Está en la página 1de 68

Social Class

1 Has your house got: a A name and number? b A name of your choosing? c A name from time immemorial? 2 Sitting over drinks, do you: a Say "Cheers"? b Say "Cheers" and clink glasses? c Say nothing?

3 Are you more likely to take a seaside holiday in: a Cancun? b Scotland? c The Maldives?
4 Would you follow the hunt: a At a distance by car? b With an anti-hunt placard? c On your own horse?

5 At breakfast do you like: a Bio yogurt? b Pop-Tarts? c Porridge? 6 Have you got: a A patio? b Decking? c A terrace?

7 At your children's weddings, will male guests wear: a Morning dress? b Dinner jackets? c Lounge suits?
8 Do you ask for the: a Bog? b Bathroom? c Toilet?

9 Which school did you go to?: a An old public school? b A church school near which you have moved? c The local school? 10 After dinner, do you: a Leave your napkin loosely on the table? b Fold your napkin neatly? c Roll your napkin and put it in a ring?

11 Do your little brothers or sisters have: a PlayStation 3? b A dressing-up box? c Trivial Pursuit?

12 If you can't hear a remark, do you say: a What? b Say again? c Pardon? 13 If you want butter with your roll at dinner, do you: a Cut it in half and butter it? b Break it in half and butter it? c Break it up and butter bits as you eat them?

14 Would you prefer to read: a Heat? b The Field? c The World of Interiors?
15 Do you associate Jordan with: a Breakfast cereal? b Petra? c Peter Andr?

THE ANSWERS 1 a 10, b 20, c 30; 2 a 20, b 10, c 30; 3 a 10, b 30, c 20; 4 a 10, b 20, c 30; 5 a 20, b 10, c 30; 6 a 20, b 10, c 30; 7 a 30, b 10, c 20; 8 a 30, b 20, c 10; 9 a 30, b 20, c 10; 10 a 30, b 10, c 20; 11 a10, b 30, c 20; 12 a 30, b 10, c 20; 13 a 10, b 20, c 30; 14 a 10, b 30, c 20; 15 a 20, b 30, c 10.

If you scored: Below 200 You are cheerfully lower-class. 200 to 300 You are uneasily middle-class. 300 to 440 You probably have a coat of arms. 450 You are the Duke of Devonshire.

Sociologists put people in social classes according to their economic position in society what job they have.

http://www.yout ?v=1mYY1QG K0jQ

Occupation is usually selected as the most convenient indicator of class.

Class seems to affect many other aspects of our lives.

Not just the job we do and the money we earn, but also our attitudes, lifestyles and values.

You can predict quite a lot about a persons values, behaviour and identity from their social class.

Society can be broken down into four major classes: upper, middle, working and underclass.

Work out, using this chart and the occupation of the breadwinner in your house which social class you are.

There are some overlaps between those classes in their values, lifestyles and identities. But there are also some broad class differences.

Identify four values that are shared by all social classes.

Identify four ways in which people from different social classes are really different from each other.

The upper class is made up of those who possess great wealth and privilege.

Members of the upper class share a strong sense of identity based on public school education and family connections.

The middle class is made up of people in nonmanual jobs.

It s hard to generalise about middle class identity as the people and jobs in it are so diverse & different.

Professionals value education highly and take part in a wide range of leisure activities.

The self-employed value independence and hard work.

The working class consists of those in manual jobs (practical trades).

Traditional working class culture emphasised class consciousness (being proud of your roots), community and the extended family.

New working class culture focuses on leisure and the home.

The underclass consists of the unemployed and those dependent on welfare benefits.

This group has developed its own norms and values.

Identify five norms and five values of the underclass

Others argue against this view and say the underclass has similar values to the rest of society.

Some sociologists argue that lifestyles and consumption are now more important than class as sources of identity.

It would be daft to think that class isnt important any more.

Peoples lives are still really affected by their class.

Education Exam results differ by social status

But class identities do seem to be weaker now than in the past;

people are less proud or bothered about their background.

What have these people got in common?

In certain countries around the globe, INEQUALITY between rich and poor is an enormous problem which causes some serious issues. The Spirit Level is a book that was written by Richard Wilkinson & Kate Pickett, which puts forward the idea that the greater the gap between rich and poor, the greater the social problems.

What do you think of this?

Watch the following clip very closely. Were going to use this to work out why poverty causes problems in the following areas: 1. physical health, In groups 2. mental health, 3. drug abuse, 4. education, 5. imprisonment, 6. obesity, 7. social mobility, 8. trust and community life, 9. violence, 10. teenage births, and 11. child well-being.

In the area youve been allocated to focus on, look at these questions: 1.What s happening for middle class and then for poorer people in your particular area? Are middle class people more educated, more violent, more likely to have children in their teens? WHAT S HAPPENING? 2.Think about WHY this is happening? Why does how much money you have, have any affect on your health, your mental wellbeing or your relationships with people in your neighbourhood? WHY IS THIS HAPPENING?

Question 1: For the year 2005-6, which of these four figures do you think reflects the number of children living in poverty?

895,000 2.1 million 2.8 million 6.2 million

Question 2 Poverty and social exclusion affect families in different ways and various measures are used to measure its impacts. Researchers from the New Policy Institute developed a series of reliable indicators of the degree of exclusion suffered by different groups in the population including children and families

Three of the following indicators are not reliable ways of estimating the degree of exclusion suffered by different groups in the population. Which three do you think it is?

Number of children living in workless households Low birth weight babies Accidental deaths Having a height of less than 1.75 metres Low attainment at school Shopping at Primark Permanent exclusion from school Low rates of vegetarianism Births to girls conceiving under 16 The number of children aged 10-16 in young offender institutions

Question 3 A major study by UNICEF measured children's material well-being in economically advanced nations. To calculate this they used three different components - relative income poverty, children in households without an employed adult and direct measures of deprivation. Look at the ranking of countries on the next slide. How well do you think the UK did? Where do you think the UK's correct place in the ranking should be?

1. Sweden 2. Norway 3. Denmark 4. Canada 5. France 6. Netherlands 7. Spain 8. Australia 9. Italy 10. Greece 11. Japan 12. Portugal 13. United States 14. Ireland 15. Poland UNICEF (2007)

In addition, this study considered five additional dimensions for children. The worst areas for British kids were: Health and safety

Educational well-being
Family and peer relationships

Behaviours and risks [and]

Subjective well-being When all these additional dimensions were considered, the United Kingdom's children came in last in comparison all the countries studied.

Question 4 Some groups have a much greater than average risk of experiencing poverty and social exclusion, such as lone parents and asylum seekers. Look at the statements below and decide if they are true or false.

* The risk of poverty for children in workless families is 58% compared to the average of 22%.
* Almost half of children of Pakistani, Bangladeshi background are in poverty * In a survey of organisations working with asylum-seekers in England and Scotland, 85% reported that their clients experience hunger due to poverty Children living in households with a low income where there is one or more disabled adult face a high risk of poverty at 33%.

Question 5 A route out of poverty for families can be paid work, however for many families, due to low pay this will not necessarily be the case. Half of the children living in poverty in 2004/5 belonged to households where someone was doing paid work. The minimum wage was introduced in April 1999. Do you know how much the minimum hourly wage is, as of October 2007, for those aged 22 years and over? 6.60 5.52 4.45 3.00

The minimum wage, with one parent working full-time would put the children in that family (assuming just two children) far below the poverty line. With both parents working, one full time and one part time, on the minimum wage, the children would still be well below the poverty line.

Half of the children living in poverty in 2004/5 belonged to households where someone was doing paid work. (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2006).

Question 6 part 1 Read the question below and pick out the correct answer. How many times more likely are children in social class V to die in an accident than children in social class I? Department of Health (2002) Social Class definitions: social class I -Professional social class II - Intermediate social class III - Skilled manual/non-manual social class IV - Partly skilled social class V - Unskilled 5 times more likely 2 times more likely 3 times more likely

Question 6 part 2 Read the question below and identify the correct answer. How many times more likely are children in social class V to die in a fire than children in social class I? Department of Health (2002) 15 times more likely 12 times more likely 10 times more likely As you can see children from low income families are significantly more at risk. Environmental factors play a part in these higher rates for poor children. Poorer children are more likely to live in sub-standard housing and in areas with few amenities and often limited space for safe play.

Question 7 In 2006/7, 62.8% of children not eligible for free school meals got 5 or more GCSE's at grades A-C. How many children eligible for free school meals do you think got 5 or more GCSE's at grades A-C? 22.2% 35.5% 41.7% Research evidence clearly demonstrates a strong and enduring link, between poverty and educational attainment. Whilst school exclusion rates are linked with a child's socio-economic background, the child's ethnicity also is a factor, with Black Caribbean boys being particularly at risk (McGlone, 2001).

Question 8 How many times more likely are you to have a mother suffering from maternal depression if you are a child living in poverty? Mayhew, E. and Bradshaw, (2005)

0.25 times more likely 1 time more likely 1.5 times more likely 2 times more likely 2.25 times more likely
Managing poverty and protecting children from its worst effects can be stressful and this can damage parents' physical and mental health, morale and self-esteem. Provision of effective family support services that address both the practical and emotional needs of vulnerable parents and children are particularly important in the first few years of a child's life.

Question 9 What percentage of rural children do you think live in poverty and what percentage of lone parent households in rural areas live on low incomes? End Child Poverty (2003)

20% of rural children live in poverty.

10% of lone parent households in rural areas on low incomes.

Poverty is often regarded as an urban problem and when we think of poverty we tend to think of slums and desolate housing estates but there are significant levels of poverty and social exclusion in rural England.

They are often 'invisible' to policy makers as they are spread out across many areas and the belief in a 'rural idyll' means their needs are often overlooked; Often members of black and minority ethnic groups are in a minority and can experience racism;

The closure of banks, shops, leisure centres, social services etc can make access difficult and there may be a dearth of recreational and play facilities for children and young people; A lack of transport complicates access to everything and there may be extra costs of transport;
The migration of second home owners makes housing too expensive as well as reducing its availability; Finally, problems with the cost of, and access to, child care makes employment very difficult as a way out of poverty.

Question 10 A study in 2000 investigated the link between adoption and mothers' circumstances. What percentage of these birth mothers, whose children were adopted, do you think were working in either professional managerial or skilled occupations?

Identify the correct percentage below. Ivaldi, 2000

7% 5% 3% 3% of birth mothers of adopted children were working in professional or managerial roles.

Poverty and social exclusion are the most striking characteristics of children and families involved with social services, and children permanently separated from their family of origin are predominantly children of the poor. Studies (Ivaldi, 2000) into the circumstances of birth mothers whose children were subsequently adopted, found that 89% of these birth mothers were not working when a decision was made that it was in their child's best interest to be adopted. An overview report of the findings of twenty-four Department of Health funded research studies on the operation of the Children Act 1989, concluded: 'There is no doubt that living in enduring poverty remains a major problem for many of the families of children in need and places them at risk of being socially excluded. The studies have poignantly chronicled the circumstances of children and their families, including care leavers. Social isolation, poor health and poor esteem are common problems'. (Department of Health, 2001)