2 E
Chuyn mc
/ 2 t
1 c
2
(t) sin(2 f t)
T
| = t
b1(t)
b2(t)
1
1
t T
t
(.)dt
+
}
Mch quyt
nh
Ly mu
/ 2 t
1 c
2
(t) sin(2 f t)
T
| = t
y2
Khi phc
sng mang
MUX
y(t)

b(t)
Lung
bit ra
2 c
2
(t) cos(2 f t)
T
| = t

1
1
t T
t
(.)dt
+
}
Ly mu
y1
1

b (t)
B tng quan
B tng quan
Mch quyt
nh
y2

1D
0
0D
y1

1D
0
0D
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 153
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
a) Chui nh phn u vo
1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
1
-
0
+
0
+
0
+
1
-
1
-
1
-
b) Chui c nh s l
Cc tnh ca s
i1
c) Chui c nh s chn
i1 1
s |
i 2 2
s |
Cc tnh ca s
i2
d) Tn hiu QPSK
0
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
7
b
1
-
t
t
t
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 154
Hiu nng xc sut li
V ng quyt
nh sai
V ng quyt
nh ng
y1
y2 0
0
0
2
2
b
c
b
E
P erfc
N
E
Q
N
| |
=
|
|
\ .
| |
=
|
|
\ .
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 155
M phng dng sng tn hiu QPSK
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 156
M phng ph tn hiu QPSK
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 157
M phng biu mt tn hiu QPSK
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 158
M phng ng bao tn hiu QPSK
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 159
M phng biu pha tn hiu QPSK
3.6.2. iu ch/gii iu ch QPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 160
3.6.3.iu ch v gii iu ch
OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 161
Nhc im ca iu ch QPSK l: tn ti s thay
i pha sng mang gia hai k hiu l t. Qu
trnh qu ca cc mch in do s thay i ny
c th dn n iu bin k sinh a b khuych
i vo vng bo ha dn n mo phi tuyn.
Khc phc:
S dng b khuych i vng tuyn tnh
nhng tiu tn nhiu cng sut.
Dng iu ch/gii iu ch OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch v gii iu ch OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 162
Thay i pha ca sng QPSK
3.6.3. iu ch/gii iu ch OQPSK
1
d 1 =
0
d 1 =
2
d 1 =
3
d 1 =
4
d 1 =
5
d 1 =
6
d 1 =
7
d 1 =
Thay i pha
0
b
T
b
2T
b
3T
b
4T
b
5T
b
6T
b
7T
b
8T
3 / 2 t t 0
t
u t
0
Gi thit gc pha ban u = 4
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 163
S iu ch OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch/gii iu ch OQPSK
( )
2 c
2
(t) cos 2 f t
T
| = t
TLO
Tn hiu
iu ch
OQPSK
b(t)
DEMUX
0 / 2 E
1 / 2 E
Chuyn mc
0 / 2 E
1 / 2 E
Chuyn mc
/ 2 t
b
1
(t)
b
2
(t)
D

( )
1 c
2
(t) sin 2 f t
T
| = t
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 164
Dng sng dch thi u vo (a) v dng sng u ra ca OQPSK
Thay
i pha
t ch
xy ra
bi hai
ln thay
i
t/2, v
th loi
b c
thay i
pha ln
3.6.3. iu ch v gii iu ch OQPSK
0
d 1 =
1
d 1 =
2
d 1 =
3
d 1 =
4
d 1 =
5
d 1 =
6
d 1 =
7
d 1 =
s(t)
0
t
/ 2 t
0
b
2T
b
4T
b
6T
b
8T
( )
1
d t
b
T
b
3T b
5T
b
7T
( )
2
d t
b
T
a)
b)
t
3 / 2 t / 2 t 0 0
d
1
d
3
d
5
d
7
t
t
d
0
d
2 d
4
d
6
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 165
M phng dng sng tn hiu OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch v gii iu ch OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 166
M phng ph tn hiu OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch v gii iu ch OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 167
M phng biu mt tn hiu OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch/gii iu ch OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 168
M phng ng bao tn hiu OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch/gii iu ch OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 169
M phng biu pha tn hiu OQPSK
3.6.3. iu ch/gii iu ch OQPSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 170
2
( ) cos
2
b
t
d t
T
t
Tb 3Tb 5Tb 7Tb -Tb
1
( ) sin
2
b
t
d t
T
t
d2(t)
d1(t)
d0
d2
d4
d6
d1
d3
d5 d7
t
t
Chuyn i xung vung thnh cc hm sin v cos trong MSK
Nhn c
MSK t
OQPSK
bng cch
thay th
xung ch
nht trong
bin
xung bng
hm sin
hoc cos
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 171
Biu thc tn hiu MSK:
1
2
( ) ( )sin sin(2 )
2
i c
b b
s t d t t f t
T T
t
t
| |
=
|
\ .
2
2
( ) cos cos(2 )
2
c
b b
d t t f t
T T
t
t
| |
+
|
\ .
0stsT
b

1
1
1
, ( ) 0
( ) , 0 2
, ( ) 1
b
b
b
E b t
d t t T
E b t

= s s

nu
nu
trong d
1
(t) v d
2
(t) xc nh trong khong T
b
:
2
2
2
, b ( ) 0
( ) ,
, b ( ) 1
b
b b
b
E t
d t T t T
E t

= s s

nu
nu
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Q
1
I
2
1 c
b b
s (t )
(t )
2 c b
b b
S (t )
(t )
2
s t d t sin t sin 2 f t
2T T
2
d t c t c 2 f t 0 t T
2T T
os os
|
|
(
| |
t
= t
( |
(
\ .

(
| |
t
+ t s s
( |
(
\ .

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 172
Khng gian tn hiu MSK:
( )
1
2
( ) sin .sin 2 , 0 2
2
c b
b b
t t f t t T
T T
t
| t
| |
= s s
|
\ .
( )
2
2
( ) cos .cos 2 ,
2
c b b
b b
t t f t T t T
T T
t
| t
| |
= s s
|
\ .
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
2
1 1
0
1
( ) ( )
( ), 0 2
b
T
i
b
s s t t dt
d t t T
= u
= s s
}
2 2
2
( ) ( )
( ),
b
b
T
i
T
b b
s s t t dt
d t T t T

= u
= s s
}
Cc hm trc chun: |
1
(t) v |
2
(t) u c nh ngha trong khong thi
gian T=2T
b
=> m bo iu kin trc giao.
Ta cc im bn tin:
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 173

|1
|2
b
E
b
E
b
E
b
E
(00)
(01)
(11)
(10)
Bin gii quyt nh
Bin gii quyt nh
Vng Z1
Vng Z2
Vng Z4 Vng Z3
im bn tin 1 im bn tin 2
im bn tin 3 im bn tin 4
Biu
khng
gian tn
hiu
MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 174
S liu vo
bi
Tr Tb
bi-1
XOR
Xi
GF DEMUX
TLO
0
1
b
b
E
E


d1(t)
d2(t)
D
SIN
COS
GF: B lc Gauss thng thp
TLO: B dao ng ni pht
COS: B to dng hm COS
SIN: B to dng hm SIN
D: Tr Tb
di(t) t/ 2
b
c
b
2E
sin 2 f t
T
b
c
b
2E
2 f t
T
cos
Si(t)
S khi b iu ch GMSK
1
2
( ) ( )sin sin(2 )
2
i c
b b
s t d t t f t
T T
t
t
| |
=
|
\ .
2
2
( ) cos cos(2 )
2
c
b b
d t t f t
T T
t
t
| |
+
|
\ .
0stsT
b

3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 175
M phng dng sng tn hiu MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 176
M phng ph tn hiu MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 177
M phng biu mt tn hiu MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 178
M phng ng bao tn hiu MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 179
M phng biu pha tn hiu MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 180
M phng biu pha tn hiu MSK
3.6.4. iu ch GMSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 181
So
snh
PSD
ca
cc tn
hiu
QPSK,
MSK,
GMSK
(BT=0.
25)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 182
{
( )
[ ]
c
(t)

ng gian mt chiu N=1 (t), M im bn tin:
os 2 f t+


ng ma trn ca

i 1
1
1
i i
S
b b
2
i
i
Kh
2
S (t) Ea c , i 1, 2,..., M
T
E nE ; T nT
n log (M)
D a
M 1, M 3, ..., M 2i 1, ..., M 1
f
f
= p q =
= =
=
= - + - + - + - - a
14444442 4444443

i E

PAM
V 1 =

1444444444444444444444444442 444444444444444444444444443
-M+1 -3 -1 1 3 M-1
1
|
Cc im tn hiu PAM
3.6.5. iu ch M-ASK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 183
| |
( )
1
1
1 1 2 2
2
( )
, 0 ( ) . ( ), 0
( ) ( )
0, 0,
0, 0,
2
sin 2 1 sin 2
4
i1 i2
s s



i
i i
i
c
s
t
t T s t s t t T
s t t
t t T
t t T
E i f
T
|
| |
|
t
t

(
s s + s s

(
= =


< >

< >

(

(

=
( )
( ) ( )
| |
1
2
2
( )
( )
2
cos 2 1 cos 2 , 0
4
0 , 0,
2
cos 2 ( ) , 0
(
0 ,
)
0;
trong


:
i
t
c
t
s
c
t
E i f t t T
T
t t T
E
f t t t T
T
t t T
t
|
|
u
t
t
t u u

| |
|
|
|
\ .

| |

|
(
+ s s
|
(

|

\ .

< >

+ + s s
=

< <

2
, i=0,1,2,...,M-1
i
M
t
=
Biu
thc tn
hiu
iu
ch,
gii
iu
ch, s

3.6.6. iu ch/gii iu ch M-PSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 184
( )
( )
1
2
2 2
sin cos , 1, 2,...., 1
2
sin 2
( )
, 1, 2
( )
2
cos 2
M im bn tin:
Khng gian tn hiu 2 chiu (N=2):
i
c
c
i i
s E E i M
M M
f t
t
T
j
t
f t
T
t t
t
|
|
t
(
| | | |
= =
| | (
\ . \ .

(

(
(
(
= =
(
(

(

Biu din tn hiu trong khng gian tn hiu
3.6.7. iu ch/gii iu ch M-PSK

- E
E
- E
E
1
|
2
|
Chm tn
hiu ca
kha
chuyn
pha tm
trng thi
8-PSK
| |
2
(
2
cos 2 ( ) , 0
0 ;
)
, 0
,
i
trong : i=0,1,2,...,M-
S(t) ;
1
=
c
i
t
M
E
f t t t T
T
t t T
t u u
t
u

+ + s s
=

< <

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 185
RLO
c
2
os(2 f ) c t
T
t
Timing
recovery
t1
t2
1
1
(.)
t T
t
dt
+
}
Ly mu
1
1
(.)
t T
t
dt
+
}
Ly mu
/2 t
c
2
sin(2 f ) t
T
t
yQ
yI
Carrier
recovery
y(t)
( )
i
s t

( ) t u

| ( ) ( )| t t u u
Tnh
Chn gi tr
nh nht
RLO: Receiver local oscillator: b dao ng ni thu
Carrier recovery: khi phc sng mang
Timing recovery: khi phc nh thi
K hiu
Q 1
I
y
tan
Y
B gii iu ch M-PSK nht qun

( ) tan
Q
I
y
t ar g
y
u
| |
=
|
\ .
1 1 0
2
= +
|
.
|

\
|
t
= M , . . . , , i , x
M
i
sin E y
Q Q
1 1 0
2
= +
|
.
|

\
|
t
= M , . . . , , i , x
M
i
cos E y
I I
2
0 2
N
= o
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
M N
E
M Q
M N
E
n Q
M N
E
Q Pe
b
n
b
t
t
t
sin log 2 2
sin 2 2
sin
2
2
0
2
0
0



3.6.7. Gii iu ch M-PSK
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 186
| |
( )
1 1
1
1 1 2 2
2
0
( )
( )
, 0 ( ) . ( ), 0
( ) ( )
0, 0,
0, 0,
2
sin 2
2
i1 i2
s s




i
i i
i
i c
s t
t
t T s t s t t T
s t t
t t T
t t T
E
b f t
T
|
|
| |
|
t

(
s s + s s

(
= =


< >

< >

=
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
0
( )
0 0
2
cos 2 , 0
2
0 , 0,
sin 2 s 2 , 0
0 , 0;


i
i c
s t
i c i c
E
a f t t T
T
t t T
E E
b f t a co f t t T
T T
t t T
|
t
t t

| |
|
|
|
\ .

| |

|
+ s s
|

\ .

< >

+ s s
=

< <

Biu thc tn hiu iu ch, gii iu ch, s


3.6.8. iu ch/gii iu ch M-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 187
( )
( )
1 2
0 0
1 2
0 0
1
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 1, 2,...., 1
2 2
2
sin 2
( )
( )
2
cos 2
i i
M im bn tin: b
Khng gian tn hiu 2 chiu (N=2):
i i
T T
i i i
S S
c
c
E E
s s t t dt s t t dt a i M
f t
t
T
t
f t
T
| |
t
|
|
t
(
(
( = = = =
(
(

(

(
(
(
=
(
(



} }
, 1, 2 j =
(
Biu din tn hiu trong khng gian tn hiu
3.6.8. iu ch M-QAM
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(

+ + + +
+ +
+ +
=
1 1 3 3 1 1
3 1 3 3 3 1
1 1 1 3 1 1
L , L . . . L , L L , L
. .
. .
L , L . . . L , L L , L
L , L . . . L , L L , L
b , a
i i
M L=
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 188
0010 0011
0001
0000
1000 1001 1011 1010
1100 1111 1110 1101
0100 0111 0110 0101
1
( ) t |
2
( ) t |
Chm tn hiu ca 16-QAM (M=16)
Cc thnh phn ng pha (a) v pha
vung gc (b) ca tn hiu 16-QAM
a)
b)
00 01 11 10
00
10
11
01
2
( ) t |
1
( ) t |
0
E
3
2
-
0
E
2
-
0
E
2
0
E
3
2
0
E
3
2
-
0
E
2
-
0
E
2
0
E
3
2
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(
(
(
(





=
3 3 3 1 3 1 3 3
1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3
1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3
3 3 3 1 3 1 3 3
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
b , a
i i
3.6.8. iu ch M-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 189
M = 4
M = 16
M = 64 Q
BPSK
I
2
2
7
5
3
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
-
7
4
-
Q
A
M
1
6
-
Q
A
M
6
4
-
Q
A
M
-7 -5 -3 -1 1 3 5 7
BPSK/4-QAM
16-QAM
64-QAM
A
m
A
m
( )
2
BPS
log
s b
T M T =
3.6.8. iu ch M-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 190
0
0
0
0
00 3 / 2
10 1 / 2
11 1 / 2
01 3 / 2
E
E
E
E



c
2
os(2 f ) c t
T
t
TLO
Tn hiu iu
ch 16-QAM
b(t)
a)
Demux
Mapping
Mapping
/ 2 t
c
2
sin(2 f ) t
T
t

b1(t)
b2(t)
b3(t)
b4(t)
RLO
c
2
os(2 f ) c t
T
t
Timing
recovery
t1
2

( ) b t
b)
t2
1
1
(.)
t T
t
dt
+
}
>
<
Mch quyt
nh
Ly mu
1
1
(.)
t T
t
dt
+
} 1
y >
<
Mch quyt
nh
Ly mu
/ 2 t
c
2
sin(2 f ) t
T
t
y1
y2
y2
1

( ) b t
Carrier
recovery
MUX
y(t)

( ) b t
3

( ) b t
4

( ) b t
i

0
0
0
0
00 3 / 2
10 1 / 2
11 1 / 2
01 3 / 2
E
E
E
E



S khi ca h thng 16-QAM, a) B iu ch; b) B gii iu ch.
3.6.8. iu ch/gii iu ch M-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 191
Cng thc xc sut li k hiu cho 16-QAM:
( )
( )
e
0
0
1
P 2 1
N
M
1
4 1
N
M
av bav
av
av
E , E l n ng l- ng ca k hiu v n ng l - ng ca bit trung bnh
b
3E
erfc
2 M-1
3nE
Q
M-1



@ -


= -






14444444444444442 4444444444444443
2
0 0
av
(L 1)E (M 1)E
E
3 3

- -
= =
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 192
M phng dng sng tn hiu 16-QAM
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 193
M phng ph tn hiu 16-QAM
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 194
M phng biu mt tn hiu 16-QAM
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 195
M phng ng bao tn hiu 16-QAM
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 196
M phng biu pha tn hiu 16-QAM
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 197
-5 0 5
-4
-2
0
2
4
x
I
x
Q
Chm sao tn hiu khng blc
-5 0 5
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
x
I
x
Q
Chm sao tn hiu blc
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-4
-2
0
2
4
Chs k hiu
x
I
D ng sng ca thnh phn I blc
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-4
-2
0
2
4
Chs k hiu
x
Q
D ng sng ca thnh phn Q blc
3.6.9. iu ch/gii iu ch 16-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 198
iu ch/gii iu ch A-QAM
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 199

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 200
Chuyn i tn hiu bng gc-tn hiu thng bng trong min thi gian (vng
trong)v min tn s (vng ngoi)
Tn hiu bng tn gc phc
Tn hiu thng bng gi tr thc
3.7. Biu din tn hiu iu ch dng phc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 201
{ }
-1
j t
j t) j t)
y(t)
t) =tan
x(
i tn hiu b ng thng gi trthc s(t) u - c vit:
e
D- ng bao phc g(t):
g(t) = e e
w
q q
= = +
q
=
+ = =

c
2 2
( (
A(t) g(t) x (t) y (t)
(
M
S(t) Re g(t)
x(t) jy(t) g(t) A(t)
[ ] ( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( )
t)

os t +j sin t
os t t


= + w w

= w - w
14444444444444444444444442 4444444444444444444444443
c c
c c
S(t) Re x(t) jy(t) c
x(t)c y(t) sin
3.7. Biu din tn hiu iu ch dng phc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 202
i vi tn
hiu
QPSK:
2
( ) cos(2 1)
4
E
x t i
T
t
=
2
( ) s (2 1)
4
E
y t in i
T
t
=
i vi tn
hiu M-QAM:
0
2
( )
i
E
x t a
T
=
0
2
( )
i
E
y t b
T
=
3.7. Biu din tn hiu iu ch dng phc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 203
MT PH CNG SUT CA
TN HIU C IU CH
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 204
Nu k hiu: u
g
(f) l PSD ca hnh bao phc g(t), l PSD bng gc, th PSD
u
S
(f) ca tn hiu bng thng s(t) l dch tn ca u
g
(f) c xc nh theo:
Thc tkhng c tn s m


S g c g c
c g S
1
(f) (f f ) (f f )
4
1
(f) (f f )
2

F = F - + F +

F = F -
1444444444444442 444444444444443
3.8. PSD ca tn hiu c iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 205
Tn hiu bng thng
( )
:
( ) ( ).cos 2
c
f : tn s sng mang
gc pha ngu nhin phn b u trong [0,2 ]
khng ph thuc vo X(t) Y(t) thnh WSS
Y X
c
t t f t
u t
t u

= +
{ }
2
2
2 2
1
: ( ) ( ) )
2
1
: ( ) ( ) ( )
4
: ( ) ( ) )
2
: ( ) ( ) ( )
4
c
Nu X(t) ltn hiu nhphn ngu nhin, th

c
os(2 f

os(2 f
[ T] [
Y X
Y X c X c
Y T
Y c c
c
f f f f f
A
c
A T
f Sinc f f Sinc f f
| t | t t t
| t t t t
=
u = u + u +
= A
u = + +
ACF
PSD
ACF
PSD
{ }
T]
( )
Y
| t
-T
T
2
A /2
2
-A /2
4/
c
f T =
t
( )
Y
f u
( )
2
A T /4
c
f
c
f
1
c
f
T
+
2
c
f
T
+
3
c
f
T
+
1
c
f
T

2
c
f
T

3
c
f
T

1
c
f
T
+
2
c
f
T
+
3
c
f
T
+
1
c
f
T

2
c
f
T

3
c
f
T

f
T tng quan ACF v PSD ca tn hiu nhi phn X(t) c iu ch
3.8. PSD ca tn hiu c iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 206
| | | | { }
| | | | { }
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
2
( ) ( )
2
b
S c b c b
c b c b
b
E
f Sinc f f T Sinc f f T
P
Sinc f f T Sinc f f T
R
u = + +
= + +
Mt ph cng sut PSD ca tn hiu BPSK
2
( ) ( );
b
b
K T b k
k
b
E
g t A p t kT A
T

=
= =

2 2
g b b b
b
P
(f) 2E Sinc (fT ) 2 Sinc (f / R )
R
F = =
Biu din ng bao phc (tn hiu bng gc) dng chui xung
lng cc ngu nhin
Mt ph cng sut bng gc ca sng BPSK
Mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu iu ch BPSK:
3.8. PSD ca tn hiu c iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 207
PSD ca tn hiu MSK
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
cos 2 ( ) cos 2 ( ) 16
( )
16 ( ) 1 16 ( ) 1
c b c b b
S
b c b c
f f T f f T E
f
T f f T f f
t t
t

+ ( (

u = +
` ( (
+

)

1,0
0,5
0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1,0 1,25
QPSK
MSK
( )
c b
f f T
Mt ph cng sut chun ha us(f)/2Eb
-0,25 -0,5 -0,75 -1 -1,25
Mt ph
cng sut
mt bin
ca tn
hiu QPSK
v MSK
PSD ca tn hiu QPSK
| | | | { }
| | | | { }
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
2
( ) ( )
2
S c c
c c
E
f Sinc f f T Sinc f f T
P
Sinc f f T Sinc f f T
R
u = + +
= + +
3.8. PSD ca tn hiu c iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 208

3,0
2,0
1,0
0
0,5 1,0
M=8
M=4
M=2
( )
c b
f f T
Mt ph cng sut chun ha us(f)/Eb
-1,0
-0,5
Mt ph
cng sut
M-PSK mt
bin cho
M=2,4,8
| | | | { }
| | | | { }
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
log
( ) ( ) log ( ) log
2
log
( ) log ( ) .log
2
b
S c b c b
c b c b
b
E M
f Sinc f f T M Sinc f f T M
P M
Sinc f f T M Sinc f f T M
R
u = + +
= + +
( ) ( )
b 2
E=E .log M =


F = =




144442 44443 144442 44443
14444444444444444444444442 4444444444444444444444443
b 2
2 2
g b 2 b 2
T T log M;
f E.Sinc Tf E log M.Sinc T .log M.f
Mt
ph
cng
sut
PSD
ca tn
hiu
M-
PSK
3.8. PSD ca tn hiu c iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 209
SO SNH TNH NNG CA CC
K THUT IU CH
Cht lng ( tin cy): Thng c nh
gi bng xc sut li k hiu.
Dung lng: Thng c nh gi bng
hiu sut s dng bng tn.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 210
( ) ( )
( )
2
2.
2 2. 2.
: 2 2. . .sin
1 3
4 1 .
b
e
0
b b
e
0 0
b
e 2
0
n
e
E
BPSK: P
N
E E
P=
N N
E
M-PSK M 4 P log M
N
M-QAM: P Q lo
M-1
M
Q
QPSK
Q Q
MSK
Q
M
t
| |
=
|
|
\ .
| | | |


| | `
| |
)
\ . \ .
| |
| |
|
> ~
|
|
\ .
\ .
| |
~
|
\ .
( )
0
.
av b
2
n
E
g M
N
| |
|
|
\ .
3.9. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
Xc sut li k hiu trung bnh Pe i vi cc s iu ch nht qun:
BPSK, QPSK, MSK v M-QAM knh AWGN.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 211
3.9. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 212
Hai ngun ti nguyn s cp:
Cng sut pht (ph thuc vo xc sut li k hiu yu cu).
rng bng tn c cp pht.
Hiu sut s dng bng tn: Nu k hiu: (i) tc bit u vo
s iu ch l R
b
; (ii) rng bng thng chim dng ca s
iu ch l B, th hiu sut s dng bng thng ca s iu
ch:
Ph thuc vo loi iu ch: tr- ng h p M-PSK & M-QAM
[bits/s/Hz]
[bits/s/Hz]
b
b
2
R
B
R
log M,
B
r =
r = =
144444444444442 44444444444443
3.9. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 213
b
cng sut trung bnh
t hthng l t- ng l hthng c tc bit R
t n dung l- ng knh C ca knh ( )

[ its ]
2
0
P l
M
P
C Blog 1 b / s
N B


= +



b
R =C
b b

u E =PT
C C

B B

b b
N P E .R P.C
b
2
0
C
B
b
0
E
log 1 .
N
E 2 1
C
N
B

= =


= +



144444444444442 44444444444443
1444444444442 444444444443
Dung lng ca
mt knh c rng
bng thng B [Hz]
b nhiu bi tp m
trng cng Gauss
c mt ph cng
sut N
0
/2 c gii
hn trong rng
bng thng B [Hz]
3.9. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 214
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
-20
0
20
40
0
500
1000
1500
rng b ng Hz
Kh o s t d u n g l - n g k n h SISO t h eo r n g b n g B & SNR
P/N
0
(dB)
D
u
n
g

l
-

n
g

b
i
t
s
/
s
)
l cng sut ph t trung bnh
[ its ]
2
0
P
P
C Blog 1 b / s
N B

= +



144444444444442 44444444444443
3.9. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 215
1
2
4
8
1/2
6
12
18
-6
24 30 36
16
Eb/N0 ,dB -1,6
M=4
M=8
M=16
M=64
0
1/4
M = 256
M=2
M=8
M=16
K hiu:
M=32
Vng bng
tn hn ch
Gii hn dung
lng Rb=c
Vng cng
sut hn ch
Hiu sut s
dng bng tn
Rb/B, bit/s/Hz
Gii han
Shannon
M-PSK nht qun vi
M-FSK nht qun vi
M-QAM nht qun vi
BPSK v 4-FSK nht qun vi
Vng Rb < c
-5
e
P =10
-5
e
P =10
-5
e
P =10
-5
e
P =10
Mt phng hiu sut s dng bng tn
M log
R
M log T T
b
b 2 2
1
= =
[ its ]
2
0
P
C Blog 1 b / s
N B

= +



3.9. So snh tnh nng ca cc k thut iu ch
So snh cc phng thc
iu ch di nh sng
ca l thuyt dung lng
knh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 216

4
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 217
Cc ch c xt trong chng
Cc khi nim c bn v knh v tuyn, cc tham s c trng ca knh v
tuyn.
Cc m hnh knh v tuyn, m phng knh v tuyn.
Dung lng knh, phng php nng cao dung lng knh v tuyn
Ti nguyn v tuyn, phn b ti nguyn v tuyn
Phn b ti nguyn v tuyn in hnh
Mc ch chng
Hiu c cc khi nim v: knh v tuyn di ng, cc tham s c trng
ca knh v tuyn, ti nguyn v tuyn v cc phng php phn b ti
nguyn v tuyn in hnh.
Hiu cc m hnh knh truyn sng, cc hm knh truyn sng, m hnh h
thng, m phng knh v tuyn.
Hiu dung lng ca cc m hnh knh v tuyn, phng php nng cao dung
lng knh v tuyn in hnh.
Hiu ti nguyn v tuyn v phn b ti nguyn v tuyn in hnh.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 218
4.1. Gii thiu chung
4.2. Cc khi nim c bn
4.3. Knh v tuyn v c tnh knh v tuyn
4.4. Dung lng knh, phng php nng cao
dung lng knh v tuyn
4.5. Phn b ti nguyn v tuyn in hnh
4.6. Tng kt
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 219

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 220
Khi nim MIMO
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 221
Khi nim MIMO
Ty thuc vo s lng anten pht, anten thu, phn cc v
cc ch ca anten, cc h thng thng tin v tuyn c
th c phn chia thnh:
SISO (Single input single output):h thng ch c mt anten
pht, mt anten thu
SIMO (Single input multi output): H thng c mt anten
pht v nhiu anten thu
MIMO (multi output multi output): H thng c nhiu
anten pht v nhiu anten thu.
S khc nhau gia SISO v MIMO c th hin trn hnh 1.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 222
Bit
Symbol
Symbol
Bit
Bit
Symbol
Symbol
Bit
M M
-1
a)
b)
M v M
-1
phi c thit k m bo t c hiu nng ti u ca
ng truyn v tuyn (tc bit, tin cy) vi phc tp cho php
H 1
Khi nim MIMO
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 223
V cu trc c th phn loi MIMO thnh s ch c mt b
iu ch v s c nhiu b iu ch nh trn hnh 2 v 3.
Chuyn i
mc v iu
ch
Gii iu ch
v gii
chuyn i
mc
S liu S liu
Knh
H
anten pht anten thu
t
n
r
n
H 2
Phn loi s MIMO
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 224
Chuyn i
mc v
iu ch
Gii iu
ch v gii
chuyn i
mc
S liu
S liu
Knh
H
anten pht
anten thu
Chuyn i
mc v
iu ch
Gii iu
ch v gii
chuyn i
mc
S/P
P/S
S/P: Ni tip
thnh song
song
P/S: Song
song thnh
ni tip
t
n
r
n
H 3
Phn loi s MIMO
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 225
S ghp knh khng gian BLAST
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6
...
b1 b4
...
b2 b5
...
b3 b6
...
C
h
u
y

i

m

c

v

u

c
h

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
b1 b4
b2 b5
b3 b6
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6
X

n

h
i

u

s

A1
A2
A3
B1
B2
B3
C1
C2
C3
A1
A2
A3
B1
B2
B3
C1
C2
C3
H 5
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 226
S tng qut knh MIMO
Ngun pht Ngun thu
iu ch v
m ha
Gii iu ch
v gii m
1
n
1
n
t r
h
11
h
1n
r
h
n
t
1
h
n n
t r
t
t
r r r t r t r
11 21 n 1
1 1 1
12 22 n 2
2 2 2
n 1n 2n n n n n
h h h
y x
h h h
y x
y h h h x


h



h

= + = +





h




L
L
M M M M M M M
L
y Hx h
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 227
Cc hm knh MIMO
( )
L 1
j (t , )
0
h(t, ) a (t, )e (t)

| t
=
t = t o t t

p ng xung kim knh SISO


p ng xung kim knh MIMO
( )
t
t
r r t r
n,m,
1,1 2,1 n ,1
1,2 2,2 n ,2
n,m
1,n 2,n n .n
L 1
j (t , ))
n,m n,m, n,m,
0
h h ....h
h h ....h
H h .
.
h h ....h
h (t, ) a (t, )e (t)

| t
=
(
(
( = =
(

(
(

t = t o t t

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 228
M h nh knh MIMO SVD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 229
T
x
1
T
x
2
T
x
m
R
x
1
R
x
2
R
x
n
1,1
h
2,1
h
2,2
h
, n m
h
,1 n
h
x x
n,m
i, j R ,T
h h
1,2
h
1,m
h
1,m
h
,2 n
h
1 1, 1
1
( ) ( ). ( ) ( )
m
j j
j
y k h k x k w k
=
= +

2 2, 2
1
( ) ( ). ( ) ( )
m
j j
j
y k h k x k w k
=
= +

,
1
( ) ( ). ( ) ( )
m
n n j j n
j
y k h k x k w k
=
= +

,
,
1
( ) ( ). ( ) ( )
R T
x x
m
i i j j i
j
y k h k x k w k
=
= +

1
1 1 1 1 1
X ( ):
(1) (2) (3)... ( )... ( )
k N symbols
x x x x k x N
2
2 2 2 2 2
X ( ):
(1) (2) (3)... ( )... ( )
k N symbols
x x x x k x N
X ( ):
(1) (2) (3)... ( )... ( )
m
m m m m m
k N symbols
x x x x k x N
X ( ):
(1) (2) (3)... ( )... ( )
i
i i i i i
k N symbols
x x x x k x N
Y
1
(k)
Y
2
(k)
Y
n
(k) X
m
(k)
X
2
(k)
X
1
(k)
M
hnh
knh
MIMO
SVD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 230
Ngun
ph t
Ngun
thu
S/P P/S
V U
H H
x
x
y y
x Vx =
y Hx W = +
H
y U y =
1
2
r
r 1
x (k)
x (k)
:
x (k)
x

(
(
(
(
(

1
2
m
m 1
x (k)
x (k)
:
x (k)
X

(
(
(
(
(

1
2
r
r 1
y (k)
y (k)
:
y (k)
y

(
(
(
(
(

1
2
n
n 1
y (k)
y (k)
:
y (k)
y

(
(
(
(
(

M hnh knh MIMO SVD
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 231
SVD ca ma trn knh H
[ ]
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
h h h
2
1 N 1 N
1/ 2
N
0 0
0 0
... ...
0 0
0 0

l


l

= =



l


H UDV u u v v
L
L
M O
L
Trong U v V l cc ma trn nht phn, h l
chuyn v Hermitian v
{ }
r t
N min n , n =
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 232
V V
H
U U
H
x x
1
q
N
q
y y
Knh MI MO
1
2
1

1
2
N

1
2
N
N 1
x (k)
x (k)
:
x (k)
x

(
(
(
(
(

1
2
N
N 1
x (k)
x (k)
:
x (k)
X

(
(
(
(
(

1
2
N
N 1
y (k)
y (k)
:
y (k)
y

(
(
(
(
(

1
2
N
N 1
y (k)
y (k)
:
y (k)
y

(
(
(
(
(

U.U
H
= U
H.
U = I
V.V
H
= V
H
.V = I
N = min(n
r
,n
t
)
( )
( )
n U x D
n U x V UDV U
n U x UDV U
n x UDV U
n Hx U y
H
H H H
H H H
H H
H
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
~
~
~




BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 233
M hinh ha my pht
m r
1,1 1,2 1,r
2,1 2,2 2,r
m,1 m,2 m,r
m r
V C is called the transmit precoding matrix
V is (rotation) unitary matrices

x(k) = V.x(k)
v v ..... v
v v ..... v

: : ..... :
v v ..... v

e
(
(
(
=
(
(

r
H H
1 1
2 2
r m
r 1 m 1
x(k) C be r independent
symbol sequences
that we wish to send
satisfies V.V =V V=I
x (k) x (k)
x (k) x (k)
: :
x (k) x (k)

e
( (
( (
( (
=
( (
( (

r
i i, j j
j 1
x (k) v .x (k)
=
=

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 234
M hinh ha nhiu v tp m
n K
I
I I
1,1 1,2 1,K
2,1 2,2 2,K
n,1 n,2 n,K
n K
H C are the complex channel gains
from the sources
to the receive anten
I(k) = H .x (k)
h h ..... h
h h ..... h

: : ..... :
h h ..... h

e
(
(
(
=
(
(

K
I
I ,1 1
I ,2 2
I ,K n
n 1 K 1
x (k) C are the signals
transmitted by the K
nas interference sources
x (k) I (k)
x (k) I (k)
: :
x (k) I (k)

e
( (
( (
( (
=
( (
( (

n n
1 1
2 2
n n
n 1 n 1
I(k) C z(k) C is the
is the baseband additive noise at
interference the receive antennas
w(k)= I(k) + z(k)
I (k) z (k) w
I (k) z (k)
=
: :
I (k) z (k)

e e
( (
( (
( (
+ =
( (
( (

1
2
n
n 1

(k)
w (k)
:
w (k)

(
(
(
(
(

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 235
M hinh ha my thu
n m
w(k)
1,1 1,2 1,m 1
2,1 2,2 2,m 2
n,1 n,2 n,m
n m
H C is the matrix of complex
channel gains
y(k) = H.x(k) + I(k) + z(k)
h h ..... h x (k)
h h ..... h x
=
: : ..... :
h h ..... h

e
(
(
(

(
(

m n
1 1
2 2
m n n
m 1 n 1 n 1
x(k) C is the I(k) C
baseband transmitted is the baseband
signal interference
I (k) z (k)
(k) I (k) z (k)
: : :
x (k) I (k) z (k)

e e
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
+ +
( ( (
( ( (

n n
1
2
n
n 1
z(k) C is the y(k) C is
additive noise at the baseband
the receive antennas received signals
w(k)
y (k)
y (k)
:
y (k)

e e
(
(
(
=
(
(

R ,T
x x
m
i i, j j i
j 1
y (k) h (k).x (k) w (k), i=1,...,n
=
= +

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 236
H H H H
H
H
* * *
1,1 2,1 n,1
* *
1,2 2,2 n,2
* *
1,r 2,r n,r
r n
U,V are (rotation) unitary matrices satisfies
U.U =U .U=I & V.V =V .V=I
U is complex c
y(k) U y(k)
u u ..... u
u u ..... u

: : ..... :
u u ..... u

=
(
(
(
=
(
(
(

1 1
2 2
n r
n 1 r 1
onjugate transpose of U matrix
y (k) y (k)
y (k) y (k)
: :
y (k) y (k)

( (
( (
( (
=
( (
( (

M hinh ha my thu
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 237
M hnh knh SVD MIMO
h
= = + U y y Dx
% % % h
P
h

n

l
u

n
g

k
h

n
g

g
i
a
n
K

t

h

p

k
h

n
g

g
i
a
n
q
1
q
N
Pht s liu
Thu s liu
1/ 2
1
1/ 2
N
1
x
N
x
1
y
N
y
H 12
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 238
M hnh knh SVD ti u
P
h

n

l
u

n
g

k
h

n
g

g
i
a
n
V
TX
TX
TX
Cc
k hiu
x
1
x
2
x
n
t
U
RX
RX
RX
h
y
1
y
2
y
n
r
z
1
z
2
z
n
r
Nhn s
liu
K

t

h

p

k
h

n
g

g
i
a
n
a) My pht SVD MIMO
b) My thu SVD MIMO
h
h h h
h
( ) = +
= +
= +
z U HxV
U UDV Vx U
Dx U
h
h
h
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 239
Dung lng knh
SISO-SIMO-MIMO
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 240
nh l dung lng knh truyn: Dung lng
knh c rng bng B (Hz), b nhiu lon bi
tp m Gaussian trng cng AWGN c mt
ph cng sut N
0
/2 v b gii hn bng thng B,
c cho bi
bits/s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
B N
P
B C
0
2
1 log
Trong P l cng sut thu trung bnh
Dung lng knh SISO
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 241
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
-20
0
20
40
0
500
1000
1500
rng b ng Hz
Kh o s t d u n g l - n g k n h SISO t h eo r n g b n g B & SNR
P/N
0
(dB)
D
u
n
g

l
-

n
g

b
i
t
s
/
s
)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 242
Dung lng knh SISO
| |
SISO 2
C log 1 SNR , bit/s/Hz = +
Do knh v tuyn phainh ngu nhin v thay
i theo thi gian nn dung lng knh c th c
vit l
2
SISO 2
C log 1 SNR. H , bit/s/Hz
(
= +

H l bin knh Gausian phc cng sut n v
kch thc 1x1
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 243
Dung lng knh SIMO
( )
H
SIMO 2
C log 1 SNR. HH , bit/s/Hz
(
= +

Thy r, dung lng ca knh SIMO c ci thin so
vi knh SISO . Vic tng dung lng do phn tp
khng gian lm gim phainh v ci thin SNR. Tuy
nhin ci thin SNR b hn ch v SNR tng bn
trong hm log
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 244
Dung lng knh MIMO: m anten phat v n anten thu
( )
H
MIMO 2 n
SNR
C log det I HH , bit/s/Hz
m

(
= +
`
(

)
Thy r, u im ca h thng MIMO v dung lng.
Khi n=m=N th HH
H
/N tin n I
N
v vy dung lng
tim cn n
| |
MIMO 2
C N.log 1 SNR , bit/s/Hz ~ +
Dung lng tng tuyn tnh theo s anten pht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 245
Dung lng knh
h
N
t
SNR
log det , bps / Hz
n

= +







C I HH
2 1 2 2 2 N
t t t
SNR SNR SNR
C log 1 log 1 log 1 bps / Hz
n n n




= + l + + l + + + l





L
Dung lng MIMO tng tuyn tnh vi min(n
t
;n
r
) v ma
trn knh phn chia thnh min(n
t
;n
r
) knh song song c
lp
Dung lng knh tng tuyn tnh do tng hng ca H
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 246
Hiu nng knh MIMO
T s tn hiu trn tp m
Hiu sut s dng ph tn
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 247
Hiu nng MIMO
H thng MIMO n
t
n
r
, SNR u ra v hiu sut s dng ph
tn c biu din nh sau:
t r
t r
n n
2
T
n,m
n n
2
n 1 m 1
t T
n,m
2 2
n 1 m 1
r t r
P
h
n P 1
SNR h
n n n
= =
= =
= =
o o

T
2 N
2
t
P
SE log det bps / Hz
n
(
| |
= +
(
|
o
\ .

h
I HH
:
t r
Trong N min(n , n ) =
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 248

5
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 249
b/ M ho knh v iu chkt h p.
Ngun tin
dng s
B m ha
knh
B iu ch
Knh truyn
dn
B gii m
knh
Ngi dng
Ngi dng
B gii
iu ch
B gii
m knh
+
B i
iu ch
B m ha
knh
+
B gii
iu ch
Knh truyn
dn
Ngun tin
dng s
Tp m
Tp m
a/ M ho knh v iu chring bit
S khi h thng truyn thng s
5.1. M u
B m ha
knh
B iu ch
Tb Rb=1/Tb T
R=1/T
Cc t m
R bps
S liu m(t)
Rb bps
n my
pht
S khi ca my pht s dng m ha knh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 250
Chc nng:
M ho knh kim sot li l qu trnh x l tn hiu s
nhm t c truyn tin s tin cy bng cch b xung
c h thng cc k hiu d vo lung tin pht pht
hin li v sa li.

V tr:
Sau ngun tin v trc iu ch sng mang.
5.1. M u
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 251
5.1. M u
Nhn xt: Khi tht k h thng truyn dn s cn lu hai
thng s: Thng s tn hiu pht v rng bng tn ca
knh truyn dn. Hai thng s ny cng vi mt ph cng
sut tp m thu xc nh E
b
/N
0
.
Do BER l mt hm n tr ca E
b
/N
0
, nn khi c nh E
b
/N
0
c th
ci thin BER bng cch dng m ho knh.
Dng m ho knh kim sot li dung ho gia BER v E
b
/N
0
dB
(gim cng sut pht, gim gi thnh phn cng nh s dng anten
kch thc nh, ti s dng tn s....).
Thng s t l m r =R
b
/R
c
nh gi lng bit d b sung phc v cho
vic pht hin v sa li ca m => lung bit ra b lp m c tc
bt R
c
cao hn tc bit u vo R
b
, tng rng bng tn hiu
qu s dng ph tn km.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 252
5.1. M u
Cc c ch pht hin v sa li
Pht li bn tin b li: Pha thu pht hin bn tin b li,
sau yu cu pha pht pht li bn tin b li => cn c
knh hi tip.
Pht hin v sa li pha thu.

Mc ch ca m ho knh kim sot li
Xc nh on s liu thu mc li.
Gim thiu xc sut khng pht hin c li.
Gim c BER ti mt gi tr E
b
/N
0
tin nh.
Ti BER cho trc gim c E
b
/N
0
, lng gim ny
c gi l li ca m ti xc sut li.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 253
5.1. M u
Pht hin li:
Xc inh on s liu thu cha li. Thng bo cho ni
gi hay ni nhn v li.
Gim thiu xc sut khng pht hin li.

Sa li:
t c s gim xc sut li (hay t s bit li, BER) ti
E
b
/N
0
nh trc.
Ti xc sut li cho trc gim c gi tr E
b
/N
0
. Lng
gim c gi li ca m ho.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 254
Hiu nng sa li v rng bng tn
Cng sut v rng bng tn
Tc s liu v rng bng tn
Dung lng v rng bng tn
(dB) /
0
N E
b
B
P
A
F
B
D
C
E
Uncoded
Coded
Coding gain:
For a given bit-error probability,
the reduction in the E
b
/N
0
that can be
realized through the use of code:
[dB] [dB] [dB]
c
0
u
0
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
E
N
E
G
b b
5.1. M u
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 255
1
1
2 1
1
2
Khn ng ph t hin li ( li):


Khn ng sa li ( li):


Detec
m Detec
Detec m
Corr
m Corr
m
Corr
t
d t
t d
t
d t
d
t
-
-
= +
=
> +

s
H
Khong c ch Hamming l s vtrkh c nhau ca hai t m c c ng di
khong c ch Hamming cc tiu gia c c t m c thc trong t m
d :
: p
m
d
5.2. Nguyn tc m ha kim sot li
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 256
Trng lng Hamming ca vect C, k hiu w(C), l s
phn t khc khng trong C.
Khong cch Hamming gia hai vect C v V, l s phn
t khc nhau gia chng.


Khong cch Hamming cc tiu ca m khi
( ) ( ) d w = C, V C V
min
min ( , ) min( ) d d
i j i
i j i
C C C
=
= =
5.2. Nguyn tc m ha kim sot li
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 257
Khi nim
Khi bn tin ( di k bit): Lung thng tin c chia thnh cc khi c di
bng nhau
T m ( di n bit): Cc bit u ra ca b lp m tng ng vi mi bn tin
u vo
Cc bit kim tra ( di (n-k) bits ): Cc bit c b xung vo cc khi bn tin
theo mt thut ton nht nh, thut ton tu vo loi m c dng.
M khi c gi l tuyn tnh nu kt hp tuyn tnh ca hai t m bt k
cng l mt t m thuc m . Trng hp nh phn tng ca hai t m bt
k cng l mt t m.
Cc thng s c trng
di khi bn tin k.
di t m n.
Khong cch Hamming cc tiu.
T l m r=k/n
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
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Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 258
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
B m ha knh (n,k)
Tlm r = k/n
Bn tin
(k bit)
C c bt kim tra
(n-k) bit
Bn tin
(k) bit
k bit bn tin T m n bit
Tm tt: B m ha khi tuyn tnh thc hin nh x (sp xp) chui k bit u vo
thnh chui n bit u ra c cc c im:
T m u ra b lp m C ch ph thuc vo chui bit u vo m hin thi v
ma trn to m G (hay a thc to m g(x)) m khng ph thuc vo chui
u vo trc .
Cc t m to thnh khng gian con k chiu trong khng gian n chiu (n,k).
Cc m khi tuyn tnh c m t di dng ma trn to m G c kch thc
kn, mi t m u ra C c vit dng.
1 k k n
s ct ca ma trn phi bng s hng ca ma trn
.
1 n
=
m G
C m G
14444444444444442 4444444444444443
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 259
Ma trn to m G v Ma trn kim tra chn l H
| |
( )
1 0 1 1
1
0 1 1 0 1 1
1 ( )
, ,...,
, ,.., , , ,...,
H- ng truyn
k bit bn tin n-k bt ki m tra chn l
n bit du ra b m ho


n n
n
n k k
k k n k k k
c c c
b b b m m m





=
=
( =

G
c
m P I
( )
:
k

k n
k n k
k k
k n

= (
`
(

)
G P I
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 260
( )
( )
:
: ...
k
T
n k
kch th- c (n-k) k
Mi quan hgia v thng qua v
T
T




k n k
k k
k n
n k n
T
n k
k


(
= (
(

(
=
(
(

(
(
( =
(
(

G H P
G P I
H I P
P
HG I P
I
T
T
T T
T T




T
n k k

`
= =
= +

= +

=
)
G.H 0
C.H mG.H 0
I P P I
P P
0
(1) c hng ca trc giao
v i c c hng ca
c hng trong H v G
c lp tuyn tnh

C
( 2) C
T
=
H
G
GH 0
144444442 44444443
Ma trn to m G v Ma trn kim tra chn l H
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 261
Syndrome v pht hin li
( )
( )
0 1 1
0 1 1
0
, ,...,
, ,...,
1,
;
0,
:
chph



bli vtrth i
i=1,2,...,n
khng bli vtrth
Vect
i
thu:
n
n
i
T T T T
Syndrome
c c c
e e e
e

=
=
=

= = + =
y = c + e
c
e
y
y
S y.H e.H C.H e.
Syndro
H
me
thuc vo mu li , khng ph thuc vo t m e c
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 262
Kim tra Syndrome: S l syndrome ca y, tng ng vi mu li e.
Format
Channel
encoding
Modulation
Channel
decoding
Format
Demodulation
Detection
Data source
Data sink
C
y
m
m

channel
1 2
1 2
( , ,...., )
( , ,...., )
t m thu hay vector thu
mu li hay vect li
n
n
y y y
e e e
=
=
y
e
= + y C e
T T
= = S yH eH
Syndrome v pht hin li
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 263
Tnh cht ca Syndrome
Thuc tnh 1: Syndrome ch ph thuc vo mu li e ch
khng ph thuc vo t m c pht c.
Thuc tnh 2: Tt c cc mu li khc nhau nhiu nht
mt t m u c cng Syndrome.
Thuc tnh 3: Syndrome S l tng cc ct ca ma trn H
tng ng vi ni xy ra li.
Thuc tnh 4: Bng cch gii m Syndronme, mt m khi
tuyn tnh (n,k) c th sa c
( )
0
!
2
! !
; trong
t
n k
i
n n
n
i i n i i

=
| | | |
> =
| |

\ . \ .

5.3. M khi tuyn tnh


BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 264
Gii m sa li
( )
{ }
oset

C
k
i i
e e C , i 0, 2 1 = + = -
64444444444447 4444444444448
1 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
k
k
n k n k n k k


C C C
e e C e C
e e C e C
zero
codeword
coset
coset leaders
Tt c cc mu
li khc nhau
nhiu nht mt
t m u c
cng Syndrome
Mi phn t ca Coset u c cng Syndrome
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 265
,
,
1.

2.

3.


( )
T
T
Nu thsa - c li
Nu thkhng sa
Tnh Syndrome ca :
Tm coset leader (mu li) t- ng ng v i
Tnh + v t- ng ng v i
L- u :

=
= + = + + = + +
i
e=e
e e
y S = yH
e = e S = yH
C= y e m
C y e C e) e C (e e
- c li
Gii m sa li
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 266
Xt mt h m c gi l m Hamming c cc thng s:
Minh ha: xt h m Hamming
( )
2 1
2 1
3
di t m :
S bt thng tin:
S bit kim tra chn l :
m
m
n
k m
n - k m
=
=
= >
Xt m Hamming (7,4) <=> n=7, k=4, m=3
1 1 0:1 0 0 0
1 0 0:1 0 1 1
0 1 1:0 1 0 0
; 0 1 0:1 1 1 0
1 1 1:0 0 1 0
0 0 1:0 1 1 1
1 0 1:0 0 0 1

T
n k
k

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
= =
(
(
(
(
(
(

(

I
P
P I
G H
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 267
Minh ha:
xt h m
Hamming
(7,4)
min
( ) ( )
min ( , ) min ( )
khong c ch Hamming giahai t m
ls phn t kh c nhau giachng
d w

khong c ch Hamming cc tiu ca m
d d w
i j i
i j i
C C C
=
=

= =
C, V C V
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 268
Minh ha: xt h m Hamming
Quan h gia d
min
v H
Do c l mt t m thuc m Xt m Hamming (7,4), tn ti 16 t m thuc
m u lm S=cH
T
=0 cho trong c
By t m c trng lng = 3
By t m c trng lng = 4
Mt t m c trng lng = 7
Mt t m c trng lng = 0
d
min
=3 Mi quan h gia d
min
v H l: d
min
l s ct nh nht ca ma
trn kim tra chn l H m khi cng chng vi nhau bng 0.
| |
1 7
1 0 0:1 0 1 1
0 1 0:1 1 1 0
0 0 1:0 1 1 1
t m c trng l- ng = 3
0 1 1 0 1 0 0
Lo i b c c ct ca H t- ng ng v i c c vtrc bit =0 ca C
=> tng c c ct t
T
n k
T
T
I
P

(
(
(
=
(
(
(

S = C.H
| |
0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
h 2 th 3 v th 5 ca H l:
0 0 0
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
+ + = =
( ( ( (
( ( ( (

Syndrome
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 269
Minh ha: xt h m Hamming
Quan h gia Syndrome v mu li e: Xt m Hamming (7,4). V m ny
c d
min
=3 nn ch c th sa c mt li vi cc mu li n, p dng
thuc tnh 3 (Syndrome l tng cc ct ca ma trn H tng ng vi ni xy
ra li) cho php xc nh c quan h gia Syndrome v mu li.
| | | |
,
1 0 0: 1 0 1 1
. 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0: 1 1 1 0
0 0 1: 0
Nu ph t C= 1 1 1 1 1 1 qua knh nhn - c = 1 1 1 1 1 1
y ra li vtrth 5 ca theo thuc tnh 3 thSyndrome s l
ct th 5 ca H ngha l
T
note
x
S y H

(
= =
(

y
C
1 0
| |
1 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
0
1
1
Ct th 5 ca H

khi bit - c Syndrome e= 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 = 1 1 1 1
T
Note
(
( ( ( ( ( (
(
( ( ( ( ( (
(
= + + + + +
( ( ( ( ( (
(
( ( ( ( ( (
(

(
(
=
(
(


cor
y = y +e
| |
1 1 1
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 270
Minh ha: Xt h m Hamming
Nu pht C = [0111001] qua knh, pha thu nhn c y = [1111001] S = [1 0 0]
l hng th nht ca H
T
(ct th nht ca H) xc nh c e = [1 0 0 0 0 0 0]
sa c y
cor
= [0111001].
Tng t xt tt c cc trng hp cn li Quan h ny i vi m Hamming
(7.4) c cho bng 3.2 T m sai l t m khng thuc m , khi ny S =
y.H
T
= 0 v C.H
T
=0
Bng 3.2. Bng gii m cho m Hamming (7.4)
Syndrome Mu li
000 0000000
100 1000000
010 0100000
001 0010000
110 0001000
011 0000100
111 0000010
101 0000001
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 271
a thc to m
Cc bc m ho cho mt m vng (n,k):
Nhn a thc bn tin m(x) vi x
n-k
nhn c x
n-k
m(x)

Chia x
n-k
m(x) cho g(x) c phn d b(x).
Cng b(x) vi x
n-k
m(x) nhn c a thc t m c(x).
n k
Bc lun nh hn Chcha c c x c lu tha
l n hn (n k) bc ca g(x): (n-k)
b(x) x .m(x) c(x)
-
-
= +
144442 44443 144442 44443
V d: SGK
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 272
S b m ho vng
F-F F-F F-F F-F F-F
CM1
CM2
C c bit
kim tra
chn l
C c bit bn tin

=
ni" khng "
tip" trc ni " 1,
, 0
g
i
T m
u ra
a vo
knh
) x ( m . x
k n
g
n-k-1
g
1
g
2
1
2
2
1
k n 1 k n
1 k n
2
2 1
x x . g .... x . g x . g 1 ) x ( g


+ + + + + =
( )
( ) k bit bn tin d- c dch n-k bt kim tra chn l
- c x c dnh bi ni dung
ca LFSR d- c dch vo
knh n-k chu k xung
dng h sau

0 1 2 n 1
0 1 n k 1 0 1 k 1
d
c c , c , c ,...., c
b , b ,.., b , m , m ,..., m
-
- - -
=
=
14444442 4444443
H- ng truyn
vo knh
trong k chu k xung dng h du
ng thi d- c dch vo LFSR
n bit du ra b m ho
d







14444442 4444443
144444444444444442 44444444444444443
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 273
Minh ha: B lp m vng (7,4) vi g(x)=1+x+x
3
F-F
CM2
C c bit
kim tra
chn l
C c bit bn tin
F-F F-F
CM1
T m
x
0
x
1
x
3
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 274
Syndrome
F-F F-F F-F F-F F-F
C c bit thu
CM1
g
1
g
2
g
n-k-1
S th- ng
x
x
2
x
3
x
n-k-1
x
n-k
k n 1 k n
1 k n
2
2 1
x x . g .... x . g x . g 1 ) x ( g


+ + + + + =
B tnh Syndrome ca m vng (n,k) da trn a thc to m
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 275
Minh ha: B tnh Syndrome cho m vng (7,4)
F-F
C c bit thu
F-F F-F
CM1
Syndrome
B tnh Syndrome cho m (7,4) c to bi a thc g(x)=1+x+x
3

5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 276
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
Vi knh khng nh, xc sut li bn tin


p xc sut li bit trn knh.

Xc sut li bit gii m
orr c
n
j n j
M
j t 1
n
P p (1 p)
j
-
= +

orr c
n
j n j
B
j t 1
n
1
P j p (1 p)
j
n
-
= +

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 277
M hnh knh i xng khng nh ri rc







Lu : trng hp h thng dng m ha knh cc bit c m
ha sau iu ch, truyn qua knh. VD: iu ch M-PSK
trong mi trng knh AWGN (M>2)




Ec l nng lng bit c m ha knh v c quan h E
c
= R
c
E
b
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
() ()
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
M N
R E M
Q
M M N
E M
Q
M
p
c b c
t t
sin
log 2
log
2
sin
log 2
log
2
0
2
2 0
2
2
Tx Rx
1-p
1-p
p
p
1
0 0
1
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 278
8PSK
QPSK
[dB] /
0
N E
b

B
P
5.3. M khi tuyn tnh
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 279
5.4. M xon
M xon khc c bn vi m khi
M ha ton b lung d liu vo mt t m.
Khng cn thit phn mnh lung d liu thnh cc khi kch thc c
nh.
Tnh c nh.
M khi da vo k thut i s/kt hp, m xon da vo k thut xy
dng (construction techniques).
Thng s c trng ca m xon (n,k,K):
k l s bit dch vo b lp m ti cng mt thi im (k bit ng thi
vo b lp m).
n l s bit u ra b lp m khi cho k bit ng thi vo b lp m.
K l di hn ch th hin s ln dch cc i ca mt nhm k bit
bn tin vo m nhm k bit ny vn cn gy nh hng ti u ra b
lp m.
r = k/n l t l m (k<n), tuy nhin n khng xc nh di t m nh
trng hp b lp m khi.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 280
5.4. M xon
1 2
....
k 1 2
....
k 1 2
....
k
M b nh (thanh ghi dch)
v i k phn t mi b nh
n b cng Modul-2
Chui t
m ra
Chui vo
(mi ln
dch k bit)
1 M
M 1, nu du vo b nh th nht d- c ni dn b cng Modul-2
nu du vo b nh th nht khng d- c ni dn b cng Modul-2
K
M,
+

S tng qut ca mt b lp m xon vi t l m k/n


BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 281
5.4. M xon
Nguyn l hot ng: n bit u ra c xc nh theo
Ma trn to m
Chui to m
a thc to m
Biu hnh cy
Biu trng thi.
Biu hnh li
Lu : c tnh quan trng ca m xon khc bit so vi m khi l
tnh c nh n bit u ra khng ch ph thuc vo k bit tin u vo
ng thi m cn ph thuc vo (K-1) tp hp k bit u vo trc
<=> n bit u ra khng ch ph thuc vo k bit vo ng thi m cn
ph thuc vo trng thi trc ca b lp m (tn ti 2
k(K-1)
trng thi
c th c)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 282
5.4. M xon
Minh ha cc b lp m xon
M = 3, k = 1, n = 3, K = 3
M = 2, k = 2, n = 3, K = 2
c )
b )
d )
D
c
i,3
c
i,1
c
i,2
ra
Vo
) (
i
m
1
) (
i
m
2
M = 1, k = 2, n =3, K = 2
D
a )
D D D
Vo
1
2
3
D D D D
Vo Ra
1
2
3
(mi ln 2 bit)
ra
D D D
ra
1
2
Vo
M = 3, k = 1, n = 2, K = 3
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 283
B lp m xon (t l , K=3): 3 b ghi dch trong
b ghi dch u tin nhn bit d liu n v cc
b ghi dch cn li to tnh c nh ca b lp m
Input data bits Output coded bits
m
1
c
2
c
First coded bit
Second coded bit
1 2
c , c
(Branch word)
5.4. M xon
2
1 1
2
2 2
(111) g (x) 1 x x
(101) g (x) 1 x
= = + +
= = +
g
g
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 284
1 0 0
1
t
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
1 1 0 1 0
2
t
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
1 0
1 0 1
3
t
1
u
2
u
1 2
c c
0 0 0 1 0
4
t
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
1 0
Chui bn tin: m = (101)
B m ha xon t l m ha
0 0 1
5
t
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
1 1
0 0 0
6
t
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
0 0
B lp m ) 101 ( = m C (11 10 00 10 11) =
5.4. M xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 285
Khi to m nh trc khi m ha bt d liu u tin (trng thi ton
khng all-zero)
Xa b nh sau khi m ha bit d liu cui cng (trng thi ton
khng all-zero)
Chn cc bit ui vo chui bit d liu.




T l m ha thc t: Nu L l s bt d liu v k=1 th
S liu
B lp m
T m ui
c eff
R
K L n
L
R <
+
=
) 1 (
5.4. M xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 286
a thc to m: Xc nh n a thc to m, mi a thc cho mt
b cng modulo-2 c bc K-1, v m t kt ni ca cc b ghi
dch vi b cng modulo-2 tng ng. V d:
(1) (1) (1) 2 2
1 0 1 2
(2) (2) (2) 2 2
2 0 1 2
1 2
( ) . . 1
( ) . . 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


chui u ra
C ghp xen v i
X g g X g X X X
X g g X g X X
X X X X X
= + + = + +
= + + = +
=
g
g
m g m g
5.4. M xon
2 2 3 4
1
2 2 4
2
2 3 4
1
2 3 4
2
2 3 4
(X) (X) (1 X )(1 X X ) 1 X X X
(X) (X) (1 X )(1 X ) 1 X
(X) (X) 1 X 0.X X X
(X) (X) 1 0.X 0.X 0.X X
C(X) (1,1) (1, 0)X (0, 0)X (1, 0)X (1,1)X
C 11 10 00 10 11
= + + + = + + +
= + + = +
= + + + +
= + + + +
= + + + +
=
m g
m g
m g
m g
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 287
Biu trng thi
5.4. M xon
Trng thi c trnh by bi ni dung ca b nh.
Tn ti 2
(K-1)k
trng thi.
Biu trng thi cha:
(i) ton b cc trng thi c th c;
(ii) mi chuyn dch gia cc trng thi.
(iii) mi quan h vo/ra ca b lp m.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 288
10 01
00
11
output Next
state
input Current
state
10 1
01 0
11
01 1
10 0
10
00 1
11 0
01
11 1
00 0
00
0
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
0
S
2
S
0
S
2
S
1
S
3
S
3
S
1
S
0
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
1/11
1/00
1/01
1/10
0/11
0/00
0/01
0/10
Input
Output
(Branch word)
Biu trng thi (cont'd)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 289
Biu li l s m rng ca biu trng thi nhm
th hin s tin trin v thi gian. V d mt on
li ca m xon t l m ha
Time
i
t
1 + i
t
State
00
0
= S
01
1
= S
10
2
= S
11
3
= S
0/00
1/10
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
Biu li
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 290
Biu li cho v d
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1 0 1 0 0
11 10 00 10 11
Input bits
Output bits
Tail bits
Biu li (cont'd)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 291
1/11
0/00
0/10
1/11
1/01
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
0/00
0/11
0/00
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1 0 1 0 0
11 10 00 10 11
Input bits
Output bits
Tail bits
Biu li (cont'd)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 292
10 01
00
11
0
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
1/11
1/00
1/01
1/10
0/11
0/00
0/01
0/10
vo
u ra
Biu trng thi (cont'd)
m
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
Thi gian i
t
1 + i
t
Trng thi
00
0
= S
01
1
= S
10
2
= S
11
3
= S
0/00
1/10
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 293
1/11
0/00
0/10
1/11
1/01
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
0/00
0/11
0/00
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1 0 1 0 0
11 10 00 10 11
Cc bit u vo
Cc bit u ra
Cc bit ui
Biu li (cont'd)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 294
Gii m ti u
Nu chui bn tin u vo l ng kh nng (equally likely),
th b gii m ti u gim thiu xc sut li l b gii m kh
nng ging nht ML (Maximum likelihood).
B gii m ML, chn mt t m trong ton b cc t m c
th c m t m ny lm ti a hm kh nng p(V|C
(m')
) trong
V l chui thu v C
(m')
l mt trong cc t m c th c:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) max ( )
ton b
Chn nu
(m)
m m m
p p
' '
=
C
C V| C V| C
Nguyn tc gii m ML:

codewords
to search!!!
L
2
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 295
Gii m ML cho knh khng nh
Do cc c tnh thng k c lp ca knh khng nh, nn hm kh nng
v log hm kh nng l:







S o ng dn ti thi im t
i
c gi l s o ng dn tng phn
(ng dn sng st=ng dn c PM nh nht ti t
i
).
( )
1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, ,..., ,... 1 2
1 1 1
( ) ( )
( ) ( , ,..., ,... | ) ( | ) ( | )
( ) log ( ) log ( | )
Path metric Branch metric PM
i
n
m m m m
V V V i i i ji ji
i i j
m m
i i
p p V V V p V p v c
m p p V C

= = =
= = =
= =
[ [[
C
V,C
V | C C C
V | C
( )
1 1 1
log ( | )
Bit metric
Branch metric
Path metric
n
m
ji ji
i i j
p v c

= = =
=

Nguyn tc gii m ML: Chn mt ng dn c s o ln nht trong tt c cc
ng dn trong li. ng dn ny l ng dn "gn" vi chui pht nht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 296
Knh nh phn i xng (BSC)
Nu d
m
=d(V,C
(m)
) l khong cch Hamming gia V v C,
th
1-p
m n m
( m) d L d
C m n
p(V C ) p (1 p)
1 p
(m) d log L log(1 p)
p
-
= -

-


g = - + -



|
u vo
iu ch
p
p
1
0 0
1
u ra gii
iu ch
) 0 | 0 ( ) 1 | 1 ( 1
) 1 | 0 ( ) 0 | 1 (
p p p
p p p
= =
= =
Lut gii m ML: Chn ng dn c khong cch Hamming cc tiu so vi chui thu.
Size of coded sequence
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 297
Quyt nh cng v quyt nh mm
Quyt nh cng:
B gii iu ch thc hin quyt nh cng l "0" hoc "1" c
pht i v khng cung cp thng tin khc cho b gii iu ch.
V vy, u ra ca n ch l s "0" hoc "1" (u ra c lng
t thnh 2 mc) c gi l hard-bits.
Gii m da trn cc bit cng "hard-bits" c gi l
gii m quyt nh cng.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 298
Quyt nh mm:
B gii iu ch cung cp cho b gii m mt s thng
tin ph cng nh quyt nh.
Thng tin ph (side information) cung cp cho b gii
m v nh gi mc tin cy quyt nh.
Cc u ra ca b gii iu ch c gi l cc bt mm
(soft-bits) c lng t thnh nhiu mc.
Quyt nh da trn cc bt mm c gi l "gii
m quyt nh mm".
t c li 2 dB trong knh AWGN, v 6 dB
trong knh phainh gia gii m quyt nh mm
so vi gii m quyt nh cng.
Quyt nh cng v quyt nh mm
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 299
Thut ton Viterbi
Thut ton Viterbi thc hin gii m theo nguyn tc kh
nng ging nht ML (hp l cc i).
Tm trong li mt ng dn c s o ln nht (maximum
correlation or minimum distance).
X l cc u ra b gii iu ch theo kiu lp.
Ti mi bc trong li, so snh s o ca tt c cc ng dn nhp vo
mi trng thi, ch gi li ng dn c s o ln nht (khong cch nh
nht) c gi l ng dn sng st (survivor) cng nh s o ca ng
dn .
Tip tc i vo trong li bng cch kh cc ng dn t c kh nng nht
(least likely path).
Gim mc phc tp gii m cn L2
K-1
!
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 300
Thut
ton
Viterbi
1
-1 Mi khi d liu bit, l- i c o n,
bt u t i thi im v kt thc t i thi im
D nh nh n cho tt c c c nh nh (s o nh nh)
Mi t
T
r ng th i t i thi i
hit l
m
p

L K
L L K
t t
+

+
A.
( )
( )
1
1
( ) {0,1,..., 2 }
( ),
0, 2
Thc hin gii m M
- c k hiu l
nh ngha thng s

=0 v
T i thi im tnh c
L

c s o - ng dn tch ly
cho tt
K
i i
i i
i
t S t
S t t
t i
t

I
=
e
I 1
B.
.
2.
( )
( , ),
c c c - ng dn nhp vo mi tr ng th i
s o - ng dn tch ly tt nht nhp vo mi tr ng th i t i
gi l i - ng dn sng st v xa c c - ng dn kh c

N u
i i i
S t t t
i L < +
= I 3.
4. , t ng v tr l i b- c 2
Bt u t tr ng th i ton khng t i , dc theo - ng dn sng st
tr vtr ng th i ton khng khi u, y l - ng dn - c gii m ML
t- n

L K
K i
t
+
5.
g ng v i t m - c gii m
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 301
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
1/11
0/00
0/10
1/11
1/01
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
0/00
0/11
0/00
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
) 101 ( = m
C (11 10 00 10 11) =
V (11 10 11 10 01) =
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 302
nh nhn cho tt c cc nhnh bi s o nhnh (khong cch
Hamming)
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0
( )
i i
t t S ), ( I
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 303
i=2
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2
0
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 304
i=3
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2 3
0
2
3 0
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 305
i=4
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2 3 0
3
2
3
0
2
3 0
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 306
i=5
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2 3 0 1
3
2
3
2 0
2
3 0
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 307
i=6
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2 3 0 1 2
3
2
3
2 0
2
3 0
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 308
0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2 3 0 1 2
3
2
3
2 0
2
3 0
) 100 (

= m

C (11 10 11 00 00) =
Minh ha gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 309

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 310
M xon t l m
1 0 1 0 0
11 10 00 10 11
Input bits
Output bits
Tail bits
1/11
0/00
0/10
1/11
1/01
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
0/00
0/11
0/10
0/01
0/00
0/11
0/00
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1/01
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 311
S khi ca h thng truyn thng s
Information
source
Rate 1/n
Conv. encoder
Modulator
Information
sink
Rate 1/n
Conv. decoder
Demodulator

sequence Input
2 1
,...) ,..., , (
i
m m m = m
1 2 3
1
( , , ,..., ,...)
Codeword sequence
Branch word ( coded bits)
C
i
i i ji ni
n
C C C C
c ,...,c ,...,c
=
=
=
C G(m)
,...) ,..., , (

2 1 i
m m m = m
1 2 3
1
( , , ,..., ,...)
received sequence
Demodulator outputs
outputs per Branch word
for Branch word

i
i i ji ni
n
i
V V V V V
V v ,...,v ,...,v
=
=
C
h
a
n
n
e
l

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 312
Thut ton Viterbi
Thut ton Viterbi thc hin gii m ML:
Tm trn li mt ng dn c s o ln
nht (tng quan ln nht hay khong cch nh
nht).
Ti mi bc trong li n so snh s o tng
phn ca tt c cc ng dn hi nhp vo mi
trng thi, v ch gi li ng dn c s o ln
nht c gi l ng dn sng st km theo s
o ca ng dn ny.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 313
V d gii m Viterbi quyt nh cng


0
2
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
2
1
1
1
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
1
0 2 3 0 1 2
3
2
3
2 0
2
3 0
( )
i i
t t S ), ( I
Branch metric
Partial metric
) 100 (

= m

(11 10 11 00 11) = C
) 101 ( = m
(11 10 00 10 11) = C
V (11 10 11 10 01) =
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 314
Cc thuc tnh ca m xon:
Khong cch t do
Hm truyn t
Cc m xon h thng
Cc m xon Catastrophic
Hiu nng li
a xen
Cc m mc ni
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 315
Khong cch t do ca m xon
Thuc tnh khong cch: V b lp m xon to ra
cc t m c kch thc khc nhau (khc vi m
khi), nn dng gii php di y tm khong cch
nh nht gia mi cp t m:
V m l tuyn tnh, nn khong cch nh nht ca m l khong
cch nh nht gia mi t m v t m ton khng.
y l khong cch nh nht trong tp mi ng dn di ty
dc theo li m m i ra v hp nht li ng dn ton khng.
N c gi l khong cch t do cc tiu hay khong cch t do
ca m c k hiu l d
free
hay d
f
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 316
2
0
1
2
1
0
2
1
1
2
1
0
0
2
1
1
0
2
0
6
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
Hamming weight
of the branch
All-zero path
The path diverging and remerging to
all-zero path with minimum weight
5 =
f
d
Khong cch t do ca m xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 317
Hm truyn t ca m xon
Hm truyn t (hm to m): cho bit phn b trng
s ca cc t m. Phn b trng s xc nh trng s
ca cc ng dn khc nhau trn li (cc t m) vi
cc di tng ng v ngha ca thng tin (amount
of information).
1
( , , )
, , :

place holders
: distance of the path from the all-zero path
: number of branches that the path takes
until it remerges to
f
i j
i d j K
T D L N D L I
D L N
i
j
= = =
=

the all-zero path
: weight of the information bits corresponding to the path
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 318
10 01
00
11
0
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
1/11
1/00
1/01
1/10
0/11
0/00
0/01
0/10
Input
Output
(Branch word)
Biu trng thi (cont'd)
m
1
c
2
c
1 2
c c
Time
i
t
1 + i
t
State
00
0
= S
01
1
= S
10
2
= S
11
3
= S
0/00
1/10
0/11
0/10
0/01
1/11
1/01
1/00
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 319
V d hm truyn t cho m xon t l m ha .
1. V li biu trng thi sao cho trng thi khng c tch ra thnh hai nut, (th hin
u vo/u ra ca biu trng thi: X
a
, X
e
), v trng thi a=00 khng ng gp vo
thuc tnh khong cch ca chui t m so vi t m ton khng .
2. nh nhn cho mi nhn theo cch D
i
L
j
I
l

a = 00 b = 10 c = 01 e = 00
d =11
2
D LI
DLI
DLI
LI
DL
DL
L D
2
Hm truyn t ca m xon
10 01
00
11
0
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
1/11
1/00
1/01
1/10
0/11
0/00
0/01
0/10
Input
Output
(Branch word)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 320
2
2
,...,
( , , )
Vit c c ph- ng trnh tr ng th i (c c bin gi: )

Gii:
a e
b a c
c b d
d b d
e c
e
a
X X
X D LIX LIX
X DLX DLX
X DLIX DLIX
X D LX
X
T D L I
X

= +

= +

= +
-
=
=
-

5 3
5 3 6 4 2 6 5 2
( , , ) ....
1 (1 )
D L I
T D L I D L I D L I D L I
DL L I
= = + + +
+
One path with weight 5, length 3 and data weight of 1
One path with weight 6, length 4 and data weight of 2
One path with weight 5, length 5 and data weight of 2
Hm truyn t ca m xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 321
Cc m xon h thng
M xon t l m k/n l m h thng nu k bit vo l
mt phn ca t nhnh n bt u ra.





Nhn chung, m h thng c d
free
nh hn m phi h
thng.
Input
Output
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 322
Gii hn hiu nng ca m xon
Hiu nng ca m xon c phn tch da vo xc
sut li bit trung bnh (khng phi l xc sut li t
m trung bnh), bi v
Cc t m c kch thc thay i do kch thc u vo
khc nhau.
Vi cc khi ln, xc sut li t m c th hi t n bit
mt xc sut li bit c th vn khng i.
.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 323
Phn tch da vo:
Gi s t m ton khng c pht
c lng xc sut "s kin li" (thng dng cc gii
hn hp).
Xy ra mt s kin li ti mt thi im trn li nu
ng dn khc khng ri ra khi ng dn ton khng
v sau hi nhp li ng dn ton khng.
Gii hn hiu nng ca m xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 324
Gii hn xc sut li bit i vi knh khng nh:
Gii m quyt nh cng:






Gii m quyt nh mm trn knh AWGN dng BPSK
) / exp( , 1 , 1
0 0
0
) , , (
exp 2
N E D L N
c
f
c
f B
c
dN
N L D dT
N
E
d
N
E
d Q P
= = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
) 1 ( 2 , 1 , 1
) , , (
p p D L N
B
dN
N L D dT
P
= = =
s
Gii hn hiu nng ca m xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 325
Kh nng sa li ca m xon l ph
thuc vo:
Nu gii m c thc hin di (trong khong 3 n 5 ln di hn
ch)
S phn b li (cm hay ngu nhin)
Khi cho trc t l m ha, tng di hn ch,
thng lm tng khong cch t do d
free
.
Khi cho trc di hn ch, gim t l m ha,
thng lm tng d
free
.
li m ha c gii hn trn

2 / ) 1 ( =
f
d t
10
10log ( . ) l i m ha
f
r d s
Gii hn hiu nng ca m xon
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 326
an xen
M xon ph thch hp vi knh khng nh c cc s
kin li ngu nhin.

Mt s li c bn cht cm:
Tnh cht ph thuc thng k gia cc s kin li lin tip
(tng quan thi gian) do tnh c nh ca knh nh: Li
trong cc knh v tuyn phainh a ng, cc li do tp
m chuyn mch,

an xen lm cho knh ging nh knh khng nh
ti b gii m <=> phn tn li.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 327
an xen c thc hin bng cch tri rng
(spreading) cc bt m theo thi gian (interleaving)
trc khi truyn. Thc hin ngc li pha thu
bng cch gii an xen chui thu.
an xen lm cho cc li cm ging nh nhu
nhin. V vy c dng m xon.
Cc kiu an xen:
an xen khi - Block interleaving
Xon hay an xen cho - Convolutional or cross
interleaving
an xen
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 328
Xt mt m c t=1 v 3 bt m.
Khng th sa c mt li cm c di 3.



S dng b an xen khi 33
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3
2 errors
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3
Interleaver
A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3
A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3
Deinterleaver
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3
1 errors 1 errors 1 errors
an xen
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 329

7
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 330
NI DUNG
7.1. Gii thiu chung
7.2. Cu hnh h thng truyn dn v tuyn s
7.3. X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v
tuyn s
7.4. My pht thu v tuyn vi ghp song cng
7.5. Khai thc, qun l v bo dng h thng
truyn dn v tuyn s
7.6. Tng kt
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 331
7.1 Gii thiu chung
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng
S khi chung ca mt h thng thu pht s
Ngu nhin ha
Khi phc sng mang
Khi phc nh thi k hiu
Cn bng min thi gian v min tn s
B trn
Cc kin trc v tuyn
Cc vn chung v quy hach tn s trong truyn dn v tuyn s
Cc cu hnh h thng truyn dn s
Mc ch chng
Hiu s khi chung ca mt thit b truyn dn v tuyn s
Hiu c hot ng ca cc phn t c bn trong thit b truyn dn s
Thit k n gin cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
Nm c cc vn chung khi quy hoach tn s cho mt h thng truyn
dn s
Hiu c hot ng ca cc cu hnh v tuyn s
Thit k cu hnh v tuyn cho hot ng c th ca mt h thng v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 332
G
h

p

l
u

n
g
S
1
S
2
S
n
M
ha
knh
Scram-
bler
Radio
mux
RFP
A
B lc
SCT
pht
P
h

n

l
u

n
g
D
1
D
2
D
n
Gii
m
knh
Descra
m-bler
Radio
demux
LNA
B lc
SCT
thu
Khai
thc
50 O
Circulator
Anten
Khi bng tn gc
Khi
khuych
i RF
Duplexer
(B ghp
song cng)
ng b
Isolator
Ghp lung
Up
Conv
-erter
Down
Conv-
erter
iu
ch
TLO1
GiI
iu
ch
RLO1
MODEM
Khuych
i IF
Khuych
i IF
Khi khuych
i IF
TLO2
RLO2
7.2 Cu hnh h thng truyn dn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 333
Ngu nhin ha
Khi nim: m bo tnh ngu nhin ca lung s pht
Trong khong thi gian quan st bt k: S bit 1 v s bit 0 l
nh nhau
Chc nng: m bo cht lng truyn dn
Tng s chuyn i mc trong lung s D khi phc ng
h t tn hiu thu
Ph tn hiu RF ng u trong bng tn, trnh ph vch dn
n kha pha nhm my thu
Gim nhiu gia cc knh v tuyn
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
Ngu nhin ho c thc hin theo hai phng php:
Ngu nhin ho ng b (hay ngu nhin ho khi ng li).
Ngu nhin ho d b (hay cn gi l ngu nhin ho t ng b).
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 334
Ngu nhin ha
Nguyn tc
To lung s nh phn gi ngu nhin, PRBS Pseudo
Random Binary Sequence
C tnh ngu nhin
To ra theo quy lut (c chu k)
Cng modul2 lung s pht vi lung PRBS
F = A B = A + B (hm kh c du )
Khi p dng, nu A: s liu truyn, C: chui PRBS:
Ph t A C = S => A + C
Thu S C => C + S
Qua chng minh s t i kt qu:

B A
C A
S C
A AI ) C C ( A A C CA = = + = +
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 335
Ngu nhin ha
B PRBS
Xy dng da trn c s cc a thc to m, vi phn t l
cc Flip-Flop ng vai tr b tr v cc mch hi tip cng
modul2
S TQ b to PRBS:






di cc i lung PRBS
D1 D2 Dm-1 Dm
1
g
2
g
1 m
g

Kha ng nu
Kha m nu
0
i
g =
1
i
g =
1
1 1
( ) ... 1
2 1
m m
m
m
g x x g x g x
N

= + + + +
=
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 336
Ngu nhin ha
Phn loi
Ngu nhin ha ng b (khi ng li)
Ngu nhin ha d b (t ng b)
D1
D2
Dm-1
Dm
D3
D1
D2
Dm-1
Dm
D3
Scrambler Descrambler
A
C
S
C
A S
S liu
Mi trng
truyn dn
S liu
My pht
My thu
1
( ) 1
m m
g x x x

= + +

S
Dm
Dm-1
D2
D1
Dm-2
Descrambler
A
Scrambler
Dm
Dm-1
D21
D1
Dm-2
A
S
C
C
1
( ) 1
m m
g x x x

= + +
S liu
My pht
S liu
My thu
THB
Mi trng
truyn dn
THB
THB: tn hiu
ng b khung
X
u
n
g

k
h

n
g

l

i
X
u
n
g

k
h

n
g

l

i
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
( )
m 1 m
C S x x

= +
( )
m 1 m
S A C A S x x

= + = + +
Nu mt bit ca
lung thu S b mc
li th li ny xy ra
ba ln lung s
sau gii ngu nhin
s liu c truyn "khng trong sut
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 337
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
Khi phc sng mang
Kho pha vng nhn pha
Kho pha vng Costas.
Nguyn tc: trc ht loi tr s ph thuc pha ca tn hiu thu vo
tn hiu iu ch, sau dng n kho pha cho b dao ng ni.
BPF fc
LPF
BPF 2f
c
VCO
y(t)
y'(t) V
e
(t)
y"(t)
( )
c
cos 2 2 f t ' t + u (

Tn hiu BPSK thu
( )
c
cos 2 f t ' t +u
Sng mang c
khi phc
Vng kha pha PLL
K hiu:
BPF : B lc bng thng
LPF : B lc thng thp
VCO : B dao ng c iee khin bng in p
2
2 / 2
( )
c
Acos 2 f t+(i-1) t t+u
S kho pha vng nhn pha
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 338
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
c c
c
y t Acos 4 f t 2 .cos 4 f t 2
A/ 2.cos 8 f t 2 2 A/ 2.cos 2 -
'' '
= t + u t + u
' '
= t + u+ u + u u
( ) ( )
e
V t A/ 2.cos2 -
'
= u u
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
T
c
c
Th
Ac
y t Acos 4 f t 2 i 1 2
Acos 4 f t 2

t t+ u
'
= t + t+ u
= t + u
n hiu thu BPSK
c
nh phn iu chpha - c lo i b
os 2 f t+(i-1)
Qua lc BPF, nhn pha hai ln

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 339
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s

LPF
LPF
VCO
t/2
V
e
(t)
a/
b/
Chia
cng sut
Tn hiu BPSK
thu y(t)
( )
c
cos 2 f t ' t +u
( )
c
sin 2 f t ' t +u
Lc
vng
n b quyt nh mc
n b quyt nh mc
Gii iu
ch M-PSK
Lc
vng
U
1
(t)
U
2
(t)
y
1
(t)
y
2
(t)
V
e
(t)
Khi phc sng
mang kho pha
vng Costas
Khc vi s vng
nhn pha, s ny
in p sai pha c
tch ra x l bng gc
sau khi thc hin tch
sng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 340
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
Tn hiu sau cc b lc thng thp LPF cho BPSK (hnh 7.6a):
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
2
C
u t A/ 2.c
u t A/ 2.sin
' ( = t+u u

' ( = t+u u

c tn hiu b ng gc
os i-1 -
i-1 -
in p sai pha sau b nhn v b lc vng thng thp:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
e
2
V t A / 8.sin 2 2
A / 8.sin 2
'
( = t+ u u

'
( = u u

Thnh phn pha iu ch- c kh nh nhn pha hai ln
i-1 -
-
Lu :
Thnh phn pha iu ch c loi b nh: nhn pha hai ln i vi BPSK,
nh nhn pha bn ln i vi M-PSK v M-QAM.
So vi s nhn pha M ln, kho pha vng Costas c thc hin vng
tn s thp nn c mch in n gin hn, nht l khi M tng.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 341
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
M ho vi sai: Thng tin ca lung s c truyn i khng phi gi tr
trng thi pha tuyt i ca sng mang m dng "bc nhy pha"

B
nh
B gii m
vi sai
B m
ha vi sai
B nh
ng h
Lung nh phn sau
khi phn i
A
B
ng h
u1(t)
u2(t)
u1(t)
u2(t)
u2(t-T)
u1(t-T)
u1(t-T)
u1(t-T)
A
B
Ti b
iu ch
T gii iu ch
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
t t T , t t T u =u +Au Au=u u
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 342
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
Khi phc nh thi k hiu: ng b k hiu gia pht v thu c thc hin
theo ba cch:
Pht ring ng h, tuy nhin cch ny tn cng sut v chim ph.
Dng mch tch sng khng nht qun ly ra ng h, v ng h
thng n nh hn sng mang, cch ny phc tp.
Khi phc ng h sau gii iu ch, cch ny trnh c nhc im
ca cc cch trn.
Bng 7.1 Bng 7.2
A B u(t) u
1
(t) U
2
(t) Au
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 t/2 0 1 t/2
1 1 t 1 1 t
1 0 3t/2 1 0 3t/2
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 343
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s

Ly mu
Ly mu
Ly tr
tuyt i
Ly tr
tuyt i
Lc vng VCO
T o sng
k hiu
S m
Mun
o
T/H b ng gc
nh thi k hiu
a) S ng b nh thi m cng s m mun
+
-
Ve
o
}
T
0
( . ) d t
}
T
0
( . ) d t
T
T
y1
|y1|
y2
|y2|
d(t)
s(t)
d(t-t)
s(t)
T
t
T
o+t o
T-o
1
| | y
2
| | y
1
| | y
2
| | y
s(t+o)
s(t-o)
s(t+o)
s(t-o)
T+o
t
0
0 T-o T+o
t
b) nh thi ng c) nh thi s m
+1
-1
+1
-1
T
1
0
T
2
0
S y s(t )d(t )dt
Mu y s(t )d(t )dt
m:
n:
= + o t
= o t
}
}
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 344
( )
( )
T
1
0
T
T
2
0
T
e 1 2
y s(t )d(t )dt

s(t )d(t )dt T
y s(t )d(t)dt
s(t )d(t )dt T
V y y 2
o
t
ot
= + o t
= + o t = o t
= o
= o t = o + t
= = t
}
}
}
}
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s

Ly mu
Ly mu
Ly tr
tuyt i
Ly tr
tuyt i
Lc vng VCO
T o sng
k hiu
S m
Mun
o
T/H b ng gc
nh thi k hiu
a) S ng b nh thi m cng s m mun
+
-
Ve
o
}
T
0
( . ) d t
}
T
0
( . ) d t
T
T
y1
|y1|
y2
|y2|
d(t)
s(t)
d(t-t)
s(t)
T
t
T
o+t o
T-o
1
| | y
2
| | y
1
| | y
2
| | y
s(t+o)
s(t-o)
s(t+o)
s(t-o)
T+o
t
0
0 T-o T+o
t
b) nh thi ng c) nh thi s m
+1
-1
+1
-1
nh thi ng t=0
nh thi sm -t=0
T
1
0
T
0
e
T
2
0
T
y s(t )d(t)dt

s(t )d(t)dt T
V 0
y s(t )d(t)dt

s(t )d(t)dt T
o
o

= + o

= + o = o

=
`

= o

= o = o

)
}
}
}
}
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 345
7.3 X l tn hiu v cc phn t ca thit b v tuyn s
Cc b cn bng tn hiu (SGK chng 6)
Cc b trn (SGK)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 346
Kin trc FDD:







S dng hai tn s cho thu v pht ng thi
Trit nhiu gia pht v thu bng b lc song cng
Synth: Tng hp tn s
BB: Bng gc
7.4 My pht thu v tuyn vi ghp song cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 347
Kin trc TDD:






S dng mt tn s cho c thu v pht Hiu qu s dng
tn s
Khng c xuyn nhiu thu pht
Cn ng b khung thi gian thu/pht
7.4 My pht thu v tuyn vi ghp song cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 348
Kin trc HFDD:








Khai thc u im h thng TDD vo FDD

Pdet: Mc cng sut
Temp: ng b thi gian
TxAGC: T ng iu chnh khuych i pht
SPI: Hin th cng sut pht
7.4 My pht thu v tuyn vi ghp song cng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 349
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng h thng truyn dn v
tuyn s
Quy hoch tn s
Cc t chc lin quan n vic hoch nh tn s
S phn b tn s
Cu hnh h thng truyn dn v tuyn s
Cc dng phn tp
Cu hnh n+1 vi chuyn mch bo v
D phng nng, HS
Phn tp khng gian kt hp d phng nng, SD+HS
Phn tp khng gian vi cc my pht chia cng sut, SD+ST
Phn tp khng gian bng cch kt hp trung tn
Phn tp khng gian dng phn tn trong bng cc tiu
Phn tp tn s vi chuyn mch 1+1
H thng chuyn mch n+1 vi phn tp tn s
H thng chuyn mch n+1 vi phn tp khng gian
Phn tp lai ghp, HD (SD+FD)
Phn tp lai ghp kt hp phn tp khng gian v phn tp phn
cc, SD+PD
Phn tp khng gian pht
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 350
Nhiu h thng truyn dn v tuyn
Nhiu l cc thnh phn khng mong mun nhn c ti my thu
Mi trng truyn dn h
Bng tn hn hp
Nhiu h thng
Tuyn 3 trm, cng tc trn hai knh v tuyn v bn cp tn s
Quy hoch tn s v tuyn

I
II

Tr m
A

Tr m
B


Tr m
C

f1
f1
f2
f3
f4
f2
f3
f4
III
IV
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 351
Nhiu h thng truyn dn v tuyn
Phn loi nhiu
Loi nhiu I: Nhiu knh v tuyn song cng, do my pht gy ra cho
my thu cng knh (ti u cui)
Loi nhiu II: Nhiu do my pht gy ra cho my thu khc knh v
tuyn (ch yu l knh ln cn)
Loi nhiu III: Nhiu do my pht gy ra cho my thu ngc hng
truyn sng (trm back to back, bp sng ngc)
Loi nhiu IV: Nhiu my pht gy ra cho my thu cng knh v
tuyn nhng vt trm (trm xa)
Mt s bin php trnh nhiu:
Dng anten c hng, phn cc sng tt (V v H)
Ti s dng tn s vi khong cch xa
T chc cc trm so le trnh nhn thng
Quy hoch tn s v tuyn
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 352
Phng php phn b tn s v tuyn in hnh
T chc thng tin song cng:
S dng mt tn s chung cho c thu ln pht
Mi knh v tuyn c mt tn s
Vic thu pht thc hin lun phin theo thi gian, TDD
S dng hai tn s c lp cho v pht ring
Mi knh v tuyn c hai tn s lm vic ng thi, FDD
Khong cch hai tn s ln trnh nhiu gia pht v thu
C quan hoch nh tn s
Lin minh vin thng quc t - phn v tuyn, ITU-R, UN
Cc tn s, B thng tin v truyn thng
Quy hoch tn s v tuyn
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 353
S phn b tn s
n nh bng tn cho mt t v v tinh (1 GHz n 13 GHz)
Mt t, f [GHz] V tinh, f[GHz]
1,427 1,535 2,5 2,535
1,7 2,7 2,655 2,690
3,3 3,5 3,4 3,7
3,3 4,2 3,7 4,2
4,4 5,0 4,4 4,7
5,85 5,925 5,85 5,925
5,925 6,245 5,925 6,245
6,245 7,110 7,25 7,30
7,110 7,250 7,975 8,025
7,300 7,975 8,025 3,4
8,025 8,5 10,95 11,2
10,7 11,7 11,45 11,7
11,7 13,25 12,5 12,75
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 354
T chc tn
s cho FDD
Quy hoch tn s
v tuyn


1 3 5
n-1 2 4 n
1' 3' n-1' n'
A
Y
A X
2'
f
0
B
1 3 5 n-1 2 4 n
1' 3' n-1' n'
2'
f
0
1 3 5
n-1 2 4 n
1' 3' n-1' n' 2'
f
0
H(V)
V(H)
H(V)
V(H)
Na bng tn thp
Na bng tn cao
K hiu:
AX : Khong cch gia hai knh ln cn
AY : Khong cch tn s thu pht
B : rng bng tn
F0 : Tn s trung tm
V : Phn cc ng
H : Phn cc ngang
Na bng tn thp
Na bng tn thp
Na bng tn cao
Na bng tn cao
a)
b)
c)
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
n 0
n n
f f A x.n, n=1,2,3...
f f y
= +A
' = +A
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 355
Gii thiu
Vai tr:
m bo iu kin khai thc tin cy ca h thng (hin tng phadinh)
Trnh cc s c do thit b, do ng truyn
Bin php:
D phng thit b: S dng thm thit b d phng thay th khi c s
c, kt hp vi chuyn mch bo v Cu hnh d phng
D phng knh truyn: S dng hai knh tr nn c c tnh phadinh
khc nhau truyn tn hiu (cc knh c lp nhau) Cu hnh phn
tp
Phn tp:
Phn tp c nh ngha l truyn dn cng mt tn hiu trn nhiu
knh truyn c lp vi nhau (tng quan pha inh so vi nhau nh
nht). Cc bin php phn tp in hnh nh: Phn tp tn s; Phn tp
khng gian; Phn tp phn cc; Phn tp gc; Phn tp thi gian.
Cu hnh h thng
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 356
Phn tp
TX1
RX1
TX2
RX2
SW1
SW2
SW1
SW2
TX1
RX1
TX2
RX2
-7dB
-1dB
a)
b)
RX1
RX2
TX
c)
Lung vo
Lung ra
Kt hp
Lung vo
Lung ra M

n
g

p
h

n

n
h

n
h
M

n
g

p
h

n

n
h

n
h
Bp trn
Bp di
iu chnh ban u
Bp trn
(ti my thu
phn tp)
Bp di
(Ti my thu
chnh)
K hiu:
TX: My pht
RX: My thu
SW: Chuyn mch
f1
f1
f1
f1'
Cu hnh h thng
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 357
Chuyn mch bo v
Nhim v:
Chuyn mch thit b chuyn thng tin t ng truyn dn
c s c sang ng truyn dn d phng
S c thit b
S c knh truyn
Phn loi d phng
D phng ngui, Cold Standby: Thit b d phng khng c
bt ngun
D phng m, Warm Standby: Ch cc phn quan trng ca
thit b d phng c cp ngun tit kim ngun
D phng nng, Hot Standby: Thit b d phng c cp
ngun y , sn sng lm vic ngay.
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 358
Chuyn mch bo v
Phn loi chuyn mch theo hiu qu
Mc 1: Chuyn mch s liu khng b li
Mc 2: Chuyn mch s liu ng b (Hitless)
Mc 3: Chuyn mch khng ng b (non-Hitless)
vi thi gian gin on 30 - 60 ms
Mc 4: Chuyn mch vi thi gian gin on di
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 359
Chuyn mch bo v
D phng nng, HS







Cc thit b A, B u c cp ngun
Chuyn mch pht phn cao tn, chuyn mch thu phn
lung s
RxA
RxB
CM
S liu vo
S liu ra
B chia
cng
sut
- 1dB
-7dB
CM
TxA
TxB
TxA
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 360
Chuyn mch bo v
Phn tp khng gian kt hp d phng nng. SD+HS







Hai anten phn tp cch nhau theo chiu thng ng m bo
tnh c lp ca hai ng truyn (khong 150 )
S dng phn tp thu
RxA
RxB
CM
S liu vo
S liu ra
CM
TxA
TxB
Anten
chnh
Anten
phn tp
Khong c ch
chiu cao 3-30m
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 361
Chuyn mch bo v
Phn tp lai ghp SD-FD
RxA
RxB
S liu vo
CM
TxA
TxB
TxB
RxB
CM
TxA
RxA
S liu vo
S liu ra
S liu ra
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 362
Chuyn mch bo v
Phn tp khng gian kt hp my pht chia cng sut. SD+ST









Mi cp my pht, thu ni ti mt anten: Chnh v phn tp
Ngoi chuyn mch theo s c hoc cht lng ng truyn, my
pht cn chuyn mch theo lnh chuyn mch knh v (RCS) do my
thu u kia gi li.
Anten
phn tp
RxA
RxB
CM
S liu vo
S liu ra
CM
TxA
TxB
Anten
chnh
Khong c ch
chiu cao 3-30m
Lnh RCS
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 363
Chuyn mch bo v
Phn tp tn s vi chuyn mch bo v. FD+PS(1+1)
T.tin Ph
Chia
R le
MOD
MOD
Tx
Tx P
Rx
Rx P
DEMOD
DEMOD
CM Tx
Phn phi
lung s
M ng
Phn
nh nh
Tx
M ng
phn
nh nh
Rx
CH1
CH P
CH 1
CH P
Lung s vo
CH 1
CH P
Lung s ra
CH 1
CH P
K hiu:
CH1: K nh cng t c; CH P: K nh bo v
Tx: M y ph t; Rx: M y thu; CM: Chuyn m ch
Chia
R le
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 364
Phn tp tn s vi chuyn mch bo v. FD+PS(n+1)
Chia
R le
MOD
MOD
Tx
Tx P
DEMOD
DEMOD
CM Tx
Phn phi
lung s
M ng
phn
nh nh
Rx
CH1
CH n
CH 1
CH n
Lung s vo
CH 1
CH P
Lung s ra
CH 1
CH n
K hiu:
CH n: K nh cng t c; CH P: K nh bo v
Tx: M y ph t; Rx: M y thu; CM: Chuyn m ch
Chia
Rx 1
Rx 2
R le
CH n
Chia
MOD Tx P
CH P
M ng
Phn
nh nh
Tx
R le
Rx P
DEMOD
CH P
CH P
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 365
Chuyn mch bo v
Phn tp khng gian vi chuyn mch bo v. FD+PS(n+1)
M y thu bo vP
C c m y thu t 2 n N
Anten
chnh
Anten
phn tp
Gii
iu
ch
B
kt
h p
trung
tn
C c b trn
B dao
ng ni
LNA
Vo Rx
RF
IF
Chuyn
m ch
N+1
M y thu 1
7.5 Khai thc, qun l, v bo dng
Cu hnh h thng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 366

8
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 367
8.1. Gii thiu chung
8.2. Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
Tnh ton cng sut thu
Tnh ton tp m nhit
T s tn hiu trn tp m
D tr ng truyn
8.3. Phn tch tnh ton ng truyn v tuyn s mt t
D tr phainh v nhiu
Tnh ton d tr ng truyn v tuyn s
8.4. Phn tch nh gi ng truyn thng v tinh
T s tn hiu trn tp m ng ln
T s tn hiu trn tp m ng xung
T s tn hiu trn tp kt hp tp m iu ch giao thoa
8.5 Tng kt
NI DUNG
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 368
Vai tr:
Phn tch ng truyn s l cng vic quan trong trong
qu trnh thit k ng truyn dn v tuyn
p ng ng truyn dn yu cu
Dung lng thng tin: R
b
(Mb/s)
Cht lng: BER (E
b
/N
0
)
Xc nh thit b thu, pht c th
Thng s my pht, anten pht: EIRP
Thng s my thu, anten thu: G/T
Thc hin:
Tnh ton qu ng truyn t my pht my thu
Tnh ton cc thnh phn tn hao truyn dn
Xc nh cc thng s khuych i m bo t s S/N ti my
thu
8.1 Khi qut
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 369
Thng s anten parabol
Gc na cng sut




H s khuych i
Mt s tnh ton c bn
( )
2
(m) (GHz)
.d
G .
G 20lgd 20lgf 10lg 20, 4 dBi
t
| |
= q
|

\ .
= + + q+
3dB
(m) (GHz)
21,1
70.
d d .f

u = =
8.1 Khi qut
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 370
Cng sut
Cng sut pht: P
Tx
(ti u ra my pht)
Cng sut u vo anten pht: P
T



Cng sut thu: P
Rx
(ti u vo my thu)
Cng sut u ra anten thu: P
R



Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng: EIRP
Tx
T
rf 1 ph1
Tx rf 1 ph1
P
P
L .L
P L L [dB]
=
=
R
Rx
ph2 rf 2
R ph2 rf 2
P
P
L .L
P L L [dB]
=
=
[dB]
T T
T 1
EIRP P .G
P G
8.1 Khi qut
Mt s tnh ton c bn
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 371
Tnh cng sut thu
M hnh h thng truyn dn v tuyn n gin







Cng sut thu
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
Tx Rx
G1
G2
Lrf1
Ptx Prx
Lph1
Lp
Lrf2
Lph2
Tx 1 2
Rx
rf 1 ph1 p ph2 rf 2
P G G 1
P
L L L L L
=
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 372
Tnh cng sut thu
c trng cho phn thit b pht l tham s EIRP









Cng sut u ra anten thu
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
| | | | | | | | | | | |
2
Rx
P ph2 rf2
Rx 2 P ph2 rf2
G 1
P = EIRP. .
L L .L
P dBm = EIRP dBm + G dBi - L dB - L dB - L dB
R R
P
1
P = EIRP. .G
L
Tx 1
Tx 1
rf1 phd1
Khng phi xt c c phn t v tuyn, phi , anten
P .G
EIRP = P .G =
L .L
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 373
Tnh cng sut thu
Tn hao truyn sng





Tn hao c bn trong khng gian t do
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
P 0 A
A a m
L L L
L L L
= +
= +
Trong :
L
0
: Tn hao c bn trong khng gian t do
L
A
: Tn hao trong kh quyn
L
a
: Tn hao do hp th ca kh quyn
L
m
: Tn hao do ma
| | ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
p
p 10 p
10 10 km GHz
4. .d
L
L dB 10log L
20log d 20log f 92, 45 dB


t
| |
=
|

\ .
=
= + +
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 374
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
Tnh cng sut tp m nhit
0
N N . f k.T. f , W = A = A
Tp m nhit sinh ra do s chuyn ng hn lon ca cc in t trong
cc phn t ca my thu: cng sut tp m nhit
0
N
N kT, W/Hz
f
= =
A
Cng sut tp m nhit
Mt ph cng sut tp m nhit
H s tp m NF
in
out
SNR
NF
SNR
=
Cho thy SNR s b gim i bao nhiu ln sau khi tn hiu thu i qua
phn t thu, c trng cho tp m do bn thn mch in khi hot ng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 375
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
Tnh cng sut tp m nhit
Cng sut tp m quy i u vo, N
ai
=N
a
/A

A, N
a
N =A(N + N )
N
N
ai
ai
i out
i
( )
r
in
i
i ai in
ai i
r out i
out
i ai
P
SNR
N
N N SNR
NF N NF 1 N
P SNR N
RNR
N N

=

+

= = =
`

+
)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 376
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
Tnh cng sut tp m nhit
Nhit tp m ca phn t thu T

( )
T NF 1 290K =
Thit b thu gm M phn t K mc ni tng, NF tng v nhit tp
m quy i u vo

3 2 M
tol 1
1 1 2 1 2 M 1
3 2 M
tol 1
1 1 2 1 2 M 1
NF 1 NF 1 NF 1
NF NF ...
A A A A A ...A
T T T
T T ...
A A A A A ...A


= + + + +
= + + + +
Nhn xt: Tp m my thu ch yu do cc phn t u vo my thu gy
ra, nh hng tp m ca cc phn t sau b gim ng k (do phi chia
cho tch cc h s khuych i ca cc phn t trc)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 377
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
T s tn hiu trn tp m
Nhit tp m ca phn t thu T

( )
T NF 1 290K =
Thit b thu gm M phn t K mc ni tng, NF tng v nhit tp
m quy i u vo

3 2 M
tol 1
1 1 2 1 2 M 1
3 2 M
tol 1
1 1 2 1 2 M 1
NF 1 NF 1 NF 1
NF NF ...
A A A A A ...A
T T T
T T ...
A A A A A ...A


= + + + +
= + + + +
Nhn xt: Tp m my thu ch yu do cc phn t u vo my thu gy ra, nh hng tp m ca cc phn
t sau b gim ng k (do phi chia cho tch cc h s khuych i ca cc phn t trc)
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 378
Vai tr
m bo cht lng truyn dn yu cu trong trng
hp khng thun li (pha inh)

D tr ng truyn M (SGK)
( )
b b
0 0
Rx req
b b
0 0
Rx req
E E
M
N N
E E
M dB
N N
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
8.2 Phn tch ng truyn v tuyn s
D tr ng truyn v tuyn s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 379
9
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 380
Truyn thng bng siu rng
KT LUN
NI DUNG
Knh UWB v my thu UWB
M hnh ha v m phng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 381
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 382
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 383
UWB Frequency Band
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 384
M lp li m
(N
s
,1)
M
truyn dn
iu ch PPM
Dch d
j
mt khong jT
s
nh dng xung
p(t)
b a d
( )
1
/
b
b
R
T
bit s
=
1
( / )
s
cb
b s
N
R
T T
bit s
= =
( )
1
s
c
b s
N
R
T T
= =
khiu/ s ( )
1
s
p
b s
N
R
T T
= =
xung/ s
j j c j
d c T a c = +
( ) ( )
s j c j
j
s t p t jT c T a c
+
=
=

s j
jT d +
M hnh truyn dn tn hiu PPM-TH-UWB
( )
( ) ( )
j j
a s j c a s j
j j
s t p t jT c T p t jT q
+ +
= =
= =

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 385
M lp li m
(N
s
,1)
M truyn dn
c l mt m nh phn
iu ch
PAM
nh dng xung
p(t)
b a d
( )
1
/
b
b
R
T
bit s
=
( )
1
s
cb
b s
N
R
T T
= =
khiu/ s ( )
1
s
c
b s
N
R
T T
= =
khiu/ s ( )
1
s
p
b s
N
R
T T
= =
xung/ s
( ) ( )
j s
j
s t d p t jT
+
=
=

s
jT
Nh phn

Chui 1
a*
1
( / )
s
cb
b s
N
R
T T
bit s
= =
*
2 1
j j
a a =
d = ac
M hnh truyn dn tn hiu PAM-DS-UWB
( )
1
2
j
s
j
d
s t p t jT c
+
=
+
| |
=
|
\ .

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 386
M h nh ha v m
phng knh UWB
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 387
Knh AWGN
0
1,7
/ 20 47/ 20
0 0
10 10
0
l i knh & trknh u ph thuc vo khong c ch D

- c iu chnh t - c chun t i D =1m

dB
A
C
D
C
g
g
a
a
=
- -
=
= =
( )
8
3.10 /

D
c m s
t =

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) . ( )
AWGN:

u
u
r t r t n t
r t s t a t
= +
= -
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 388
p ng xung kim CIR
{
{
( )
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
l i
tr
l i v tr- c o ti
thi im t i v i a - ng th n
N(t): S a - ng - c quan s t ti thi im t
N t
n n
n
r t a t p t t n t t
=

= - +

14444442 4444443
14444444442 4444444443
( ) ( ) ( ) s t h t n t = +
( )

=
t o =
) t ( N
1 n
n n
) t ( t ) t ( a ) t ( h
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 389
( )

=
t o =
) t ( N
1 n
n n
) t ( t ) t ( a ) t ( h
p ng xung kim vi gi nh knh
dng
( )
1
( )
N
n n
n
h t a t d t
=
= -

( )
n
N
n n
n 1
r(t) a p t n(t) t
=
= +

( )
( )
( )
Dng
n n
n n
a t a
t
N t N
t t

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 390
li a ng tng

=
=
N
1 n
2
n
a G
1
( ) ( ) CIR:
N
n n
n
h t G t a s t
=
= -

2
1
0
1
;
A0
-
10
0
Tx
0 10
RX0
X0 0
Chun ha n ng l- ng:
G =10
E
A (dB)=10log
E
R : n ng l- ng ca mt xung thu t i khong c ch D =1m
N
n
n
G
G
D
g
a
=
=
=

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 391
Tri tr trung bnh qun phng
2
2 2
2
1 1
Nu khong thi gian phn c ch hai xung nh hn ISI
N N
n n n n
n n
rms
rms
a a
G G
t t
t
t
= =



= -




BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 392
p ng xung kim ri rc
max
1
:
( ) ( ),
max
N : S Bin,
Khong thi gian 1 Bin

N
n
n
h t a t n
t
d t
=
D
= - D

Chia trc thi gian thnh cc khong thi gian nh c


gi l cc bin, (gm thnh phn a ng v thnh
phn khng a ng). Khng c php c qu nhiu
ng trong mt bin. V vy, bin c hiu l khong thi
gian ln nht m my thu khng th phn bit c hai
a ng phn bit, hay phn gii ca cc thit b
c dng c tnh knh.
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 393
M hnh knh UWB c xut bi IEEE 802.15.3a
( )
1
( )
1
n n
T T
n n
T T e p
-
- L -
-
= L
T
n
v T
n-1
l cc thi im n ca cm th n v th
(n-1); t T
1
=0 cho cm u tin
M hinh S-V da trn quan st cc a ng, c to
bi cng xung ti my thu, c nhm thnh cc cm.
Thi im n ca cc nhm c m hinh ha l
mt qu trinh ti Poisson vi tc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 394
Trong mi cm, cc a ng cng n theo qu trinh
Poisson vi tc

( )
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
; thi im n ca thnh phn
th n & n-1 trong cm th k
:
nk n k
nk n k
nk n k
e p
l t t
t t
t t l
-
-
- -
-
=
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 395
nk
|
nk
u
Trong m hinh knh S-V, li ca tia th n trong cm
th k l mt bin ngu nhin phc a
n
c mun v
pha
( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2
00
2
1
2
:
:
nk
v i 0 < 2
BNN Rayleigh d- ng c lp TK
BNN phn b u c lp TK trn khong [0,2 )
nk
nk
nk
n
nk
nk
nk
nk
T
nk
nk
nk
e
e e
p
p
b
b
t
g
b
b
b
q q p
p
b b
b
q p
-
-
-
G
=
=
=
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 396
Thi gian
L lch tr
cng sut
L lch trcng sut i v i m hnh knh S-V
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 397
p ng xung kim knh ca m hnh IEEE
( )
:
:
( )
1 1
( )
BNN log-normal trnh by l i bin ca knh
N: S cm quan s t - c
K(n): S thnh phn a - ng trong cm th n
Thnh phn a - ng th k c
X
K n
N
nk n nk
n k
nk
h t X t T
a
a d t
= =
= - -

:
n
a cm th n
T : Thi im n ca cm th n
Trca thnh phn a - ng th k trong cm th n
nk
t
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 398
[ ]
: 1
:
: ;
20
10
BNN RR nhn ng x c sut
Hs knh phn b log-normal
ca thnh phn a - ng th k thuc cm th n
BNN Gauss E
Hs knh:

nk
nk
nk nk nk
nk
p
x x
nk nk nk
x
nk
p
b
m
a b
b

=
=
=
[ ]
2
var
nk nk
x s =
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 399
[ ] [ ]
2 2
var var
& BNN Gauss thhin s dao ng ca hs knh
trn mi cm v trn mi thnh phn a - ng
:
v
n nk
n nk
nk nk n nk
x
x V
s x s V
x V
m x V
= =
= + +
Gi tr - c x c nh t i to phn r cng sut m i v i bin
ca c c cm & i v i bin ca thnh phn a - ng trong mi cm
nk
m
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 400
( )
( )
2
2 2
20
00
2
2 2
00
10
10log 10 10
log 10
log 10 20

k
nk n nk n
T
nk
n k
e
e
nk
e
e e
T
t
m x V
g
x V
b b
t
b
d d
g
m
+ +
-
-
G
= =
- -
+
G
= -
( )
2
1 1
1
N ng l- ng tng - c cha trong c c thnh phn phi - c chun ha
thnh 1 i v i mi thc hin knh

nk
K n
N
nk
n k
b
b
= =
=

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 401
n
Theo m hnh S-V, c c bin thi im n T & - c m hnh ha bi
hai qu trnh Poisson v i tc trung bnh &
l i bin X - c gi nh l bin ngu nhin log-normal:

nk
t
g L
0
:
2
0 g
g
20
0

BNN Gaus trung bnh g v ph- ng sai
Gi tr ph thuc vo l i a - ng tng trung bnh G, - c o
t i vtrkim tra

X=10
g
g
g
s
2
log 10
20
e
e
10log G
=
log 10
g e
s
-
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 402
( )
( )
1 1
( )
K n
N
nk n nk
n k
h t X t T a d t
= =
= - -

Tc n trung bnh cm:
Tc n trung bnh xung:
L

Hs phn r cng sut i v i c c cm:
Hs phn r cng sut i v i c c xung trong mt cm:
l
G

lch chun dao ng ca c c hs knh i v i c c cm:
lch chun dao ng ca c c hs knh i v i c c xung trong mi cm:
lch chun ca c c l i bin
x
V
g
s
s
knh:
g
s
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 403
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 404
Phn tp thi gian v
My thu RAKE
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 405
2
1 1
1
N ng l- ng cha trong c c hs knh - c chun ha
thnh n vi v i mi thc hin ca CIR, ngha l

nk
K n
N
nk
n k
a
a




= =
=

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 406
( )
0
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
RX TX
TX
E =X E l n ng l- ng thu tng i v i mt xung ph t.
X: l i bin ca knh phn b log-normal
E : N ng l- ng ph t trn xung
N: S
K n N
RX nk j s j nk
j
n k
r t X E a p t jT n t a j t
= =
= - - - +

:
j
S
cm quan trc - c
K(n) : S a - ng t- ng ng v i cm th n
: Hs knh ca a - ng th k trong cm n
a : Bin ca xung ph t th j
T : Chu k lp l i ca xung
Thi gian l
nk
j
a
j
:
ay ng xung th j
Thi gian trca thnh phn a - ng th k trong cm th n
nk
t
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 407
1
Z
X
+
X X X X
B
t c h
t A = k t
t A + =
R s
N jT t
TOT
Z
R
Z
1 R
Z
2
Z
1
e
R
e
1 R
e 2
e
( )
}


- dt
) (t r
t A
t A
K hiu
u c
u c tnh
( ) m t
My thu RAKE i vi m hinh knh thi gian ri
rc
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 408
Mt s kt qu m phng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 409
iu ch Knh truyn
M y thu
RAKE
c t nh SNR thu
v c c hs trng s
cho c c nhn RAKE
Ngun
d liu
ph t
So s nh
m li v BER
Ngun
d liu
thu
Quyt
nh
T ch
sng
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 410
Kch bn knh s 1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
x 10
-7
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
x 10
-4
p ng xung kim knh CIR kch bn knh s 1
Thi gian [s]

i

b
i

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 411
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
x 10
-7
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
x 10
-4
p ng xung kim thi gian RR
Thi gian [s]

i

b
i

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 412
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
x 10
-3
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
l i bin
S

n

x
u

t

h
i

n
Biu thng k ca s xut hin l i bin ca CIR khi thc hin 100
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 413
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
x 10
-3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
l i bin
S

n

x
u

t

h
i

n
Biu thng k ca s xut hin l i bin ca CIR khi thc hin 1000
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 414
Kch bn knh s 2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
x 10
-7
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
x 10
-4
p ng xung kim knh CIR kch bn knh s 2
Thi gian [s]

i

b
i

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 415
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
x 10
-7
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
x 10
-4
p ng xung kim thi gian RR
Thi gian [s]

i

b
i

BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 416
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
x 10
-7
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
L lch trcng sut
Thi gian [s]
C

n
g

s
u

t

[
V
2
]
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 417
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 418
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 419
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 420
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 421
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x 10
-9
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Xung ch nht c rng T
p
=2e-009 (s)
Thi gian [s]
B
i


[
V
]
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x 10
-9
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
- a xung ln tn s sng mang f
c
=5e+009 (Hz)
Thi gian [s]
B
i


[
V
]
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
x 10
9
0
2
4
6
8
10
x 10
-19
Mt phnng l- ng hai pha
Tn s [Hz]
E
S
D

h
a
i

p
h

a


[
V
2
s
/
H
z
]
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5
x 10
9
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
x 10
-18
Mt phnng l- ng mt pha
Tn s [Hz]
E
S
D

m

t

p
h

a


[
V
2
s
/
H
z
]
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 422
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x 10
-10
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
x 10
4
D ng xung Gauss o hm bc hai v i c c hs nh d ng (tau) kh c nhau
Thi gian [s]
B
i


[
V
]
tau = 0.2ns
tau = 0.3ns
tau = 0.4ns
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
exp
2
2
exp
p(t)=
t
t
s
ps
p
a a


-




= -

2 2
2 2
2
2
2
d
1-4 exp
dt
p(t)
=
t t p
p
a a





BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 423
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
x 10
-8
-2
0
2
4
6
8
x 10
-3
Tn hiu to bi my pht PPM-TH-UWB
Thi gian [s]
B
i


[
V
]
Pow =-30; f
c
=5.000000e+010; N =2; T
s
=3e-009; N
s
=5;
N
h
=3; N
p
=5; T
m
=5e-010; tau =2.5e-010; dPPM =5e-010
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 424
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
x 10
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
x 10
-14
Mt phcng sut ca tn hiu PPM-TH-UWB
Tn s [Hz]
M


p
h

n
g

s
u

t

[
V
2
/
H
z
]
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 425
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
x 10
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
x 10
-14
Mt phcng sut ca tn hiu PPM-TH-UWB
Tn s [Hz]
M


p
h

n
g

s
u

t

[
V
2
/
H
z
]
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 426
BI GING MN
TRUYN DN V TUYN S
www.ptit.edu.vn
Ging vin: Nguyn Vit m
B MN: V TUYN - KHOA VT1 427