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# Design Steps : Furnace Of A Steam Generator

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Selection of Geometric Parameters….
Heat available to the furnace

• Incomplete combustion loss

• Unburned Carbon loss

• Loss due to slag

• Energy brought in by preheated air & fuel.

• A part of this total heat should be absorbed in furnace.
• The designer should provide an environment for the same.
ai slag C CO
c
fu
Q Q Q Q LHV m Q
- - - - - -
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
CO
Q
-
slag
Q
-
C
Q
-
ai
Q
-
Heat Release Rate per Unit Volume, q
v

• The amount of heat generated by combustion of fuel in a unit effective
volume of the furnace.
3
/ m kW
V
LHV m
q
c
v
-
=
burning r
r
c
v
t t
Vt
LHV m
q > =
-
*

• Where, m
c
= Design fuel consumption rate, kg/s.
• V = Furnace volume, Cu. m.
• LHV= Lower heating value of fuel kJ/kg.
• A proper choice of volumetric heat release rate ensures the
critical fuel residence time.
• Fuel particles are burnt completely.
• The flue gas is cooled to the required safe temperature.

Heat Release Rate per Unit Cross Sectional Area,q
a

• The amount of heat released per unit cross section of the furnace.
• Also called as Grate heat release rate.
2
/ m kW
A
LHV m
q
grate
c
A
-
=
• A
grate
is the cross sectional area or grate area of the furnace, Sq. m.
• This indicates the temperature levels in the furnace.
• An increase in q
a
, leads to a rise in temperature in burner region.
• This helps in the stability of flame
• Increases the possibility of slagging.

A
Heat Release Rate per Unit Wall Area of the Burner Region

• The burner region of the furnace is the most intense heat zone.
• The amount of heat released per unit water wall area in the burner
region.
( )
2
/
2
m kW
H b a
LHV m
q
b
b
+
=
-

• a and b are width and depth of furnace, and H
b
is the height of burner
region.
• This represents the temperature level and heat flux in the burner
region.
• Used to judge the general condition of the burner region.
• Its value depends on Fuel ignition characteristics, ash characteristics,
firing method and arrangement of the burners.
Selection of Furnace Design Parameters
• A suitable value for ;
• the rate of heat generated by combustion of fuel in a unit
effective volume of the furnace, q
v
.
• the rate of heat released per unit cross section of the
furnace, q
A.
• The rate of heat released per unit wall area of burner
section of the furnace, q
b
.

General Guide Lines for Design
• The furnace should provide the required physical environment and the
time to complete the combustion of fuel.
the flue gas sufficiently to ensure safe operation of the downstream
convective heating surface.
• Aerodynamics in the furnace should prevent impingement of flames on
the water wall and ensure uniform distribution of heat flux on the
water wall.
• The furnace should provide conditions favoring reliable natural
circulation of water through water wall tubes.
• Furnace should proved an exit and path for free fall of ash, without
major heat loss.
• The configuration of the furnace should be compact enough to
minimize the amount of steel and other construction material.
Basic Geometry of A Furnace
v
c
q
LHV m
V
-
=
A
c
grate
q
LHV m
b a A
-
= × =
( )
b
c
b
q
LHV m
H b a
-
= + 2
Any limit on minimum height of furnace?

Any limit on depth of furnace C.S.?
Furnace Depth & Height
• Depth (a) to breadth (b)ratio is an important parameter from both
combustion and heat absorption standpoint.
• Following factors influence the minimum value of breadth.
– Capacity of the boiler
– Type of fuel
– Arrangement of burners
– Heat release rate per unit furnace area
– Capacity of each burner
• The furnace should be sufficiently high so that the flame does not hit
the super heater tubes.
• The minimum height depends on type of coal and capacity of burner.
• Lower the value of height the worse the natural circulation.

Modfications in Geometry of A Furnace
Boiling process in Tubular Geometries
Water
Heat Input
H
e
a
t

I
n
p
u
t

Water
Water
Steam
Steam
Partial Steam Generation
Complete or Once-through
Generation
Further Geometrical Details of A Furnace
Determination of Furnace Size
• What is the boundary of a furnace?
• The boundary of a furnace is defined
by
– Central plane of water wall and roof
tubes
– Central lines of the first row super
heater tubes.
• o = 30 to 50
O

• | > 30
O
• ¸ = 50 to 55
O

• E = 0.8 to 1.6 m
• d = 0.25 b to 0.33 b

Heat Transfer in A Furnace
• The flame transfers its heat energy to the water
walls in the furnace by Radiation.
• Convective Heat Transfer < 5%.
• Only Radiation Heat Transfer is Considered!
• Complexities:
• Non uniform temperature of tubes.
• Fouling of surfaces of tubes.
• Variation of furnace temperature along its
– Height
– Width
– Depth.
Non uniform Heat Flux !!!!!
Simplified Approach
• Emitted Radiation heat flux of flames:

• Emitted Radiation = Available Heat

• Heat flux absorbed by walls :

• Thermal efficiency factor, ¢.

• The rate of heat absorption

2 4
/ m kw T J
fl fl fl
o c =
fl abs
J q ¢ =
kW T A Q
fl fl abs

4
oc ¢ =
-
| |
4 4 4
fl fl wa fl eff rad abs
T A kW T T A Q Q oc ¢ oc = ÷ = =
- -
Coal fired furnace
Structure of
water walls*
Hot Exhaust gases
Burner
Flame
Furnace Exit