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Design Steps : Furnace Of A Steam Generator

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Selection of Geometric Parameters….
Heat available to the furnace




• Incomplete combustion loss

• Unburned Carbon loss

• Loss due to slag

• Energy brought in by preheated air & fuel.

• A part of this total heat should be absorbed in furnace.
• The designer should provide an environment for the same.
ai slag C CO
c
fu
Q Q Q Q LHV m Q
- - - - - -
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
CO
Q
-
slag
Q
-
C
Q
-
ai
Q
-
Heat Release Rate per Unit Volume, q
v

• The amount of heat generated by combustion of fuel in a unit effective
volume of the furnace.
3
/ m kW
V
LHV m
q
c
v
-
=
burning r
r
c
v
t t
Vt
LHV m
q > =
-
*

• Where, m
c
= Design fuel consumption rate, kg/s.
• V = Furnace volume, Cu. m.
• LHV= Lower heating value of fuel kJ/kg.
• A proper choice of volumetric heat release rate ensures the
critical fuel residence time.
• Fuel particles are burnt completely.
• The flue gas is cooled to the required safe temperature.

Heat Release Rate per Unit Cross Sectional Area,q
a

• The amount of heat released per unit cross section of the furnace.
• Also called as Grate heat release rate.
2
/ m kW
A
LHV m
q
grate
c
A
-
=
• A
grate
is the cross sectional area or grate area of the furnace, Sq. m.
• This indicates the temperature levels in the furnace.
• An increase in q
a
, leads to a rise in temperature in burner region.
• This helps in the stability of flame
• Increases the possibility of slagging.

A
Heat Release Rate per Unit Wall Area of the Burner Region

• The burner region of the furnace is the most intense heat zone.
• The amount of heat released per unit water wall area in the burner
region.
( )
2
/
2
m kW
H b a
LHV m
q
b
b
+
=
-

• a and b are width and depth of furnace, and H
b
is the height of burner
region.
• This represents the temperature level and heat flux in the burner
region.
• Used to judge the general condition of the burner region.
• Its value depends on Fuel ignition characteristics, ash characteristics,
firing method and arrangement of the burners.
Selection of Furnace Design Parameters
• A suitable value for ;
• the rate of heat generated by combustion of fuel in a unit
effective volume of the furnace, q
v
.
• the rate of heat released per unit cross section of the
furnace, q
A.
• The rate of heat released per unit wall area of burner
section of the furnace, q
b
.





General Guide Lines for Design
• The furnace should provide the required physical environment and the
time to complete the combustion of fuel.
• The furnace should have adequate radiative heating surfaces to cool
the flue gas sufficiently to ensure safe operation of the downstream
convective heating surface.
• Aerodynamics in the furnace should prevent impingement of flames on
the water wall and ensure uniform distribution of heat flux on the
water wall.
• The furnace should provide conditions favoring reliable natural
circulation of water through water wall tubes.
• Furnace should proved an exit and path for free fall of ash, without
major heat loss.
• The configuration of the furnace should be compact enough to
minimize the amount of steel and other construction material.
Basic Geometry of A Furnace
v
c
q
LHV m
V
-
=
A
c
grate
q
LHV m
b a A
-
= × =
( )
b
c
b
q
LHV m
H b a
-
= + 2
Any limit on minimum height of furnace?

Any limit on depth of furnace C.S.?
Furnace Depth & Height
• Depth (a) to breadth (b)ratio is an important parameter from both
combustion and heat absorption standpoint.
• Following factors influence the minimum value of breadth.
– Capacity of the boiler
– Type of fuel
– Arrangement of burners
– Heat release rate per unit furnace area
– Capacity of each burner
• The furnace should be sufficiently high so that the flame does not hit
the super heater tubes.
• The minimum height depends on type of coal and capacity of burner.
• Lower the value of height the worse the natural circulation.

Modfications in Geometry of A Furnace
Boiling process in Tubular Geometries
Water
Heat Input
H
e
a
t

I
n
p
u
t

Water
Water
Steam
Steam
Partial Steam Generation
Complete or Once-through
Generation
Further Geometrical Details of A Furnace
Determination of Furnace Size
• What is the boundary of a furnace?
• The boundary of a furnace is defined
by
– Central plane of water wall and roof
tubes
– Central lines of the first row super
heater tubes.
• o = 30 to 50
O

• | > 30
O
• ¸ = 50 to 55
O

• E = 0.8 to 1.6 m
• d = 0.25 b to 0.33 b

Heat Transfer in A Furnace
• The flame transfers its heat energy to the water
walls in the furnace by Radiation.
• Convective Heat Transfer < 5%.
• Only Radiation Heat Transfer is Considered!
• Complexities:
• Non uniform temperature of tubes.
• Fouling of surfaces of tubes.
• Variation of furnace temperature along its
– Height
– Width
– Depth.
Non uniform Heat Flux !!!!!
Simplified Approach
• Emitted Radiation heat flux of flames:

• Emitted Radiation = Available Heat

• Heat flux absorbed by walls :

• Thermal efficiency factor, ¢.

• The rate of heat absorption





2 4
/ m kw T J
fl fl fl
o c =
fl abs
J q ¢ =
kW T A Q
fl fl abs

4
oc ¢ =
-
| |
4 4 4
fl fl wa fl eff rad abs
T A kW T T A Q Q oc ¢ oc = ÷ = =
- -
Coal fired furnace
Structure of
water walls*
Hot Exhaust gases
Burner
Flame
Furnace Exit
Heat Radiation
& Convection
*www.directindustry.com
• Two functions of coal fired
furnace:
 Release of chemical energy by
combustion of fuel
 Transfer of heat from flame to
water walls
• Combustion space
surrounded by water walls