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Earth Science

Earth Science

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Systematic Comprehensive Investigation Exploration Nature’s Causes Effects

Earth Science

What is Scientific Method?

.Earth Science What is Scientific Method? The Scientific Method is a logical and rational order of steps by which scientists come to conclusions about the world around them.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method Identify the Problem Gather Data regarding the Problem Formulate Hypothesis Test the Hypothesis Analyze and Interpret Results Make a Conclusion .

measurable.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 1. and attainable. specific. This is usually started as a question. . Identify the Problem The problem should be clear.

Identify the Problem Observation State the Problem .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 1.

Identify the Problem Does the amount of sunlight a tomato plant receives affect the size of the tomatoes?" .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 1.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Identify the Problem Does the size of opening of the faucet affects the amount of water flowing through it? .

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 1. during the day or night? Where is the focal point of a lens? How does a java applet work? Does a truss make a bridge stronger? Why are moths attracted to light? Which cleaning products kill the most bacteria? . Identify the Problem What is the difference between a series and parallel circuit? When does a plant grow the most.

Gather Data regarding the Problem This step could also be called “research”. .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 2. It is the first stage in understanding the problem you have chosen. You will need to research everything that you can find about the problem.

books. or even smaller "unofficial" experiments. Gather Data regarding the Problem You can collect information on your problem from your own experiences.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 2. . the internet.

Gather Data regarding the Problem "A year in the lab can save you a day in the library." .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 2.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 2. the time the tomatoes are exposed to sunlight and others. Gather Data regarding the Problem Start also gathering data about the problem like (in our case) the measurements of the tomatoes. .

Formulate Hypothesis The next stage of the Scientific Method is known as the "hypothesis." This word basically means "a possible solution to a problem. based on knowledge and research.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 3." .

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 3. Formulate Hypothesis Using the example of the tomato experiment. here is an example of a hypothesis: PROBLEM: "Does the amount of sunlight a tomato plant receives affect the size of the tomatoes?" .

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 3. . here is an example of a hypothesis: HYPOTHESIS: "I believe that the more sunlight a tomato plant receives. Formulate Hypothesis Using the example of the tomato experiment. the larger the tomatoes will grow.

more sun means more food. and. and logically. . Formulate Hypothesis This hypothesis is based on: (1) Tomato plants need sunshine to make food through photosynthesis.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 3.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 3. . Formulate Hypothesis This hypothesis is based on: (2) Through informal. those with more sunlight appear to grow bigger. exploratory observations of plants in a garden.

then it will increase the flow of water. Formulate Hypothesis Using the example of the faucet experiment.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 3. . here is an example of a hypothesis: HYPOTHESIS: "If I open the faucet.

An experiment is a tool that you design to find out if your ideas about your problem are right or wrong. Test the Hypothesis This is the part of the scientific method that tests your hypothesis.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. .

Test the Hypothesis An experiment is a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. . falsifying or establishing the validity of a hypothesis.

. In other words. Test the Hypothesis Scientists use an experiment to search for cause and effect relationships in nature.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way.

and controlled. A variable is any factor. dependent. or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. An experiment usually has three kinds of variables: independent. . trait. Test the Hypothesis These changing quantities are called variables.

Test the Hypothesis The independent variable is the one that is changed by the scientist. . To insure a fair test. a good experiment has only one independent variable.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4.

The new value of the dependent variable is caused by and depends on the value of the independent variable. Test the Hypothesis The scientist focuses his or her observations on the dependent variable to see how it responds to the change made to the independent variable. .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4.

the quantity of water flowing (dependent variable) changes in response -. if you open a faucet (the independent variable).you observe that the water flow increases.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. Test the Hypothesis For example. .

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. Controlled variables are quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant. Test the Hypothesis Experiments also have controlled variables. . and he must observe them as carefully as the dependent variables.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 4. Test the Hypothesis For example. it is important to make sure that the water pressure (the controlled variable) is held constant. if we want to measure how much water flow increases when we open a faucet. .

Analyze and Interpret Results Independent Dependent Variables Variable (What I observe) (What I change) "Does the amount Amount of sunlight Size of tomatoes (cm or m) of sunlight a tomato the tomato receives plant receives affect the size of the tomatoes?" Question .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 5.

Analyze and Interpret Results Question Independent Variable (What I change) Water faucet opening (closed. fully open) Dependent Variables (What I observe) Amount of water flowing measured in liters per minute How much water flows through a faucet at different openings? . half open.Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 5.

Make a Conclusion The final step in the scientific method is the conclusion. This is a summary of the experiment's results. and how those results match up to your hypothesis. .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 6.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 6. or (2) you CAN NOT REJECT the hypothesis. . Make a Conclusion You have two options for your conclusions: based on your results. either (1) you CAN REJECT the hypothesis.

” or “The amount of sunlight a tomato plant receives does not affect the size of the tomatoes” .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 6. Make a Conclusion “The amount of sunlight a tomato plant receives affect the size of the tomatoes.

Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 6. Make a Conclusion “The size of opening of the faucet affects the amount of water flowing through the faucet” or “The size of opening of the faucet does not affects the amount of water flowing through the faucet” .

Make a Conclusion This is an important point. because there is a chance that you made an error somewhere along the way. You can not PROVE the hypothesis with a single experiment. .Earth Science Steps of the Scientific Method 6.