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Microwave Principles

Contents

PART 1

Microwave Equipments Application Microwave Communication Principles

PART 2 PART 3

Network Planning

Microwave Equipment Application


Application/Solution Mobile Network Application Cellular Network Application Ethernet Application

Application/Solution
Point to Point Digital Microwave transmission system

Coaxial cable
Microwave link

MUX

MUX

Satellite

Fiber optic cable

Mobile Network Application


SDH
..... MSC

SDH

PDH
BTS

PDH
BTS

PDH
BTS BTS BTS

PDH
BTS

BTS
BTS

PDH
BTS BTS

BTS
PSTN MSC BSC

SDH

BSC

SDH SDH
BSC BTS BTS BTS

BTS BTS

PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network MSC: Mobile Switching Center BSC: Base Station Controller BTS: Base Transceiver Station SDH

BTS BSC BTS

SDH

PDH PDH PDH


BTS BTS

SDH Microwave
PDH Microwave

BTS

BTS

PDH

BTS

PDH

Cellular Network Application 1

UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

Cellular Network Application2

RNC: Regional Network Centre ADM: Add/Drop Multiplexer MUX: Multiplexer STM: Synchronous Transport Module

Ethernet Application(1)
LAN to LAN Bridge

Ethernet Application(2)

Ethernet Application(3)

Review

What are the main transmission methods nowadays? What are the main applications for microwave equipments?

Microwave Communication Principles


Introduction to Microwave Principles System Structure

Introduction to Microwave Principles


Different Transmission Systems Microwave Frequency Features of Radio Transmission Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization Radio Wave Propagation Fading Interference Microwave Radio Link Relay station (Passive)

Different Transmission Systems


Coaxial cable

Microwave link

MUX

MUX

Satellite

Fiber optic cable

Microwave Frequency
Frequency: 300MHZ 300GHZ Wavelength: 1m~1mm

Frequency band: UHF: 0.3-1.12G KU: 12.4-18G S: 2.6-3.95 G U: 40-60G

X: 8.2-12.4G LS: 1.7-2.6 G Ka: 26.5-40G XC: 5.85-8.2G

L: 1.12-1.7G K: 18-26G C: 3.95-5.85G

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF microwave

EHF

10Km 30KHz

1Km 300KHz

100m 3MHz

10m 30MHz

1m 300MHz

10cm 3GHz

1cm 30GHz

1mm 300GHz

Features of Radio transmission


1 2 3 4 5 6 Wavelength is short while frequency is high. Wide frequency band Line of sight propagation, reflection, diffraction and scattering Free space loss Fading caused by other types of path loss. Interference

Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization 1

Regional network 1.5 2.5

2 8 34 Mbit/s

3.3 11 GHz National backbone network 34 140 155 Mbit/s Regional and local network 2 8 34 140 155 Mbit/s 8 10 20 30 40 50

GHz

Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization 2


Low frequency band High frequency band

Channel number 1 F3 2 n 1' 2' n'

Fo Frequency F1 F2 Band width Fo: Center frequency

Radio Wave Propagation 1


The radio link propagation follows the line of sight: it requires a perfect clearing between transmitting and receiving antennas. The propagation medium is made of the lower layers of the atmosphere (a few meters to a few hundred of meters above ground)

The non homogeneity of the atmosphere influences the waves propagation: 1) Path curvature 2) Reflecting, diverging, focusing intermittent events Free space loss (Lfs)=92.4+20log(fd) (dB) f:GHz, d:km

Radio Wave Propagation 2


Atmosphere influence

Refraction

Partial reflection

Absorption
Gaz and water vapor
Frequ. < 15 GHz : insignificant Rain 20 GHz : 0.1 dB / km

Diffusion
Diffusion volume

n2

n2 i.2

i.1

n1

n1

Freq > 10 GHz n1sin i.1 = n2sin i.2

500Km

Almost horizontal

Radio Wave Propagation 3


Ground influence

Diffraction Reflection

Diffraction on a ridge

Spherical diffraction

Radio Wave Propagation 4


Air refraction index at sea level: n = 1.000 315
N
h

N = 315 N units

Standard atmosphere N = - 39 N.units Km

Ro Real Earth
N : Gradient of air refraction index

K = R/Ro = 4/3

R Imaginary Earth

N may reach more extreme values than + 250 or - 350, during short percentage of time

An imaginary earth with the radius of 8500km, allows to simplify analysis on Refraction propagation of radio wave.

Fading
Causes Types Selective Fading Rain and Snow Fading Anti-Fading Measures

Causes
Causes of fading

1 2 3 4

Changes of transmitting media Reflection Atmosphere Rain

Types
1 2 3 Fast fading and slow fading Up fading and down fading Frequency selective fading and flat fading

Selective Fading
Cause Multi-path propagation
Refraction Reflection A1 A
2

A 2 ,T A 1 ,T
1

Transmitter
F= A max 1

Receiver
=T A =
2

-T A2 A1

A min A1 -A2 A1+ A For A1 = A2

Frequency F0
2

Radio channel < 1 minimal-phase fading > 1 non-minimal phase fading

A max dB = + 6 A min dB = -

The direct signal is larger than the reflected signal

Rain and Snow Fading


Main cause frequencies > 10 GHz
-80 < Pr < -20 dBm Receiver A B
FI

Demodulator

CAG

Digital signal Transmitter dBm A IF W0 Noise dBm


IF Level 0 dBr 2dB

B Signal Time
C N

Time

Noise

Anti-Fading Measures
Techniques without diversity

1 2
3

Reduce ground reflection Increase path consistency


Various equalizers

Diversity techniques 1 2

Frequency Diversity Space Diversity

10.2/F0/2<H<37/F0/2

Interference
Types Anti-Interference Measures

Sort
A B Co-channel interference Adjacent channel interference

Anti-Interference Measures
A B Increase transmit power Improve band pass filter performance

Microwave Radio Link


Hop NO.1 Hop NO.2 Hop No.n

Or
TX/R x TX/Rx TX/R x TX/Rx

Terminal Station
Cable

Relay station (Active) Radio Link

Relay station (Passive)

Terminal Station Cable

Distance between the transmitter and the receiver, a few km < D < 100km Availability and quality depends on the distance recommended by ITU-R.

Relay station (Passive)

Plane reflectors

Parabolic reflectors

System hierarchy

Digital System Hierarchy

Transmission Rate Levels

Digital System Hierarchy


2400/19200 bit/s Data VF Data

MUX

PCM

64 kbit/s
TN 1 2.048 Mbit/s 4 x 30 channels TN 2 8.448 Mbit/s 4 x 120 channels TN 3 34.268 Mbit/s 4 x 480 channels TN 4 139.264 Mbit/s 1920 channels 480 channels 120 channels + frame + stuffing 30 channels 64 kbit/s + 64 kbit/s signalling + 64 kbit/s frame 32 x 64 = 2048 kbit/s

Transmission Rate Levels


2/34 Mbit/s PDH ADM 155 155 Mbit/s

CMI

Tx/Rx

34,268 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1

TN4

140 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

CMI

8,448 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1

TN3

34 Mbit/s HDB3
or 16x2 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

2,048 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1

TN2

8 Mbit/s HDB3
or 4x2 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

30 64 kbit/s 1

TN1

2 Mbit/s HDB3
4x2 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

Review
1. What are the frequency rang of microwave? 2. Describe the features of the microwave transmission? 3. What are the influences of the atmosphere on microwave transmission? 4. What are the causes of fading? 5. What are the main causes of selective fading? 6. What are the two types of counter-fading measures? What are the main measures? 7. How many kinds of passive relay stations are there?