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Chapter 5

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

ANSYS Explicit Dynamics

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

What is required of Meshes for Explicit Applications?


Uniform element size (in finest zoned regions)
Smallest element size controls the time step used to advance the solution in time Explicit analyses compute dynamic stress waves that propagate throughout the entire mesh

Training Manual

Element size controlled by the user throughout the mesh


Not automatically dependent on geometry
Implicit analyses usually have static region of stress concentration where mesh is refined (strongly dependent on geometry) In explicit analyses, the location of regions of high stress constantly change as stress waves propagate through the mesh

Mesh refinement is usually used to improve efficiency


Mesh transitions should be smooth for maximum accuracy

Hex-dominant meshing preferred


More efficient Sometimes more accurate for slower transients
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh
Right-click Mesh in the Outline Tree to: Insert Method Important for Explicit Sizing Contact Sizing Refinement Mapped Face Meshing Match Control Pinch Inflation Update Generate Mesh Preview Surface Mesh Show Sweepable Bodies Preview Inflation Clean Rename

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Solid Bodies


Automatic Tetrahedron Hex Dominant Sweep Multizone CFX-Mesh

Training Manual

Surface Bodies (Shells)


Quadrilateral Dominant Triangles Uniform Quad / Tri Uniform Quad

Line Bodies (Beams)


Automatic
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Solid Bodies

Training Manual

Tetrahedrons
Advantages
An arbitrary volume can always be filled with tetrahedra Can be generated quickly, automatically, and for complicated geometry

Disadvantages
Element and node counts are higher than for a hex mesh with a similar mesh density Generally not possible to align the cells with a flow direction Not well suited for thin solids or annuli due to non-isotropy of geometry and nature of element
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

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Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Solid Bodies Tetrahedrons - Patch Conforming


Default Tetrahedron Mesher All Faces, Edges, Vertices of the geometry are respected during mesh generation Delaunay Method Not good for Explicit Dynamics

Training Manual

Curves in Geometry are Reflected in the Mesh


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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Solid Bodies

Training Manual

Tetrahedrons - Patch Independent


Recommended Tet mesher for Explicit Faces, Edges, Vertices not always respected Octree Method Element size Defined By
Maximum Element Size Approx. number of Elements

Max. Element Size = 2.5 mm

Max. Element Size = 1.0 mm

Curves in Geometry NOT reflected in the Mesh


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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Solid Bodies Hex Dominant


Useful for meshing bodies that cannot be swept Recommended for meshing bodies with large interior volumes The hex-dominant meshing algorithm creates a quaddominant surface mesh first, then pyramid and tetrahedral elements are filled in as needed
Always check interior of mesh for good element structure Control Messages will appear to warn you if volume may not be suitable for hex-dominant meshing

Training Manual

Solid Model with Hex dominant mesh : Tetrahedrons 443 (9%) Hexahedron 2801(62%) Wedge 124 (2%) Pyramid 1107 (24%)
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Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Solid Bodies

Training Manual

Hex Dominant
Sometimes produces a better (more uniform) mesh if a size control is placed on one or more edges / surfaces of a body

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Methods - Sweeping

Training Manual

Sweep methods for generating pure hex meshes


Sweep
Sweeping from a single source face to a single target face

Thin Sweep
Good at handling multiple sources and targets for thin parts

Multizone
Uses a free decomposition approach Attempts to automatically slice geometry into sweepable regions Supports multi-source and multi-target

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Sweeping Multizone

Training Manual

Direct decomposition of complex geometries at the time of meshing to create a hex mesh

Select source and target surfaces for the Multizone sweep mesher

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Sweep vs. Thin Sweep


Use Sweep When:
The side faces are not thin You only have 1 source and 1 target
Sweep

Training Manual

The sweep direction changes along the path


Use Thin Sweep When:

The side faces are thin


In general, thin means that the side faces are small in relation to the source faces (aspect ratio of sides/sources is ~ 1/5th)

You only have multiple sources and targets Path is linear


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Thin Sweep

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Sweep vs. MultiZone

Preview Sweepable Bodies shows all bodies that are sweepable

Training Manual

Use Sweep when you have a multibody part where some bodies should be meshed with Sweep, and some with Patch Conforming Tet

Use MultiZone when


you are meshing single body parts that are too complicated for Sweep you have multiple sources and targets you need to respect

Example:
Using Sweep, the single body part (left) must be manually sliced into a Multibody part containing five bodies (center) to obtain a pure hex mesh (right) With Multizone, it is meshed automatically!

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Thin Sweep vs. MultiZone

Training Manual

Use Thin Sweep when you have a thin solid part where the source and target faces dont exactly match, and you dont care about the features on the target side

Multiple source

Multiple target

Multiple sources captured

Multiple targets ignored

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Thin Sweep vs. MultiZone

Training Manual

Use MultiZone when you have a thin solid part where the source and target faces dont exactly match, and you care about the features on both sides

Multiple source

Multiple target

Multiple sources captured

Multiple targets captured

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods - Solid Bodies

Training Manual

Automatic (Patch Conforming/Sweeping)


Sweepable bodies are automatically swept If a solid body cannot be swept it will be meshed using the Patch Conforming Tetrahedron mesher

This is the default Method for Explicit Ensures that preferred Hex meshes are generated whenever bodies can be swept If any bodies are not swept, the tetrahedron meshes generated for these bodies should be remeshed by inserting a method that generates a Patch Independent Tet. mesh for those bodies
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

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Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Methods Surface Bodies (Shells)

Training Manual

Quad Dominant

Triangles
(not recommended for explicit)

Uniform Quad / Tri

Use sizing controls to obtain uniform element size


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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Meshing Line Bodies (Beams)


Method is Automatic

Training Manual

Cross-section is assigned
Can be visualized as line segments or showing cross-section Use sizing controls to obtain uniform element size

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Sizing Sizing can be applied to


Body Face Edge Vertex

Training Manual

Three options
Element Size (Body, Face, Edge) Number of Divisions (Edge) Sphere of Influence (Body, Face, Edge, Vertex)

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Sizing
Element Size
Element Size specifies average element edge length for bodies, faces or edges
Often will also improves mesh quality

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Sizing
Number of Divisions
Specifies number of elements on edge(s) of bodies or faces Bias Type
Edge is discretized to include a bias towards one end, both ends, or the center Bias Factor is ratio of largest element size to smallest element size Effect of the Bias Factor is displayed

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Sizing
Number of Divisions
Behavior
Soft (default) Size control and Number of Divisions used is controlled by the meshing algorithm Affected by proximity, curvature and local re-meshing during the meshing process Hard Specified Number of Divisions is fixed and cannot be changed by the meshing algorithm Increases likelihood of mesh generation failure Can have positive or negative effects on mesh quality No Edge Sizing Soft Hard

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Sizing
Sphere of Influence
Elements associated with the scoped entities, that are within the Sphere Radius have the specified Element Size
Vertex Sizing

Training Manual

Body Sizing

Vertex is the center of the sphere Vertex sizing is applied to all entities
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For any entity other than a vertex, the definition of a Sphere of Influence requires that a Coordinate System be defined to set the center of the Sphere

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Mesh Sizing
Sphere of Influence
Elements associated with the scoped entities, that are within the Sphere Radius have the specified Element Size
Scoped to 1 Face Scoped to 2 Faces

Training Manual

Scoped to 3 Faces

Scoped to 1 Body

Surface meshing identical

Interior meshing different

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Defeaturing

Training Manual

Defeaturing reduces the influence that geometric features have on the meshing process
Avoids generating small elements that may force explicit calculations to run with a small time step

Two Meshing options are available for Defeaturing


Virtual topology Defeaturing tolerance
Can only be used with for Patch Independent Tetrahedral meshes

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Defeaturing

Training Manual

Virtual Topology
Default Mesh Small feature controls smallest element size and mesh type

Create a virtual face from small feature and larger body

Mesh is now uniform Hex Feature is simply meshed over Element size significantly improved
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

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Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Defeaturing

Training Manual

Virtual Topology & CAD

Virtual Cell

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

Defeaturing

Training Manual

Defeaturing Tolerance
Only for Patch Independent Tetrahedrons

Without Defeaturing Tolerance

With Defeaturing Tolerance mesh ignores small feature Much better element size
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM (DesignModeler) and Meshing


Bodies and Parts
Design-Modeler contains three different body types:

Training Manual

Solid body: Body has surface area and volume


Surface body: Body has surface area but no volume Line body: Body consists entirely of edges, no area, no volume By default, DM places each body into one part by itself Individual parts will always be meshed separately
If bodies in separate parts share faces, the meshes on those shared faces will not be matched

Multiple bodies in a single part will have matched meshes on shared faces
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Bodies and Parts


Example:

Training Manual

In DM: 1 part, 1 body consisting of 1 solid


During Meshing: 1 solid ,1body

DM

Entire solid meshed as one entity


No internal surfaces
Mesh

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Bodies and Parts


Example: In DM: 3 parts, 3 bodies consisting of 3 solids During Meshing: 3 solids, 3 bodies Each solid meshed independently
Nodes are not shared Nodes do not line-up Mesh DM

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Bodies and Parts


Example: In DM: 1 multi-body part, 3 bodies / solids During Meshing:1 multi-body part, 3 bodies / solids Each solid meshed independently but node connectivity among solids is preserved Mesh DM

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Slice

Training Manual

Slice geometry in Design Modeler to generate a Swept Hex Mesh

Original Geometry

Default Mesh

Sliced Geometry
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Default Mesh
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Slice

Training Manual

Combine Sliced Bodies into single Part to get Mesh to Match across body boundaries

Single Body Parts

Multi-body Part

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Shared Topology & Match Mesh Overlapping Meshes and Contact
Explicit Dynamic Analyses require that there are no initial penetrations at contact surfaces For arbitrarily shaped bodies, this requires that nodes on surfaces that are initially in contact must match Shared Topology and Match Mesh Where Possible options allow you to do this

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Shared Topology and Match Mesh


Specified for each Part (in DM)
Applied at common boundaries of all Bodies in the Part

Training Manual

Options
Automatic (default)
Nodes are merged (bodies are bonded)

None
Bodies are meshed independently

Imprint
Meshes are across interfaces of bodies contained in Multi-Body Parts

When used with Match Mesh Where Possible option for Patch Independent Tetrahdron meshing, can prevent unwanted initial contact penetration
New feature in 12.0. Currently only implemented for tetrahedra

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Shared Topology and Match Mesh

Training Manual

No Match Mesh

Automatic

None

Imprint

Only Automatic has matching meshes


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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Shared Topology and Mesh Matching

Training Manual

Mesh matching where possible

Automatic

None

Imprint

All cases have matching meshes


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Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Spot Welds


Define points on source geometry at location of the spot welds
Corresponding points on target geometry are generated
Source geometry and target geometry can be in contact or separated

Training Manual

Meshing ensures that nodes are generated at the spot weld points
Explicit Dynamics uses nodes to define solid or breakable joints

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Mid-Surface Creation


Mid-Surface
Reduces 3D geometry of constant thickness to a simplified shell representation Automatically places surface body at mid point between 3D face pairs Allows shell element type meshing in Explicit Dynamics

Training Manual

3D Model
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Mid-Surface representation
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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Surface Extension


Surface Extension
Creates a surface extension based on edge selection Often required after Mid-Surface operation

Training Manual

A thin solid model

The model is converted to a mid plane surface model. The result is a gap at the intersection of the 2 parts
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Extending the circular edge closes the gap


February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

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Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing Named Selections

Training Manual

Create Named Selections in DM or Meshing


Can be used to apply constraints and boundary conditions in Explicit Dynamics

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Cleanup and Repair of CAD


Edge and Face Merge for Model Simplification
Merge edges and faces based on angle criteria to simplify the model

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Cleanup and Repair of CAD Repair

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

DM and Meshing - Cleanup and Repair of CAD

Training Manual

Face Delete

Patch healing

Natural healing

Selected faces for delete

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

FEModeler

Training Manual

Import a finite element (FE) model from a NASTRAN bulk data file or ABAQUS Input file. Import FE information from Workbench Meshing or Advanced Meshing Import archived ANSYS data created using the CDWRITE command. Navigate and visualize the data contained in the model. Generate a geometry from an FE Model using the Geometry Synthesis feature. Create named components based on element selections. Generate an ANSYS, NASTRAN, or ABAQUS input deck for downstream analysis.

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

FEModeler
Import ANSYS model file into Workbench

Training Manual

Open the imported model in FEModeler

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

FEModeler
Display Element Statistics in FEModeler

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

FEModeler
Convert to Geometry (Geometry Synthesis / Skin Detection)

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665

Explicit Dynamics: Meshing

FEModeler
Pass Geometry to Meshing

Training Manual

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February 27, 2009 Inventory #002665