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Satellite technology has progressed tremendously over the last 50 years since Arthur C. Clarke first proposed its idea in 1945 in his article in Wireless World. Today, satellite systems can provide a variety of services including broadband communications, audio/video distribution networks, maritime navigation, worldwide customer service and support as well as military command and control. Satellite systems are also expected to play an important role in the emerging 4G global infrastructure providing the wide area coverage necessary for the realization of the Optimally Connected Anywhere, Anytime vision that drives the growth of modern telecom industry.

This course aims to: Provide a broad overview of the status of digital satellite communications. Discuss main physical, architectural and networking issues of satellite systems. Provide in-depth understanding of modern modulation, coding and multiple access schemes. Review the state of the art in open research areas such as speech and video coding, satellite networking, internet over satellite and satellite personal communications. Highlight trends and future directions of satellite communication

Principles of digital communications Telecom systems design

An Overview of Satellite Communications

Basic satellite transmission theory

Examples of current military and commercial systems. Satellite orbits and transponder characteristics (LEO, MEO, GEO) Traffic Connectivity: Mesh, Hub-Spoke, Point-to-Point, Broadcast Impairments of the Satellite Channel: Weather and Doppler effects, Channel models. Communications Link Calculations: Definition of EIRP, Noise temperature and G/T ratio, Eb/No. Transponder gain and SFD. Link Budget Calculations. Down-link requirements. Design of satellite links to achieve a specified performance. Earth Station Antenna types: Pointing/Tracking. Small antennas at Ku band. FCC-Intelsat-ITU antenna requirements and EIRP density limitations. Brief introduction to implementation issues: LNA, Up/down converters, oscillator phase noise.

Physical Layer of the Transponder The Baseband System Introduction to the theory of Digital Communications: Modulation, Equalization and FEC

Overview of Forward Error Correction (FEC): Standard FEC types (Block and Convolution Coding schemes, Viterbi Decoding), Coding Gain, Concatenated coding, Turbo coding.

Digital Modulation Techniques: BPSK, QPSK, Nyquist signal shaping. Overview of Bandwidth Efficient Modulation (BEM) Techniques: M-ary PSK, Trellis Coded 8PSK, QAM. PSK Receiver Implementation issues: Carrier recovery, phase slips, differential coding.

Spread Spectrum Techniques: Military and commercial use of spread-spectrum. DirectSequence PN, Frequency-Hop and CDMA systems. Principles of Multiple Access Communications
Multiple Access Techniques: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA. DAMA and Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD). TDMA Networks: Time Slots, Preambles, Suitability for DAMA and BoD.
Multiplexing & Multiple Access FDD/TDD, FDMA, TDMA Concepts of Random Access: ALOHA, CSMA

Satellite Communication Systems & Networks Enhancing Proxy (PEP) techniques.

The Future of SATCOM

Characteristics of IP and TCP/UDP over satellite: Unicast and Multicast. Need for Performance VSAT Networks and their system characteristics. DVB standards and MF-TDMA

SATCOMs role in the emerging 4G Information and Communications (ICT) infrastructure.

1957 October 4, 1957: - First satellite - the Russian Sputnik 01 First living creature in space: Sputnik 02 1958 First American satellite: Explorer 01 First telecommunication satellite: This satellite broadcast a taped message: Score 1959 First meteorology satellite: Explorer 07 1960 First successful passive satellite: Echo 1 First successful active satellite: Courier 1B First NASA satellite: Explorer 08 April 12, 1961: - First man in space 1962 First telephone communication & TV broadcast via satellite: Echo 1 First telecommunication satellite, first real-time active, AT&T: Telstar 1 First Canadian satellite: Alouette 1 On 7th June 1962 at 7:53p the two-stage rocket; Rehbar-I was successfully launched from Sonmiani Rocket Range. It carried a payload of 80 pounds of sodium and soared to about 130 km into the atmosphere. With the launching of Rehbar-I, Pakistan had the honour of becoming the third country in Asia and the tenth in the world to conduct such a launching after USA, USSR, UK, France, Sweden, Italy, Canada, Japan and Israel. Rehbar-II followed a successful launch on 9th June 1962 1963 Real-time active: Telstar 2 1964 Creation of Intelsat First geostationary satellite, second satellite in stationary orbit: Syncom 3 First Italian satellite: San Marco 1

1965 Intelsat 1 becomes first commercial comsat: Early Bird First real-time active for USSR: Molniya 1A 1967 First geostationary meteorology payload: ATS 3 1968 First European satellite: ESRO 2B July 21, 1969: - First man on the moon 1970 First Japanese satellite: Ohsumi First Chinese satellite: Dong Fang Hong 01 1971 First UK launched satellite: Prospero ITU-WARC for Space Telecommunications INTELSAT IV Launched INTERSPUTNIK - Soviet Union equivalent of INTELSAT formed 1974 First direct broadcasting satellite: ATS 6 1976 MARISAT - First civil maritime communications satellite service started 1977 EUTELSAT - European regional satellite ITU-WARC for Space Telecommunications in the Satellite Service 1979 Creation of Inmarsat

1980 INTELSAT V launched - 3 axis stabilized satellite built by Ford Aerospace 1983 ECS (EUTELSAT 1) launched - built by European consortium supervised by ESA 1984 UK's UNISAT TV DBS satellite project abandoned First satellite repaired in orbit by the shuttle: SMM 1985 First Brazilian satellite: Brazilsat A1 First Mexican satellite: Morelos 1 1988 First Luxemburg satellite: Astra 1A 1989 INTELSAT VI - one of the last big "spinners" built by Hughes Creation of Panamsat - Begins Service On 16 July 1990, Pakistan launched its first experimental satellite, BADR-I from China 1990 IRIDIUM, TRITIUM, ODYSSEY and GLOBALSTAR S-PCN projects proposed - CDMA designs more popular EUTELSAT II 1992 OLYMPUS finally launched - large European development satellite with Ka-band, DBTV and Ku-band SS/TDMA payloads - fails within 3 years 1993 INMARSAT II - 39 dBW EIRP global beam mobile satellite - built by Hughes/British Aerospace 1994 INTELSAT VIII launched - first INTELSAT satellite built to a contractor's design Hughes describe SPACEWAY design DirecTV begins Direct Broadcast to Home 1995 Panamsat - First private company to provide global satellite services.

1996 INMARSAT III launched - first of the multibeam mobile satellites (built by GE/Marconi) Echostar begins Diresct Broadcast Service 1997 IRIDIUM launches first test satellites ITU-WRC'97 1999 AceS launch first of the L-band MSS Super-GSOs - built by Lockheed Martin Iridium Bankruptcy - the first major failure? 2000 Globalstar begins service Thuraya launch L-band MSS Super-GSO 2001 XM Satellite Radio begins service Pakistans 2nd Satellite, BADR-B was launched on 10 Dec 2001 at 9:15a from Baikonour Cosmodrome, Kazakistan 2002 Sirius Satellite Radio begins service Paksat-1, was deployed at 38 degrees E orbital slot in December 2002, Paksat-1, was deployed at 38 degrees E orbital slot in December 2002 2004 Teledesic network planned to start operation 2005 Intelsat and Panamsat Merge 2006
VUSat OSCAR-52 (HAMSAT) Launched CubeSat-OSCAR 56 (Cute-1.7) Launched K7RR-Sat launched by California Politechnic University

2007 Prism was launched by University of Tokyo 2008 COMPASS-1; a project of Aachen University was launched from Satish Dawan Space Center, India. It

INTELSAT is the original "Inter-governmental Satellite organization". It once owned and operated most of the World's satellites used for international communications, and still maintains a substantial fleet of satellites. INTELSAT is moving towards "privatization", with increasing competition from commercial operators (e.g. Panamsat, Loral Skynet, etc.). INTELSAT Timeline: Interim organization formed in 1964 by 11 countries
Permanent structure formed in 1973 Commercial "spin-off", New Skies Satellites in 1998 Full "privatization" by April 2001 INTELSAT has 143 members and signatories listed here.

Permanent General Secretariat opened September 1978 Intergovernmental Conference adopted definitive statutes with 26 members on 14 May 1982 Definitive organization entered into force on 1 September 1985
General Secretariat -> Executive Organ Executive Council -> EUTELSAT Board of Signatories Secretary General -> Director General Current DG is Giuliano Berretta Currently almost 50 members Moving towards "privatization" Limited company owning and controlling of all assets and activities Also a "residual" intergovernmental organization which will ensure that basic principles of pan-European coverage, universal service, non-discrimination and fair competition are observed by the company

A Communication Satellite can be looked upon as a large microwave repeater It contains several transponders which listens to some portion of spectrum, amplifies the incoming signal and broadcasts it in another frequency to avoid interference with incoming signals.

Source: Union of Concerned Scientists []

Satellites can relay signals over a long distance Geostationary Satellites

Remain above the equator at a height of about 22300 miles (geosynchronous orbits) Travel around the earth in exactly the same time, the earth takes to rotate

Satellite Launching Phase Transfer Orbit Phase Deployment Operation

TT&C - Tracking Telemetry and Command Station SSC - Satellite Control Center, a.k.a.:
OCC - Operations Control Center SCF - Satellite Control Facility

Retirement Phase

Collection of facilities, Users and Applications

Earth Station = Satellite Communication Station (Fixed or Mobile)


The link from a satellite down to one or more ground stations or receivers The link from a ground station up to a satellite.

Some companies sell uplink and downlink services to

television stations, corporations, and to other telecommunication carriers. A company can specialize in providing uplinks, downlinks, or both.

When using a satellite for long distance communications, the satellite acts as a repeater. An earth station transmits the signal up to the satellite (uplink), which in turn retransmits it to the receiving earth station (downlink). Different frequencies are used for uplink/downlink.

Source: Cryptome []

Earth stations Communicate by sending signals to the satellite on an uplink The satellite then repeats those signals on a downlink The broadcast nature of downlink makes it attractive for services such as the distribution of TV programs

One way Service (Broadcasting)

Two way Service (Communication)

Used to transmit signals and data over long distances

Weather forecasting Television broadcasting Internet communication Global Positioning Systems

Frequency Band



C Ku Ka

3,700-4,200 MHz 5,925-6,425 MHz

11.7-12.2 GHz 17.7-21.2 GHz

14.0-14.5 GHz 27.5-31.0 GHz

The C band is the most frequently used. The Ka and Ku bands are reserved exclusively for satellite communication but are subject to rain attenuation

Based on the inclination, i, over the equatorial plane:

Equatorial Orbits above Earths equator (i=0) Polar Orbits pass over both poles (i=90) Other orbits called inclined orbits (0<i<90)

Based on Eccentricity
Circular with centre at the earths centre Elliptical with one foci at earths centre

Based on the Satellite Altitude

GEO Geostationary Orbits
36000 Km = 22300 Miles, equatorial, High latency

MEO Medium Earth Orbits

High bandwidth, High power, High latency

LEO Low Earth Orbits VSAT

Low power, Low latency, More Satellites, Small Footprint Very Small Aperture Satellites
Private WANs

Source: Federation of American Scientists []

Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO): 36,000 km above Earth, includes commercial and military communications satellites, satellites providing early warning of ballistic missile launch. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO): from 5000 to 15000 km, they include navigation satellites (GPS, Galileo, Glonass). Low Earth Orbit (LEO): from 500 to 1000 km above Earth, includes military intelligence satellites, weather satellites.

In the equatorial plane

Orbital Period = 23 h 56 m 4.091 s = 1 sidereal day* Satellite appears to be stationary over any point on equator:
Earth Rotates at same speed as Satellite Radius of Orbit r = Orbital Height + Radius of Earth Avg. Radius of Earth = 6378.14 Km

3 Satellites can cover the earth (120 apart)

Orbit should avoid Van Allen radiation belts:

Region of charged particles that can cause damage to satellite Occur at

~2000-4000 km and ~13000-25000 km

Circular or inclined orbit with < 1400 km altitude

Satellite travels across sky from horizon to horizon in 5 - 15 minutes => needs handoff Earth stations must track satellite or have Omni directional antennas Large constellation of satellites is needed for continuous communication (66 satellites needed to cover earth) Requires complex architecture Requires tracking at ground

HEOs (i = 63.4) are suitable to provide coverage at high latitudes (including North Pole in the northern hemisphere) Depending on selected orbit (e.g. Molniya, Tundra, etc.) two or three satellites are sufficient for continuous time coverage of the service area. All traffic must be periodically transferred from the setting satellite to the rising satellite (Satellite Handover)

Source: Union of Concerned Scientists []

Can reach over large geographical area Flexible (if transparent transponders) Easy to install new circuits Circuit costs independent of distance Broadcast possibilities Temporary applications (restoration) Niche applications Mobile applications (especially "fill-in") Terrestrial network "by-pass" Provision of service to remote or underdeveloped areas User has control over own network 1-for-N multipoint standby possibilities

Large up front capital costs (space segment and launch) Terrestrial break even distance expanding (now approx. size of Europe) Interference and propagation delay Congestion of frequencies and orbits

When the unique features of satellite communications make it attractive When the costs are lower than terrestrial routing When it is the only solution Examples:
Communications to ships and aircraft (especially safety communications) TV services - contribution links, direct to cable head, direct to home Data services - private networks Overload traffic Delaying terrestrial investments 1 for N diversity Special events

PSTN - satellite is becoming increasingly uneconomic for most trunk telephony routes but, there are still good reasons to use satellites for telephony such as: thin routes, diversity, very long distance traffic and remote locations. Land mobile/personal communications - in urban areas of developed countries new terrestrial infrastructure is likely to dominate (e.g. GSM, etc.) but, satellite can provide fill-in as terrestrial networks are implemented, also provide similar services in rural areas and underdeveloped countries

Frequency bands are allocated to different services at World Radio-communication Conferences (WRCs). Allocations are set out in Article S5 of the ITU Radio Regulations. It is important to note that (with a few exceptions) bands are generally allocated to more than one radio services.
Bands have traditionally been divided into commercial" and "government/military" bands, although this is not reflected in the Radio Regulations and is becoming less clear-cut as "commercial" operators move to utilize "government" bands.

Source: All about GPS []

Different types of atmospheric losses can disturb radio wave transmission in satellite systems:
Atmospheric absorption Atmospheric attenuation Traveling ionospheric disturbances

Energy absorption by atmospheric gases, which varies with the frequency of the radio waves. Two absorption peaks are observed (for 90 elevation angle):
22.3 GHz from resonance absorption in water vapour (H2O) 60 GHz from resonance absorption in oxygen (O2) [AA] = [AA]90 cosec

For other elevation angles:

Source: Satellite Communications, Dennis Roddy, McGraw-Hill

Rain is the main cause of atmospheric attenuation (hail, ice and snow have little effect on attenuation because of their low water content). Total attenuation from rain can be determined by:
A = L [dB] where [dB/km] is called the specific attenuation, and can be calculated from specific attenuation coefficients in tabular form that can be found in a number of publications where L [km] is the effective path length of the signal through the rain; note that this differs from the geometric path length due to fluctuations in the rain density.

Traveling ionospheric disturbances are clouds of electrons in the ionosphere that provoke radio signal fluctuations which can only be determined on a statistical basis. The disturbances of major concern are: Scintillations are variations in the amplitude, phase, polarisation, or angle of arrival of radio waves, caused by irregularities in the ionosphere which change over time. The main effect of scintillations is fading of the signal.
Scintillation; Polarisation rotation.

Polarisation is the property of electromagnetic waves that describes the direction of the transverse electric field. Since electromagnetic waves consist of an electric and a magnetic field vibrating at right angles to each other. it is necessary to adopt a convention to determine the polarisation of the signal. Conventionally, the magnetic field is ignored and the plane of the electric field is used.

Linear Polarisation (horizontal or vertical):

Circular Polarisation:

the two orthogonal components of the electric field are in phase; The direction of the line in the plane depends on the relative amplitudes of the two components.
The two components are exactly 90 out of phase and have exactly the same amplitude. All other cases.

Linear Polarisation Circular Polarisation

Elliptical Polarisation

Elliptical Polarisation:

Alternating vertical and horizontal polarisation is widely used on satellite communications This reduces interference between programs on the same frequency band transmitted from adjacent satellites (One uses vertical, the next horizontal, and so on) Allows for reduced angular separation between the satellites.
Information Resources for Telecommunication Professionals [] htm


Read the paper of Arthur C. Clark and summarize his suggestions to support Satellite for Communication purposes Visit and visit JTrack-3D Link under Important Links section to complete the assignment
You need to find out the satellite name of PakSat1 in JTrack-3D and send a snapshot of JTrack-3D with PakSat-1 in it