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Present Perfect

(Presente Perfecto)
Form: have + past participle (3 columna de verbos irregulares o terminacin ed en los
verbos regulares) has (he/she/it/); contracciones: Ive / youve / hes / shes / its / weve / theyve Affirmative I have gone to London (He ido a Londres) He has gone to Brazil (Ha ido a Brasil) Negative: I havent gone to London He hasnt gone to Brazil Recuerda: gone to (se usa cuando has ido algn sitio) Hes gone to Brazil (Ha ido a Brasil) (hes in Brazil
now)

Interrogative Have you ever been to China? Yes, I have Has she ever seen Troy? No, she hasnt

been to (cuando has ido y has vuelto de ese sitio) Ive been to Brazil (He estado en Brasil)

Activity: Try this verbs in affirmative, negative or interrogative: (I) eat Chinese food (he) visit Morrocco (you) eat snake (she) work hard (we) study French (they) smoke

USES
Uses: El presente perfecto tiene dos usos principlamente 1. An action that has just finished (accin que acaba de terminar hace poco tiempo o en un tiempo indeterminado. Con este uso, el verbo se traduce exactamente igual que en espaol)

e.g. I have lived in London (He vivido en Londres) Como se puede ver, no se indica cundo he vivido all, no se habla de fechas.
Expresiones de tiempo usadas con este tiempo en este uso podran ser: this morning/today e.g. I have had a very big breakfast this morning (He tomado un gran desayuno esta maana)

2.

An action started in the past and continues in present (una accin que
empieza en el pasado pero que continua en el presente)

e.g. Im from England but I have lived in Chipiona for eight years.
(Si traducimos Soy de Inglaterra pero he vivido en Chipiona durante 8 aos no sera lo correcto puesto que en espaol eso quiere decir que ya no vivimos all. Sin embargo cuando un ingls usa este tiempo es para decir que todava sigue viviendo all, por lo tanto la traduccin correcta sera Soy de Inglaterra pero vivo en Chipiona desde hace 8 aos) (Aqu no se podra usar un presente simple puesto que dice desde cundo esa accin se viene haciendo (recuerda que el presente simple slo se usa para una accin habitual y no expresa nada ms)

Partculas usadas con este tiempo


For and since
For: normalmente se traduce como durante (perodo de tiempo for eight years) Since: normalmente se traduce como desde (punto de partida o punto exacto en el pasado since I was a child since last Christmas)

Ever or never
Ever: se traduce como siempre o alguna vez Never: se traduce como nunca

Already and yet


Already: se traduce como ya. Se usa slo en afirmativasy se coloca en medio de las dos formas verbales. He has already come (ya ha venido) Yet: se traduce como ya o an o todava. Se usa para negativas o interrogativas y se coloca al final de la oracin. Has he come yet? (Ya ha venido?) He hasnt come yet (No ha venido an/todava)

Just
Junto con el presente perfecto, la frase se traducira como acabar de y se coloca en medio de las dos formas verbales: He has just come (l acaba de venir)

How long? Para preguntar Cunto tiempo?

ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRST USE


ACTIVIDADES DEL PRIMER USO

Vamos por parte: Empezaremos por el uso 1 1. Look at the picture. What has happened? (Qu ha pasado?)

(He/clean/his shoes) (She/close/the door) (They/go to bed) (It /stop/rain)

He has cleaned his shoes

(The picture/fall down)

ACTIVITIES 1
Complete the sentences with the verb from the list. Use the present perfect (have/has + past participle of the verb). (recuerda que antes de empezar a hacer el ejercicio debes asegurarte de que conoces todo el vocabulario) Break buy finish do go go lose paint read take
have finished Are they still having dinner? No, they _________________ I ________________________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them? Is Tom here? No, he __________________ to work _____________ you ____________ the shopping? No , Im going to do it later Wheres your key? I dont know. I _______________it Look! Somebody ________________________ that window. Your house looks different. _____________ you ______________ it? I cant find my umbrella. Somebody _____________________ it. Im looking for Sarah. Where _______________ she____________? Do you want the newspaper? No, thanks. I ___________________ it.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

A las oraciones anteriores: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 y 10, insrtales las partculas vistas anteriormente como: already, yet o just y tradcelas.

Ever and Never


Lewis
Ann
Have you ever been to Rome?
(Has ido alguna vez a Roma?)

Yes, I have. Many times

Have you ever been to Japan?

No, Ive never been to Japan

Ann is asking questions to Lewis beginning have you ever? Write the questions

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(Paris)

Have you ever been to Paris? Have you ever riden a motorbike?

(ride a motorbike) (drive a car) (play golf) (eat Japanese food) (sail) (break your arm) (visit a museum)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

No, Ive never been to Paris Yes, many times No, never Yes, once No, never No, never Yes, a few times Yes, twice

Write answers about yourself. Ive never been to Paris,

SECOND USE
Uso 2 del Presente Perfecto Estudia esto:

STUDY THIS

Friday

Margaret and Sue are on holiday in London. Sue arrived in London on Monday. Today is Friday. They are in the British Museum.
How long have you been in London, dear?

Ive been in London since Monday

Si traducimos Cunto tiempo has estado en Londres? parece que la persona ya ha vuelto, sin embargo no es eso lo que queremos decir con este tiempo verbal. La traduccin correcta sera Desde cundo ests en Londres?o Cunto tiempo llevas en Londres? para que digamos lo que verdaderamente se quiere expresar con esta pregunta.
La respuesta sera por lo tanto: Estoy en Londres desde el lunes o Llevo en Londres desde el lunes

Compara:
Present Simple
Harry is in Canada

Present Perfect
He has been in Canada since April
(not He is in Canada since April)

x x x

Are you married?

How long have you been married? (not How long are you married?) Ive known her for a long time

Do you Know Sarah? How long have you known her?

(not How long do you know her?

Linda lives in London How long has she lived in London? She has lived there all her life We have a car How long have you had your car? Weve had it for a year


1.

Can you answer these questions:


A man says: Ive been in France for six years. Is he in France when he says this?

2.

A woman says, I was in Japan for three years. Is she in Japan when she says this?

3.

Some body says, Ive worked with Eric for 30 years, and I worked with Sally for 25 years. Which one does he still work with?

4.

Somebody says, I did seven years French at school. Is he or she still at school?

5.

You are in America. Somebody asks, How long are you here for? Does
the person want to know when your visit started, or when it will end?

6.

What does How long have you been here for? mean?

ACTIVITIES ON THE SECOND USE


ACTIVIDADES DEL SEGUNDO USO

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Complete these sentences. Use present perfect


has been Jill is in London. She ________________________ in London since Monday
has known I know George. I _________________________ him for a long time

They are married. They ________________________ since 1983 Brian is ill. He _________________________ ill for a week. We live in this house. We ___________________________ here for ten years I know Tom very well. I _____________________ him for a long time Alice works in a bank. She ________________________ there for three years. She has a headache. She ________________________ a headache since she got up.

Make questions with How long?


1. Jill is in London. 2. I know George.
How long has Jill been in London? How long have you known George?

3. Mike and Judy are in Brazil. How long...


4. My brother lives in Germany 5. It is raining 6. Bill is a teacher

7. I have a motorbike
8. Linda and Frank are married 9. Alan works in London

FOR
four days an hour a week a month five years ten minutes two hours three weeks six months a long time

SINCE

We use for + a period of time

For

We use since+ the start of the period

Since

Monday 9 oclock 24 July December 1985 Wednesday 12.30 10 October Christmas I got up

Write for or since


1. 2. Shes been in London __________________ Monday Shes been in London __________________ four days

3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Mike has been ill ___________ a long time. Hes been in hospital __________ October
My aunt has been in Australia _________________ 15 years Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty ________________many years Mrs Harris is in her office. Shes been there ________________ 7 oclock India has been an independent country ________________1947 The bus is late. Weve been waiting ___________________20 minutes.

Write sentences. Use the present perfect simple tense and for and since

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

She is in London now. She arrived there four days ago. She has been there for four days. Jack is here. He arrived here on Thursday
I know Sue. I first met Sue two years ago. I have a camera. I bought it in 2001 They are married. They got married six months ago.

PRESENT PERFECT vs PAST SIMPLE


Compara:
Present perfect
I have lost my key (= I cant find them now) Bill has gone home (=He isnt here now) Have you seen Ann? (=Where is she now?) but but but

Past Simple
I lost my key yesterday Bill went home ten minutes ago When did you see Ann? Finished time
now past now

Time until now


past

Have you ever been to Spain? (=in your life until now) My friend is a writer. He has written many books Weve lived in Singapore for six years (=We live there now)

but

Did you go to Spain last year?

but but

Shakespeare wrote many plays and poems We lived in Glasgow for six years but now we live in Singapore

ACTIVITIES PRESENT PERFECT vs SIMPLE PAST


Use the words in brackets ( ) to answer the questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Have you lost your key? Have you seen Alan?

(yesterday) Yes, I lost it yesterday (ten minutes ago)

Have you painted the door? (last week) Has Sarah gone to France? (on Friday) Have they had dinner? (at 7 oclock)

6.

Has he started his new job? (yesterday)

In these sentences the verbs are underlined. Are they right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong.

1. Tom arrived last week 2. Have you seen Pam last week? 3. I have finished my work 4. I have finished my work at 2 oclock

RIGHT WRONG Did you see?

5. When have you finished your work?


6. George has left school three years ago. 7. Wheres Ann? Shes gone to the cinema 8. Napoleon Bonaparte has died in 1821 9. Have you ever been to Britain? 10. I havent seen you at the party on Saturday 11. The weather has been very bad last week