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GEOLOGICAL MAPPING AND OIL RESERVE

ESTIMATION
IN MEHSANA OIL FIELD
STATE OF GUJARAT, INDIA.
Report on the Project work submitted
in partial fulfilment for the requirement
of the Degree of

Master of Technology
by
SUBU.SUDEESABABU
Reg. No. 56040001

SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES


COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN - 682016
JUNE 2006

INTRODUCTION
Oil and natural gas are an important source of
Energy. It is an important source from which
organic material, plastics, life-saving medications,
clothing, cosmetics, pesticides, and many other
items you may use daily.
The petroleum geologist is the center pier in the
foundation of the petroleum industry. The industry
is completely dependent upon a continuing
discovery of new pools, or extension of old pools,
for maintenance of its supply crude oil and

thereby of itself; and most certainly the discovery


and production of oil is a geologic enterprise.

About ONGC- Institute of Reservoir Studies


The Institute of Reservoir Studies (IRS) was founded in
1978 as a single- source and multi-service reservoir
engineering agency with the objectives to:
Maximize hydrocarbon recovery at minimum cost
Provide holistic reservoir description through
integration of all data
Maximize the value of proven reserves with
conventional and improved recovery techniques
Enhance the skills and knowledge for better
reservoir management

Fig: ONGC-Institute of Reservoir Studies, Ahmedabad

This project here at IRS was about sub-surface Geological


Mapping and Estimation of reserves OIIP (Oil Initial
Inplace).

The study area is located within the Cambay

Basin near the Mehsana town, State of Gujarat, India. The


structure in this area was delineated in early sixties. The
earlier well drilled in the study area did not yield
encouraging results but latter wells drilled proved to be
hydrocarbon bearing. The well encountered about 11m of
oil column in sandstone reservoir of Kalol Formation. The
study area mainly comprises of sandstones, shales, and
claystones with shales generally forming the non-reservoir
part of the oil field. Most of these Formations belong to
Middle-Eocene,

age.

At the very beginning of the training program, I


introduced to the basic concepts of Petroleum Geology,
Logging and Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques.

Following that we were given a basic demonstration of


the

software used in log correlation. As part of the

introduction

that

can

be

summarized-as-follows.

Our study was confined only to the peak an individual

of the sand unit which we refer to as sand unit-1.


Various parameters like porosity, oil saturation etc.
were determined in this area through various logs taken
from One Hundred and Thirty-six (136 Nos.) wells
drilled in the study area which were then used for

determining

various

aspects-of-the-field.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Although the study area had good permeability, but due


to high viscosity of the oil the primary recovery was
quite low. In order to enhance the recovery of the field a
Geocellular model was prepared and various Enhance
Oil Recovery schemes were carried out one of them
being In-Situ Combustion method. This study was
basically

to

determine,

volumetric

reserves

hydrocarbon in the sand unit-1 of the study area.

of

GENERAL GEOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA


The study area lies in the northern part of AhmedabadMehsana tectonic block of Cambay Basin. The Cambay
basin is a N-S trending intra-cratonic rift bounded on
eastern and western margins by N-S Boundary faults.
Major transfer faults divide the basin into eight tectonic
blocks and Mehsana is one of them. The Deccan Traps
forms the technical basement in the basin and is
overlained by thick pile of Tertiary sediments.

FIG: Study Area ( Ahmedabad Mehsana Block)

Stratigraphy of Cambay Basin

GEOLOGICAL MAPPING & OIL RESERVE


ESTIMATIONS
Subsurface mapping is practiced chiefly in working out
the geology of petroleum deposits .The information
from well data, however, makes geologic mapping in
three dimensions possible over wide areas in which
there are no outcrops and whose underground geology
could not be deciphered by the earlier methods.
Geologic maps of many kinds are prepared from these
data to show various conditions underground, and
these maps are interpreted to show the geologic history
of the region and to predict the location of petroleum

pools yet undiscovered.

Subsurface structure may be mapped on any formation


boundary, unconformity, or producing formation that
can be identified and correlated by well data. Structure
may be shown by contour elevation maps or by crosssections. Since most formations in the oil regions are
below sea level, the contoured elevations are generally
minus figures, meaning bellow sea level datum, and
subsurface structural maps are sometimes called sub-

sea maps.

PROCEDURE

The process early involves log correlation which is


done using a software known as LANDMARK. This
data is then used for preparation of base maps which
are produced using LANDMARK which itself has a
subsidy known as Z-Map plus which is used for
obtaining base maps. Various contour maps are
prepared on this base maps from which latter
volumetric estimation are done.
CORRELATION
The sand unit of the study area is about 10m - 11m

broad with horizons bearing shale. Sandstones are


coarse to fine grained, grey colored, medium to well
sorted and at places limonitic.
The unit-1 can also be subdivided locally into sub-units
on the basis of the development of intervening shale
layers. However development of these shale layers are
very localized and are restricted mostly along the
crestal part of the structure, hence making sand unit-1
as a single hydro dynamic unit. The unit-1 also shows
development of thin layers of coal / carbonaceous

streaks in some part of the field.

RESERVOIR PARAMETERS
The provided data which include the reservoir parameters
like NPHI (Neutron Porosity), RHOB (Bulk Density), CALI
(Caliper Logging), GR (Gamma ray Logging), ILM
(Medium Resistivity), VCL (Volume of Clay type Material
relative to total volume), SP (Spontaneous Potential), DT
(Distance Travel, Sonic), RT (True Resistivity)

Using the following equations we can find out the various

reservoir parameters such as water saturation (Sw), oil


saturation (So), porosity (Phi) have been computed at log
sampling rate for entire study area and are used for
preparing Geocellular model and volumetric estimation.
Average layer wise parameters have been computed and

the values can be listed in underneath table.

I. VCLRT (Volume of Clay calculated from True Resistivity):

VCLRT = Rclay X RLim RT


RT
RLim Rclay

Rclay = 2.5
RLim = 1000

2. VCLGR (Volume of Clay calculated from Gamma Ray Log):

VCLGR =

GR GR min

GR max

GR min

3. VCLmin (Volume of Clay Minimum):

VCLmin = Min (VCLRT, VCLGR)

4. PHIS (Porosity Calculated from Sonic Log):


PHIS = t - tma + Vclay (tma tclay)
tf - tma
tf - tma
t = DT, tma = 55.5 (sst), tf = 189, tf tma = 133.5
Vclay = Volume of Clay minimum
tclay = DT. max value

5. PHID (Porosity calculated from Density Log):

PHID = (RHOB RHOma) + Vclay (RHOma RHOclay)


(RHOf RHOma)
(RHOf RHOma)

RHOB = Bulk Density


RHOf = Average Fluid Density
RHOclay = High GR corresponding RHO value
Vclay min = Volume of Clay minimum
RHOf = 1.0, RHOma = 2.65

6. PHINC (Neutron Porosity Corrected):

PHINC = PHIN (Vclay min X PHIN Clay)

PHIN = Neutron Porosity


Vclay min = Volume of Clay minimum
PHIN Clay = 0.54

7. PHIE (Effective Porosity):


PHIE = (7 X PHID) + (2 X PHINC)
9
PHID = Porosity calculated from Density Log
PHINC = Neutron Porosity corrected.

8. SW (Water Saturation):

SW = 1/SW -1

SW

-1

[(Vcl

(1-Vcl)

Rclay

m/2

+ (

a X Rw

SW = Saturation of Water
Vcl = Volume of Clay minimum
Rclay = High VCL minimum corresponding RT value
a = 0.62
m = 2.15
RW = 0.25
= Effective Porosity
RT = True Resistivity

) ] x RT

9.

SO (Oil Saturation):
SO = (1 SW)

SW = Water Saturation
10. F (Formation Resistivity Factor)
F=a / m

m = Cementation Factor
a = Constant, 0.81 for sand, 1.0 for compact formation
= Effective Porosity

11. RW (Resistivity of Saturated Formation):

RW = RT / F

RT = True Resistivity
F = Formation Resistivity Factor

AVERAGE RESERVOIR PARAMETERS OF SAND


UNIT-1
Well
No

TOP

2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
18
19
20
23
24
25
27
28
29
30
31
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
42
43
44
45
46
48
49
50
52
53
54
55
56
57

922.00
916.97
931.61
923.20
914.20
920.50
918.90
917.87
947.23
927.43
939.60
926.38
937.84
928.73
920.90
955.03
939.12
942.71
926.90
922.86
915.80
993.02
985.54
923.44
920.23
924.18
934.50
958.14
920.50
923.44
982.78
920.45
916.63
1005.03
977.48
923.92
919.32
937.84
928.74
981.05
920.50
922.17
919.34
981.86
921.64

BOT

KB
(mt)

TOP
msl

BOT
msl

Gross
thic

Net
thic
hp

932.51
927.82
944.23
934.29
924.24
930.03
929.70
928.49
955.55
936.14
947.72
935.79
951.74
938.63
928.64
963.17
948.65
952.29
937.36
932.41
925.85
1005.02
993.61
934.53
927.25
931.54
947.90
967.70
930.47
931.28
992.58
931.54
924.58
1016.37
986.70
935.58
931.61
946.09
937.96
992.12
931.80
931.85
929.72
993.74
930.86

61.99
61.90
62.38
60.71
60.67
62.04
61.87
61.27
63.59
61.76
63.06
60.38
61.38
61.00
61.91
63.01
62.12
60.70
52.02
61.10
60.39
138.02
123.54
61.28
61.93
62.34
61.93
105.14
62.35
62.51
132.01
60.02
62.13
147.03
129.51
60.26
60.18
62.33
60.30
127.13
61.06
59.99
61.80
127.80
61.13

860.01
855.07
869.23
862.49
853.53
858.46
857.03
856.60
883.64
865.67
876.54
866.00
876.46
867.73
858.99
892.02
877.00
882.01
874.88
861.76
855.41
855.00
862.00
862.16
858.30
861.84
872.57
853.00
858.15
860.93
850.77
860.43
854.50
858.00
847.97
863.66
859.14
875.51
868.44
853.92
859.44
862.18
857.54
854.06
860.51

870.52
865.92
881.85
873.58
863.57
867.99
867.83
867.22
891.96
874.38
884.66
875.41
890.36
877.63
866.73
900.16
886.53
891.59
885.34
871.31
865.46
867.00
870.07
873.25
865.32
869.20
885.97
862.00
868.12
868.77
860.57
871.52
862.45
869.34
857.19
875.32
871.43
883.76
877.66
864.99
870.74
871.86
867.92
865.94
869.73

10.51
10.85
12.62
11.09
10.04
9.53
10.80
10.62
8.32
8.71
8.12
9.41
13.90
9.90
7.74
8.14
9.53
9.58
10.46
9.55
10.05
12.00
8.07
11.09
7.02
7.36
13.40
9.00
9.97
7.84
9.80
11.09
7.95
11.34
9.22
11.66
12.29
8.25
9.22
11.07
11.30
9.68
10.38
11.88
9.22

3.38
3.13
7.00
3.05
4.88
3.00
6.86
4.60
0.00
3.96
2.90
4.59
7.93
7.61
5.13
0.00
0.38
0.00
5.21
2.44
4.23
5.05
4.42
4.66
2.56
0.00
5.64
5.21
6.79
2.44
6.79
8.84
1.52
6.10
7.93
6.87
6.62
4.63
4.72
6.73
2.13
5.18
3.18
10.52
2.90

PHI

wat
sat
Sw

OIL
sat
So

0.25
0.16
0.26
0.26
0.24
0.28
0.23
0.19

0.58
0.54
0.53
0.53
0.50
0.58
0.57
0.55

0.42
0.46
0.47
0.47
0.50
0.42
0.43
0.45

0.26
0.30
0.23
0.27
0.29
0.26

0.58
0.51
0.50
0.41
0.45
0.47

0.42
0.49
0.50
0.59
0.55
0.53

0.31

0.78

0.22

0.20
0.20
0.24
0.21
0.23
0.23
0.23
0.00
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.26
0.22
0.26
0.19
0.19
0.25
0.22
0.23
0.26
0.28
0.23
0.22
0.23
0.29
0.32
0.18

0.54
0.55
0.44
0.44
0.59
0.50
0.52
0.00
0.54
0.66
0.55
0.62
0.59
0.44
0.67
0.58
0.64
0.56
0.48
0.68
0.44
0.45
0.46
0.42
0.46
0.31
0.61

0.46
0.45
0.56
0.56
0.41
0.50
0.48
1.00
0.46
0.34
0.45
0.38
0.41
0.56
0.33
0.42
0.36
0.44
0.52
0.32
0.56
0.55
0.54
0.58
0.54
0.69
0.39

Hp*So*Phi

IHM

0.3549
0.230368
0.8554
0.37271
0.5856
0.3528
0.678454
0.3933
0
0.432432
0.4263
0.52785
1.263249
1.213795
0.706914
0
0.025916
0
0.47932
0.2196
0.568512
0.59388
0.416806
0.5359
0.282624
0
0.544824
0.371994
0.641655
0.241072
0.612458
1.287104
0.095304
0.48678
0.7137
0.665016
0.791752
0.385216
0.740096
0.851345
0.253044
0.691012
0.497988
2.322816
0.20358

0.355
0.230
0.855
0.373
0.586
0.353
0.678
0.393
0.000
0.432
0.426
0.528
1.263
1.214
0.707
0.000
0.026
0.000
0.479
0.220
0.569
0.594
0.417
0.536
0.283
0.000
0.545
0.372
0.642
0.241
0.612
1.287
0.095
0.487
0.714
0.665
0.792
0.385
0.740
0.851
0.253
0.691
0.498
2.323
0.204

Well
No

TOP

60
61
62
64
65
66
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
83
84
85
86
87
91
92
93
94
96
97
98
99
100
102
103
104
105
107
108
109
111
114
115
116
117
118
119

943.20
994.55
978.86
976.56
921.48
917.02
914.79
923.30
920.60
927.51
926.38
924.63
932.43
927.00
917.08
927.58
917.48
940.70
918.45
931.30
929.14
922.95
932.65
939.66
923.91
924.92
929.42
923.12
929.14
927.95
920.49
926.73
931.00
915.55
934.12
933.16
930.42
933.98
926.94
926.98
926.85
922.99
927.98
921.04
926.31
928.56

BOT

KB
(mt)

TOP
msl

BOT
msl

Gross
thic

Net
thic
hp

954.97
1004.78
990.16
985.88
929.94
928.48
925.04
933.00
927.97
938.99
936.65
933.70
940.17
937.71
925.93
935.14
926.70
950.86
930.92
940.47
947.65
937.83
938.70
950.33
934.80
935.10
936.86
931.93
937.79
938.23
931.51
935.72
939.47
923.35
950.35
1003.75
940.72
946.21
933.64
933.92
932.83
931.91
931.93
929.37
934.63
939.56

62.00
129.80
124.06
127.83
62.36
61.70
62.12
62.58
62.69
62.96
61.61
60.21
59.60
62.00
60.08
59.88
61.12
59.68
62.46
61.54
60.63
60.45
63.20
61.34
60.07
59.63
62.30
60.38
63.05
61.48
60.00
61.45
63.50
61.56
63.75
61.16
62.70
60.13
63.20
61.74
62.09
61.49
62.83
61.55
62.34
61.00

881.20
864.75
854.80
848.73
859.12
855.32
852.67
860.72
857.91
864.55
864.77
864.42
872.83
865.00
857.00
867.70
856.36
881.02
855.99
869.76
868.51
862.50
869.45
878.32
863.84
865.29
867.12
862.74
866.09
866.47
860.49
865.28
867.50
853.99
870.37
872.00
867.72
873.85
863.74
865.24
864.76
861.50
865.15
859.49
863.97
867.56

892.97
874.98
866.10
858.05
867.58
866.78
862.92
870.42
865.28
876.03
875.04
873.49
880.57
875.71
865.85
875.26
865.58
891.18
868.46
878.93
887.02
877.38
875.50
888.99
874.73
875.47
874.56
871.55
874.74
876.75
871.51
874.27
875.97
861.79
886.60
880.00
878.02
886.08
870.44
872.18
870.74
870.42
869.10
867.82
872.29
878.56

11.77
10.23
11.30
9.32
8.46
11.46
10.25
9.70
7.37
11.48
10.27
9.07
7.74
10.71
8.85
7.56
9.22
10.16
12.47
9.17
18.51
14.88
6.05
10.67
10.89
10.18
7.44
8.81
8.65
10.28
11.02
8.99
8.47
7.80
16.23
8.00
10.30
12.23
6.70
6.94
5.98
8.92
3.95
8.33
8.32
11.00

0.00
4.07
8.01
5.18
7.49
6.69
4.03
5.12
1.98
6.48
1.22
5.18
4.92
4.64
6.10
6.41
2.59
4.72
8.22
3.75
7.47
6.71
4.42
4.75
0.88
9.54
4.38
3.50
7.03
4.71
8.57
5.00
5.38
3.64
5.33
4.24
4.45
1.50
3.83
2.88
3.13
4.88
7.57
3.38
3.31
6.00

PHI

wat
sat
Sw

OIL
sat
So

Hp*So*Phi

IHM

0.28
0.21
0.25
0.29
0.27
0.22
0.24
0.31
0.30
0.25
0.22
0.26
0.27
0.23
0.30
0.26
0.29
0.24
0.26
0.26
0.33
0.30
0.32
0.25
0.33
0.28
0.32
0.31
0.24
0.30
0.28
0.32
0.25
0.25
0.22
0.27
0.39
0.29
0.15
0.24
0.23
0.28
0.21
0.27
0.32

0.72
0.44
0.46
0.33
0.51
0.48
0.52
0.54
0.52
0.49
0.45
0.53
0.44
0.52
0.29
0.40
0.60
0.44
0.42
0.30
0.45
0.45
0.57
0.45
0.33
0.47
0.59
0.51
0.53
0.42
0.72
0.54
0.50
0.46
0.47
0.42
0.62
0.48
0.61
0.52
0.48
0.48
0.62
0.38
0.60

0.28
0.56
0.54
0.67
0.49
0.52
0.48
0.46
0.48
0.51
0.55
0.47
0.56
0.48
0.71
0.60
0.40
0.56
0.58
0.70
0.55
0.55
0.43
0.55
0.67
0.53
0.41
0.49
0.47
0.58
0.28
0.46
0.50
0.54
0.53
0.58
0.38
0.52
0.39
0.48
0.52
0.52
0.38
0.62
0.40

0.319088
0.941976
0.6993
1.455307
0.885087
0.461032
0.589824
0.282348
0.93312
0.15555
0.62678
0.601224
0.701568
0.67344
1.36533
0.40404
0.54752
1.104768
0.5655
1.35954
1.217865
0.7293
0.6536
0.121
2.109294
0.649992
0.4592
1.067857
0.531288
1.49118
0.392
0.791936
0.455
0.71955
0.494384
0.69687
0.2223
0.577564
0.16848
0.360576
0.583648
1.102192
0.269724
0.554094
0.768

0.319
0.942
0.699
1.455
0.885
0.461
0.590
0.282
0.933
0.156
0.627
0.601
0.702
0.673
1.365
0.404
0.548
1.105
0.566
1.360
1.218
0.729
0.654
0.121
2.109
0.650
0.459
1.068
0.531
1.491
0.392
0.792
0.455
0.720
0.494
0.697
0.222
0.578
0.168
0.361
0.584
1.102
0.270
0.554
0.768

Well
No

TOP

60
61
62
64
65
66
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
83
84
85
86
87
91
92
93
94
96
97
98
99
100
102
103
104
105
107
108
109
111
114
115
116
117
118
119

943.20
994.55
978.86
976.56
921.48
917.02
914.79
923.30
920.60
927.51
926.38
924.63
932.43
927.00
917.08
927.58
917.48
940.70
918.45
931.30
929.14
922.95
932.65
939.66
923.91
924.92
929.42
923.12
929.14
927.95
920.49
926.73
931.00
915.55
934.12
933.16
930.42
933.98
926.94
926.98
926.85
922.99
927.98
921.04
926.31
928.56

BOT

KB
(mt)

TOP
msl

BOT
msl

Gross
thic

Net
thic
hp

954.97
1004.78
990.16
985.88
929.94
928.48
925.04
933.00
927.97
938.99
936.65
933.70
940.17
937.71
925.93
935.14
926.70
950.86
930.92
940.47
947.65
937.83
938.70
950.33
934.80
935.10
936.86
931.93
937.79
938.23
931.51
935.72
939.47
923.35
950.35
1003.75
940.72
946.21
933.64
933.92
932.83
931.91
931.93
929.37
934.63
939.56

62.00
129.80
124.06
127.83
62.36
61.70
62.12
62.58
62.69
62.96
61.61
60.21
59.60
62.00
60.08
59.88
61.12
59.68
62.46
61.54
60.63
60.45
63.20
61.34
60.07
59.63
62.30
60.38
63.05
61.48
60.00
61.45
63.50
61.56
63.75
61.16
62.70
60.13
63.20
61.74
62.09
61.49
62.83
61.55
62.34
61.00

881.20
864.75
854.80
848.73
859.12
855.32
852.67
860.72
857.91
864.55
864.77
864.42
872.83
865.00
857.00
867.70
856.36
881.02
855.99
869.76
868.51
862.50
869.45
878.32
863.84
865.29
867.12
862.74
866.09
866.47
860.49
865.28
867.50
853.99
870.37
872.00
867.72
873.85
863.74
865.24
864.76
861.50
865.15
859.49
863.97
867.56

892.97
874.98
866.10
858.05
867.58
866.78
862.92
870.42
865.28
876.03
875.04
873.49
880.57
875.71
865.85
875.26
865.58
891.18
868.46
878.93
887.02
877.38
875.50
888.99
874.73
875.47
874.56
871.55
874.74
876.75
871.51
874.27
875.97
861.79
886.60
880.00
878.02
886.08
870.44
872.18
870.74
870.42
869.10
867.82
872.29
878.56

11.77
10.23
11.30
9.32
8.46
11.46
10.25
9.70
7.37
11.48
10.27
9.07
7.74
10.71
8.85
7.56
9.22
10.16
12.47
9.17
18.51
14.88
6.05
10.67
10.89
10.18
7.44
8.81
8.65
10.28
11.02
8.99
8.47
7.80
16.23
8.00
10.30
12.23
6.70
6.94
5.98
8.92
3.95
8.33
8.32
11.00

0.00
4.07
8.01
5.18
7.49
6.69
4.03
5.12
1.98
6.48
1.22
5.18
4.92
4.64
6.10
6.41
2.59
4.72
8.22
3.75
7.47
6.71
4.42
4.75
0.88
9.54
4.38
3.50
7.03
4.71
8.57
5.00
5.38
3.64
5.33
4.24
4.45
1.50
3.83
2.88
3.13
4.88
7.57
3.38
3.31
6.00

PHI

wat
sat
Sw

OIL
sat
So

Hp*So*Phi

IHM

0.28
0.21
0.25
0.29
0.27
0.22
0.24
0.31
0.30
0.25
0.22
0.26
0.27
0.23
0.30
0.26
0.29
0.24
0.26
0.26
0.33
0.30
0.32
0.25
0.33
0.28
0.32
0.31
0.24
0.30
0.28
0.32
0.25
0.25
0.22
0.27
0.39
0.29
0.15
0.24
0.23
0.28
0.21
0.27
0.32

0.72
0.44
0.46
0.33
0.51
0.48
0.52
0.54
0.52
0.49
0.45
0.53
0.44
0.52
0.29
0.40
0.60
0.44
0.42
0.30
0.45
0.45
0.57
0.45
0.33
0.47
0.59
0.51
0.53
0.42
0.72
0.54
0.50
0.46
0.47
0.42
0.62
0.48
0.61
0.52
0.48
0.48
0.62
0.38
0.60

0.28
0.56
0.54
0.67
0.49
0.52
0.48
0.46
0.48
0.51
0.55
0.47
0.56
0.48
0.71
0.60
0.40
0.56
0.58
0.70
0.55
0.55
0.43
0.55
0.67
0.53
0.41
0.49
0.47
0.58
0.28
0.46
0.50
0.54
0.53
0.58
0.38
0.52
0.39
0.48
0.52
0.52
0.38
0.62
0.40

0.319088
0.941976
0.6993
1.455307
0.885087
0.461032
0.589824
0.282348
0.93312
0.15555
0.62678
0.601224
0.701568
0.67344
1.36533
0.40404
0.54752
1.104768
0.5655
1.35954
1.217865
0.7293
0.6536
0.121
2.109294
0.649992
0.4592
1.067857
0.531288
1.49118
0.392
0.791936
0.455
0.71955
0.494384
0.69687
0.2223
0.577564
0.16848
0.360576
0.583648
1.102192
0.269724
0.554094
0.768

0.319
0.942
0.699
1.455
0.885
0.461
0.590
0.282
0.933
0.156
0.627
0.601
0.702
0.673
1.365
0.404
0.548
1.105
0.566
1.360
1.218
0.729
0.654
0.121
2.109
0.650
0.459
1.068
0.531
1.491
0.392
0.792
0.455
0.720
0.494
0.697
0.222
0.578
0.168
0.361
0.584
1.102
0.270
0.554
0.768

CORRELATION-1
WELL NO. 35

WELL NO. 152

WELL NO. 27

WELL NO. 29

WELL NO. 29

WELL NO. 37

WELL NO. 30

WELL NO. 76

CORRELATION-2
WELL NO. 153

WELL NO. 125

WELL NO. 86

WELL NO. 155

CORRELATION-3
WELL NO. 76

WELL NO. 64

WELL NO. 36

WELL NO. 6

STRUCTURE CONTOUR MAP OF TOP

STRUCTURE CONTOUR MAP OF BOTTOM

CONTOUR MAP OF GROSS THICKNESS

CONTOUR MAP OF NET THICKNESS

CONTOUR MAP OF PHIE

CONTOUR MAP OF SO (Oil Saturation)

METHODOLOGY

The method involves preparation of different contour maps


of the study area and then preparing cross-sections along
the different wells to delineate an overall structure of the
basin. These contour maps were also used in Volumetric
estimation of the Oil Field.

Structure Contour Map was first prepared, using the top and
bottom values of the log data from different wells. The top
and bottom values were corrected using a parameter known
as KB. This map was further used in preparation of different
cross-section along different wells.

Various

cross-sections

were

prepared

vertically,

horizontally and across the study area. Some of them


are;
1. Section through wells 35-152-27-29-37-66-30-76:- It is
an N-S section representing a constant thickness of the
sand unit which towards southern end gets a bit tapered.
The section shows a doming towards the center which
may itself indicate doming of the basement.
2.

Section through wells 153-125-86-130-155:- It is an E-W


section representing sand unit-1. It represents an
anticline which has a steeper western flank and gentler
eastern flank. The thickness almost remains constant.

3.

Section Through wells 76-64-36-2-6-73:- It is an SW-NE

trending section which represents again an anticlinal


structure of the study area with western side steeper and
eastern gentler.

Net Thickness (Hp) contour map, Porosity (Phi)


contour map, Oil Saturation (So) maps were also
prepared
estimation.

which
The

were

used

product

of

for

volumetric

above

three

parameters gives another parameter known as


Integrated

Hydrocarbon

Measures

(IHM).

contour map for IHM is also plotted, which is


generally useful in determining locations which
may show high prospects of oil accumulation and
will act as a guide to which location are

economically ideal for exploration.

VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATION

Volumetric calculations involve determination of:-

1.

First the area of the whole sand unit-1. It was


calculated (by using planimeter) to be as 35.78 sq
km.

2. Secondly areas between successive contours


were calculated (by using planimeter) for porosity
map, oil saturation map and net thickness map.

DIGITAL PLANIMETER

The planimeter is a drafting instrument used to


measure the area of a graphically represented
planar region. The region being measured may
have any irregular shape, making this instrument
remarkably versatile

Fig: Digital Planimeter

Further calculations can be represented below:-

1) To calculate Average Net Thickness (Hp):-

Contour Interval Midpoint

Area (sq km)

Z=(a)x(b)

(a)

(b)

0-9

4.5

15.812

71.154

9-7

5.360

42.880

7-5

6.712

40.272

5-3

7.896

31.568

35.78

185.874

Total

Average Net Thickness (Hp) = Z b

Hence Average Net Thickness = 5.1945M

2) To Calculate Average Oil saturation (So):-

Contour Interval Midpoint Area(sq km) Z=(a)x(b)


(a)

(b)

0-0.7

0.35

14.78

5.173

0.7-0.6

0.65

6.56

4.264

0.6-0.5

0.55

9.17

5.044

0.5-0.4

0.45

5.27

2.372

35.78

16.853

Total

Average Oil Saturation (So) = Z b

Hence Average Oil Saturation = 0.471

3) To calculate Average porosity:-

Contour

Midpoint Area(sq km) Z=(a)x(b)

Interval

(a)

(b)

0-0.3

0.15

18.184

2.728

0.3-0.25

0.275

7.388

2.032

0.25-0.2

0.225

10.208

2.297

35.78

7.057

Total

Average Porosity (Phi) = Z b


Hence Average Porosity = 0.1972

Volume of Hydrocarbon (surface)


= Area x Avg. Hp x Avg.Phi x Avg. So x Bo
Where Bo Oil Expansion Factor (1.1) and
depends on a particular oil field.
= 35780000 x 5.1945 x 0.1972 x 0.471 x 1.1
= 18.98 MMm3
Original Oil In place (OIIP)

= Volume of hydrocarbon (Surface) x Density of Oil


= 18.98 x 0.96
= 18.22 MMt

CONCLUSION

The sand unit makes the reservoir and the shale body
forms the non reservoir part of the study area.

The sand unit-1 has estimated an OIIP of 18.22 MMt


and volume on surface as 18.98 MMm3

From the IHM contour map produced one can conclude


other than the northern section of study area in area
around well no. 56 and area around well no. 93 are
good prospecting options which show IHM values
ranging from 1.2 to 2.0.

The study area is a heterogeneous reservoir and the oil


bearing sand units which were earlier not perforated

may be perforated for additional production.