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Lecture on :

Automation of a Power station & its advantages DCS Systems & Conventional Instrumentation system Detail Description of Control Loops

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

What is Process Control ?

Process control is an engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanisms and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

What is Process Control ?

For example, heating up the temperature in a room is a process that has the specific, desired outcome to reach and maintain a defined temperature (e.g. 20C), kept constant over time. Here, the temperature is the controlled variable. At the same time, it is the input variable since it is measured by a thermometer and used to decide whether to heat or not to heat. The desired temperature (20C) is the set point. The state of the heater (e.g. the setting of the valve allowing hot water to flow through it) is called the manipulated variable since it is subject to control actions.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

Importance of Process Control

Process Control directly affects the safety and reliability of a process. Process Control determines the quality of the products produced by a process. Process Control can affect how efficient a process is operated. Bottom Line: Process Control has a major impact on the profitability of a company

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Safety and Reliability

The control system must provide safe operation Alarms, safety constraint control, start-up and shutdown. A control system must be able to absorb a variety of disturbances and keep the process in a good operating region: Thunderstorms, feed composition upsets, temporary loss of utilities (e.g., steam supply), day to night variation in the ambient conditions

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Benefits of Improved Control

Impurity Concentration

Impurity Concentration

Limit

Limit

Time
Old Controller

Time
New Controller

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Driving a Car : An Example of Feedback Control

As an example, let us consider cruise control. In this case, the system is a car. The goal of cruise control is to keep the car at a constant speed. Here, the output variable of the system is the speed of the car. The primary means to control the speed of the car is the air-fuel mixture being fed into the engine. A simple way to implement cruise control is to lock the position of the throttle the moment the driver engages cruise control. This is fine if the car is driving on perfectly flat terrain. On hilly terrain, the car will slow down when going uphill and accelerate when going downhill; something its driver may find highly undesirable.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

Driving a Car : An Example of Feedback Control

This type of controller is called an open-loop controller because there is no direct connection between the output of the system and its input. One of the main disadvantages of this type of controller is the lack of sensitivity to the dynamics of the system under control. The actual way that cruise control is implemented involves feedback control, whereby the speed is monitored and the amount of throttle is increased if the car is driving slower than the intended speed and decreased if the car is driving faster. This feedback makes the car less sensitive to disturbances to the system, such as changes in slope of the ground or wind speed. This type of controller is called a closed-loop controller.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

Classical Control Theory

To avoid the problems of the open-loop controller, control theory introduces feedback. The output of the system y(t) is fed back to the reference value r(t), through the measurement performed by a sensor. The controller C then takes the difference between the reference and the output, the error e, to change the inputs u to the system under control P. This is shown in the figure. This kind of controller is a closed-loop controller or feedback controller.
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Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Schematic of Feedback Loop


Disturbance Setpoint e c u Controller Actuator Process Controlled Variable Sensor

+-

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Heat Exchanger Control: Control Example

Product Stream TT

TC

Steam

Feed Condensate

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Heat Exchanger Control

Controlled variable- Outlet temperature of product stream Manipulated variable- Steam flow Actuator- Control valve on steam line Sensor- Thermocouple on product stream Disturbance- Changes in the inlet feed temperature

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Types of Control Processes

In practice, process control systems can be characterized as one or more of the following forms: Discrete Found in many manufacturing, motion and packaging applications. Robotic assembly, such as that found in automotive production, can be characterized as discrete process control. Most discrete manufacturing involves the production of discrete pieces of product, such as metal stamping.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Types of Control Processescontd

Batch Some applications require that specific quantities of raw materials be combined in specific ways for particular durations to produce an intermediate or end result. One example is the production of adhesives and glues, which normally require the mixing of raw materials in a heated vessel for a period of time to form a quantity of end product. Other important examples are the production of food, beverages and medicine. Batch processes are generally used to produce a relatively low to intermediate quantity of product per year(a few pounds to millions of pounds).

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Types of Control Processescontd.

Continuous Often, a physical system is represented though variables that are smooth and uninterrupted in time. The control of the water temperature in a heating jacket, for example, is an example of continuous process control. Some important continuous processes are the production of fuels, chemicals and plastics. Continuous processes, in manufacturing, are used to produce very large quantities of product per year(millions to billions of pounds).

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Types of Feedback Controllers


On-Off Control- e.g., room thermostat Manual Control- Used by operators and based on more or less open loop responses PID control- Most commonly used controller. Control action based on error from set point Advanced PID- Enhancements of PID: ratio, cascade, feed forward Model-based Control- Uses model of the process directly for control

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Control System : Building Blocks


Measurement Instruments are devices which are used to measure attributes of physical systems. The variable measured can include practically any measurable variable related to the physical sciences. These variables commonly include: Pressure Flow Temperature Level Density Viscosity
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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Control System : Building Blocks


Input Instruments can often be viewed in terms of a simple input-output device. For example, if we "input" some temperature into a thermocouple, it "outputs" some sort of signal. (Which can later be translated into data.) In the case of this thermocouple, it will "output" a signal in millivoltage. Output Instruments communicate with some sort of signal, often adhering to a standard. This signal may be defined by standards associations, or it may be a proprietary standard.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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Control System : Building Blocks


Some standards include: Analog Pneumatics Signal lines/tubes) 3-15PSI 20-100 kPa 6-30PSI 0.2-1 Kg/cm2 voltage 1-5V 0-5V 0-10V
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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Control System : Building Blocks


Current 4-20mA 8-40 mA 10-50 mA Digital HART Protocol SMAR Protocol Fieldbus Modbus Profibus Industrial Ethernet Various wireless communications
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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Control System : Building Blocks


Actuator System Control Valve


Valve body Valve actuator

I/P (Current-to-Pneumatic) converter Instrument air system

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Control System : Building Blocks

Typical Globe Control Valve

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Control System : Building Blocks :


Cross-section of a Globe-type Control Valve

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Controllers/Control Computers

Pneumatic controllers Electronic analog controllers Supervisory control computers Distributed Control Systems (DCS) Fieldbus technology

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Pneumatic Controllers - Phase I


Introduced in the 1920s Installed in the field next to the valve Use bellows, baffles, and nozzles with an air supply to implement PID action. Provided automatic control and replaced manual control for many loops

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Pneumatic Controllers - Phase II

Transmitter type pneumatic controllers began to replace field mounted controllers in the late 1930s. Controller located in control room with pneumatic transmission from sensors to control room and back to the valve. Allowed operators to address a number of controllers from a centralized control room.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Pneumatic Controller Installation

F1 T1 3-15 psig

F2 T2 Thermowell T Air Thermocouple millivolt signal 3-15 psig Air Transmitter

Tsp

Pneumatic Controller

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Electronic Analog Controllers


Became available in the late 1950s. Replaced the pneumatic tubing with wires. Used resistors, capacitors, and transistors based amplifiers to implement PID action. Out sold pneumatic controllers by 1970. Allowed for advanced PID control: ratio, feed forward, etc.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Electronic Controller Installation

F1 T1 3-15 psig Air 4-20 ma

F2 T2 Thermowell T I/P Thermocouple millivolt signal Tsp Electronic Analog Controller 4-20 ma

Transmitter

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Computer Control System


Based upon a mainframe digital computer. Offered the ability to use data storage and retrieval, alarm functions, and process optimization. First installed on a refinery in 1959. Had reliability limitations.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Supervisory Control Computer


Video Display Unit Alarming Functions Printer

Supervisory Control Computer

Analog Control Subsytem

Interfacing Hardware

Data Storage Acquisition System

...
Process Control Basics
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Distributed Control System- DCS


Introduced in the late 1970s. Based upon redundant microprocessors for performing control functions for a part of the plant. SUPERIOR RELIABILITY Less expensive per loop for large plants. Less expensive to expand. Facilitates the use of advanced control

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS Architecture
System Consoles Host Computer Data Storage Unit PLC

Data Highway (Shared Communication Facilities)

Local Console

Local Control Unit

..............

Local Control Unit

Local Console

Process Transmitters and Actuators

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS and Troubleshooting

The data storage and trending capability of a DCS greatly facilitate troubleshooting control problems. That is, the sources of process upsets can many times be tracked down through the process by trending a group of process measurements until the source of the process upset is located.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Control Relevant Aspects of a DCS

The most important control aspect of a DCS is the cycle time for controller calls. The shortest cycles times are typically around 0.2 seconds while most loops can be executed every 0.5 to 1.0 seconds. These cycle times affect flow control loops and other fast control loops.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Fieldbus Technology

Based upon smart valves, smart sensors and controllers installed in the field. Uses data highway to replace wires from sensor to DCS and to the control valves. Less expensive installations and better reliability. Can mix different sources (vendors) of sensors, transmitters, and control valves. Now commercially available and should begin to replace DCSs.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Fieldbus Architecture
Plant-Wide Network

Local Area Network

.................
Smart Sensors

Local Area Network

Smart Sensors

Smart Control Valves and Controllers

Smart Control Valves and Controllers

Fieldbus Network a
Process Control Basics

Fieldbus Network

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Distributed Control System : Detail Description

Introduction The Distributed Control System (DCS) installed to control and monitor the Boiler,Turbine and related auxiliaries has the potential to start-up, shutdown, control and monitor many of the subsystems required for a (210 mw) coal fired fired plant. These subsystems would include Draft Fans, Feed Water Pumps, Regenerative and Steam Condensing Systems.. Segments of the mainstream turbine control, other than speed control, are also included.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Advantages Of The Integrated Approach

One of the immediate benefit of DCS over conventional system is reduced control room size as space for dedicated control switches or pushbuttons and read out devices (indicators, recorders, lights, annunciator windows or CRT'S) will not be required.
(Note:This although is not the case with Bakreswar Units-1,2 & 3. However it will be experienced in Units-4 & 5.)

Not having to provide space for the free-standing control panels used in the unitized approach will significantly reduce the size of the control room. The size, however, should not be shrunk to an absolute minimum and approach the cockpit of a 747, as it complicates maintenance and does not allow effective use of additional personnel during start-up.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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DCS : Advantages Of The Integrated Approach

Overall maintenance costs are significantly reduced as only one vendor's hardware is involved for the logic part of the system. This minimizes training expenses and spare parts inventory.. Ease of operation is an inherent benefit as the operator is not required to learn various methods of transferring control from manual to automatic and vice versa.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS in Bakreswar Units-1,2 & 3: Overview


Boiler & FSSS HP-LP Bypass System Turbine Protection Turbine Governing Plant Alarms Station C&I

DCS

Turbine Supervision

Turbine Startup

Included
Process Control Basics

Not Included
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Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

DCS in Bakreswar Units-1,2 & 3:


Signal Flow & Processing

IPB-4 IPB-3 IPB-2 IPB-1

IPB= Intra Plant Bus


Local Bus Input Output

DCS Panels

M
Process Control Basics
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Building Blocks

Operator Console These are like the monitors of our computers. They provide us with the feedback of what they are doing in the plant as well as the command we issue to the control system. These are also the places where operators issue commands to the field instruments. Engineering Station These are stations for engineers to configure the system and also to implement control algorithms.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Building Blocks

History Module This is like the harddisk of our PCs. They store the configurations of the DCS as well as the configurations of all the points in the plant. They also store the graphic files that are shown in the console and in most systems these days they are able to store some plant operating data. Data Historian These are usually extra pieces of software that are dedicated to store process variables, set points and output values. They are usually of higher scanning rates than that available in the history module.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Building Blocks

Control Modules These are like the brains of the DCS. Specially customized blocks are found here. These are customized to do control functions like PID control, ratio control, simple arithmetic and dynamic compensation. These days, advanced control features can also be found in them. I/O These manage the input and output of the DCS. Input and output can be digital or analogues. Digital I/Os are those like on/off, start/stop signals. Most of the process measurements and controller outputs are considered analogue. These are the points where the field instruments are hard-wired to.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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DCS : Features

Protective Interlocks A DCS usually has the ability to provide all of the protective interlocks required for this type of plant at the least cost. However, each interlock should be reviewed to determine whether it should be included in the DCS or independently wired for greater protection. An example for the latter would be the interlocks for the turbine lube oil pumps, both AC and DC powered.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Features

The furnace protection system (FPS) for the start-up burners can be done successfully in the DCS in accordance with the applicable NFPA 85 standard for multiple burners particularly if the energize to trip concept is used. Critical logic functions must have maximum security so that inadvertent changes to it cannot occur.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Features

One method of providing this maximum security is the use of redundant hardware in a "one for one" backup scheme that totally backs up the furnace protection logic. An even more secure approach is to have that backed-up logic hard coded on proms so that the program cannot be changed inadvertently.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : Features

The typical sequence of events (SOE) function can be done in the DCS at significant cost savings and does not require a dedicated recorder. Some distributed control systems today contain the ability to do online SOE. This requires that the distributed control system be able to scan at speeds of one millisecond, store and time tag all of the events that occur, and also that a trip report be generated from the distributed control system.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : SCADA & HMI

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems are used in industrial and engineering applications to monitor and control distributed systems from a master location. SCADA is a very broad umbrella that describes solutions across a large variety of industries HMI (Human-Machine Interface) acts as interface in terms of computer screen (Output) and mouse and /or keyboard (Input)

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : SCADA & HMI


1.

2.
3.

The three components of a SCADA system are: Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as RTUs). Central Control Room with Host Computer(s) Communication infrastructure The Remote Terminal Unit RTU connects to physical equipment such as switches, pumps, and other devices and monitors and controls these devices. As the term SCADA implies, the Host computers allow for "supervisory level" control of the remote site. The bulk of the site control is actually performed automatically by the RTUs. Host control functions are almost always restricted to basic site over-ride or supervisory level capability.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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DCS : SCADA & HMI

Data acquisition begins at the RTU level and includes meter readings and equipment statuses that are communicated to the SCADA as required. Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the SCADA can make appropriate supervisory decisions that may be required to over-ride normal RTU controls.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : SCADA & HMI

An important part of most SCADA implementations are alarms. Alarms can be created in such a way that when their requirements are met, they are activated. The SCADA operator's attention is drawn to the part of the system requiring attention by the alarm.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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DCS : SCADA & HMI

The HMI/SCADA industry was essentially born out of a need for a user friendly front-end to a control system containing programmable logic controllers (PLC). While a PLC does provide automated, preprogrammed control over a process, they are usually distributed across a plant, making it difficult gathering data from them manually. In addition to that, the information provided by the PLC's are usually in a crude un-user friendly format. The HMI/SCADA gathers information from the PLC's via some form of communication method, and formats and combines the information.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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DCS : SCADA & HMI

The HMI/SCADA usually presents the information in the form of a mimic. This means that the operator can see a representation of the plant being controlled. For example, a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator that the pump is running, and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment. The operator can then switch the pump off. The HMI/SCADA will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in real time.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

55

DCS : SCADA & HMI

A sophisticated HMI may also be linked to a database to provide instant trending, diagnostic data, scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides. Since about 1998, virtually all major PLC manufacturers have offered integrated HMI/SCADA systems, many of them using open and non-proprietary communications protocols. Numerous specialized third-party HMI/SCADA packages offering built-in compatibility with most major PLC's have also entered the market, allowing mechanical engineers, electrical engineers and technicians to configure HMI's themselves, without the need for a custom-made program written by a software developer.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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System Overview of Procontrol P13 DCS from ABB

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Control Loops :Legend of Functions-1

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Control Loops :Legend of Functions-2

Process Control Basics

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Types of Control Action

Process Control Basics

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Description of Control Loops

LP Heater Level Control

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-1

Feedwater regulation
Feedwater flow is regulated in the manner shown diagrammatically in next page. The primary means of regulation is an array of feedwater regulating valves, interconnected upstream and downstream by manifolds. The total complement of valves is sufficient to permit one valve to be taken out of service for maintenance without reducing load.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-2

Typical feedwater regulating plant. Each start-up feed valve is designed to pass up to 20% of fullload feedwater flow. At loads excess of 20%, two main feed valves would be in service in parallel. In case of larger machines I.e 500 MW or above, the start-up/standby feed pumps are electrically driven; the main boiler feed pump is turbine driven.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-3

Upstream of the regulating valves is a set of feed pumps. The pressure head developed by the feed pumps is sufficient to overcome the circuit resistance and maintain a pressure in the drum which, in turn, determines the saturation temperature.
The speeds of the pumps in service are varied to give the required pressure drop through the regulating valves. As the feed valve differential pressure can be regulated by adjusting pump speed, a linear valve characteristic is required.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-4


A direct indication of the quality of the match between feed flow and steam flow is the level of the boundary surface in the drum. So, at first sight, it would appear that feed flow could be controlled by a simple loop to maintain this level at a desired value, close to midheight of the drum.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-5

However, a simple loop of this nature does not give satisfactory stable control for a number of interrelated reasons. The primary reason is that the fluid below the boundary surface is not liquid water, but a mixture of water and steam bubbles. Consider first an increase in generated load, and hence a demand for an increase in steam flow. This manifests itself as an opening of the governor valves and a resultant decrease in steam pressure. Also immediate effect of a decrease in steam pressure in the drum is for the steam bubbles (immersed in the water) to expand, with the net result that the level of the boundary surface rises.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

66

Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-6

Thus, the initial effect of a steam flow increase is a rising level, so that a simple loop would reduce feed water rather than increase it. Furthermore, a reduction in feed water flow means a reduction in the cooling effect of the feed water, which further aids the expansion of the steam bubbles.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-7

Eventually, the escape of steam from the surface will cause the level to. fall, so that a simple loop would eventually increase the feed flow. However, an increasing feed water flow will cause the temperature of the water in the drum to fall which, in turn, will cause the steam bubbles to shrink and the level to fall still more, i.e., an increase in feed water flow initially results in a falling level rather than a rising one. These two opposing effects are known as 'swellage' and 'shrinkage' and would result in unacceptable oscillations in surface level.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-8

Clearly, the primary need is for the feed flow to match the steam flow, so a better control strategy would include these parameters. It is not sufficient merely to control feed flow to equal steam flow because the level of the boundary surface in the drum could adopt any value at random, so, the control system has to take account of all three measurements. Such a control arrangement is known as 'three- element control'. At low loads, where the flow signals are small, a simple level control loop is employed. This is known as 'single-element control'.
Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

Process Control Basics

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-9

The primary requirement of a three-element control system is to match feed flow to steam flow, but the primary desired value is the level of the boundary surface, so early implementations of this arrangement retained the single-loop concept and applied the discrepancy in the flows as an additive trim to the deviation in level. This procedure had a number of disadvantages; weighting factors had to he applied to both the level error and the flow error and these never satisfied all load conditions., flow measurement errors had to be compensated by offsetting the level desired value; dynamically this procedure is unsatisfactory because the deviation is scaled in level but the regulation is applied to flow, which is proportional to the rate of change of level, and the response of the flow components is much faster than the response of the level component.

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-10

A far more satisfactory procedure is to employ the cascaded system shown in next page. The outer loop employs proportional-plus-integral action to control boundary surface level, the tuning being appropriate to the relatively long time constant associated with this level. The inner loop employs proportional-plus-integral action to match the feed flow to the steam flow, the output from the outer loop acting as a trim on the steam flow signal. The advantages of this cascaded arrangement are that the inner loop responds rapidly to load changes and the integralal component in the outer loop permits a true desired value to be set

Process Control Basics

Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-11

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-12

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Description of Control Loops : Drum Level Control-13

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Thank You

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Control & Instrumentation Dept, BkTPP

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