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INTERNAL COMBUSTON ENGINES

LECTURE PLAN
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction. Classification of engines. Diesel engine- Advantages, differences. D.G.Set. Diesel engine, main parts, functions. Four strokes in diesel engine. Systems in Diesel engine. Starting methods of Diesel engine.

9. Routine maintenance 10. Attending problems in Diesel engine. 11. Ds & Dons. 12. Spares & Consumables. 13. Tools for maintenance. 14. Alternator & Principle of operation. 15. Types of alternator 16. Parts of alternator. 17. Dos & Donts.

INTERNAL COMBUSTON ENGINES


Internal combustion engines are those in which Combustion takes place internally in the cylinder of the engine. These are TWO types, 1. Petrol engines takes petrol as fuel 2. Diesel engines takes Diesel as fuel In the above Diesel engines are used in Diesel generator set

CLASSIFICATION DEPENDING ON NUMBER OF STROKES


Depending on number of strokes in (stroke means movement of piston either TDC to BDC or BDC to TDC) the above two can be divided into, 1. TWO stroke engine. 2. FOUR stroke engine.

DIESEL ENGINE

ADVANTAGE OF DIESEL ENGINE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cost of fuel is cheap Suitable for heavy vehicles Injector in Diesel engine is rarely gets defective Initial torque is high Its maintenance cost is less The period of overhauling is large Due to high compression ratio, efficiency is high Fuel is non-explosive Due to above Diesel engine is preferred for DG set

DIFFERENCES
DIESEL ENGINE 1. Air only compressed 2. Compression ignition 3. No carburetor 4. Diesel evaporates slowly 5. Density is higher 6. Diesel contains 147000 btu/gallon (3.8 Ltrs) PETROL ENGINE 1. Mixture of air& petrol is compressed 2.Spark ignition 3. Carburetor is provided 4. Evaporation is quick 5. Density is low 6.Petrol contains 125000 btu / gallon (3.8 Ltrs)

DIESEL GENERATOR SET

DIESEL GENERATOR SET


The DG set consists of Diesel engine and Alternator joined through coupling.

DIESEL ENGINE

SIMPLE DIESEL ENGINE


1. 2. 3. 4. It is one type of IC engine uses Diesel fuel It converts Fuel energy into Mechanical energy. A simple Diesel engine consists of Cylinder Piston Two valves Fuel injector

MAIN PARTS OF DIESEL ENGINE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Cylinder Piston and piston rings Connecting rod Crank shaft Cam shaft Fly wheel Oil sump Valves (i) Inlet valve (ii) Exhaust valve Fuel injector Fuel tank

CYLINDER OF THE ENGINE


The cylinder is the place where the combustion takes place and it also serves as bearing and guides for the piston reciprocating in it. Around the cylinder there is a passage for the circulation of cooling water. At the top of the cylinder is attached the cylinder head which houses the valves and fuel injector. The cylinder and its head are separated by a gasket, which prevents the leakage of air and gases from the cylinder to the atmosphere.

PISTON AND PISTON RINGS


It is cylindrical in shape and moves inside the cylinder. It is connected to the connecting rod through Gudgeon pin. Piston rings are provided on its top outer surface.

CONNECTING ROD
It connects piston to the crank shaft. Gudgeon pin is used to connect with piston. Small bearing end is connected to piston and large bearing end is connected to crank shaft. It transmits the motion of the piston to the crank shaft.

CRANK SHAFT

The crankshaft is located inside the crankcase. The bottom end of the connecting rod is connected to crankshaft. It receives the linear motion from the connecting rod and converts it to rotary motion by virtue of its construction.

CAM SHAFT
It is driven by crank shaft through a gear mechanism. It is provided with cams, around it at different angles. Cams pushes the push rods, which in turn operates the valves through rocker levers as per firing sequence.

FLY WHEEL
The flywheel is connected at the rear end of the crankshaft. It serves as a reservoir of energy. As there is only one working stroke in two revolutions of the crankshaft, the flywheel absorbs the excess energy during the power stroke and gives out the absorbed energy during the other three strokes. Thus it is the flywheel, which keeps the crankshaft rotating at the uniform speed throughout. The flywheel has teeth on its outer periphery, which mesh with the pinion of the starter motor to start the engine.

OIL SUMP
The lubricating oil sump is located at the bottom of the crankcase and surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of lubricating oil, which collects at the bottom of the sump. Oil is supplied to all the moving parts of the engine by the oil pump that is located in the sump.

VALVES
This is operated by the rocker arm through push rod and cam of the camshaft. Exhaust valve: It opens during exhaust stroke against the spring tension to let the burnt gases into the atmosphere through the exhaust pipe.

Inlet valve: This is located in the cylinder head and opens into the cylinder against the spring tension to allow the atmospheric air into the cylinder during intake stroke.

FUEL INJECTOR
It receives the highpressure fuel from the fuel injection pump (plunger pump) and sprays into the cylinder in misty form through nozzle, when the piston is at TDC during compression stroke.

STROKES IN DIESEL ENGINE

The Four-Stroke Diesel Engine


STROKE 1: INTAKE STROKE STROKE 2: COMPRESSION STROKE STROKE 3: POWER STROKE STROKE 4: EXHAUST STROKE

FOUR STROKES IN DISEL ENGINE

STROKE 1: INTAKE STROKE


During the intake stroke the inlet valve is opened and the outlet valve is closed The piston moves downward towards BDC. The pressure drops in the cylinder and because of the low pressure the air from the atmosphere is sucked into the cylinder.

STROKE 2: COMPRESSION STROKE


The inlet valve closes and the cylinder is filled with air. The outlet valve remains in closed condition.

Piston moves upward to the TDC and compresses the air. The pressure in the cylinder increases, the volume decreases and the temperature increases. The temperature of compressed air goes up to 400C to 700C .

STROKE 3:POWER STROKE


The diesel is injected or sprayed into the cylinder in misty form under high pressure at the end of the compression stroke.

STROKE 3:POWER STROKE


The temperature of the air inside the cylinder is high enough to ignite the fuel and combustion takes place. The heat energy developed inside the cylinder due to combustion leads to the expansion of burnt gases and increase in pressure. The high pressure of the burnt gases forces the piston to BDC. In this stroke both the valves remain in closed condition.

STROKE 4: EXHAUST STROKE


The piston which is at BDC, after completion of power stroke, starts moving to TDC and the exhaust valve opens.

STROKE 4: EXHAUST STROKE


The burnt gases discharge to the atmosphere under the upward thrust of the piston through the exhaust valve. The inlet valve remains in closed condition during this stroke. The piston reaches to TDC and will be ready for the next cycle of operation. These four strokes produce two revolutions of the crankshaft. This process, continuously, repeats itself during the operation of the engine.

FOUR STROKES:OPERATION

DIESEL CYCLE

SYSTEMS IN DIESEL ENGINE


The diesel engine is mainly divided into four systems in terms of regular maintenance, which require frequent attention. They are, 1. Fuel system 2. Lubricating system. 3. Cooling system. 4. Starting system- hand and electric.

FUEL SYSTEM
This system pressurizes and injects the fuel. In this way the fuel is forced into air, which has been compressed to high pressure in the combustion chamber. The diesel fuel injection system consists of a fuel injection pump, an injection nozzle, a feed pump, a fuel filter and a high-pressure pipe. The fuel injection pump pressurizes fuel to high pressure and then sends it via the high-pressure pipe to the injection nozzle, which injects the fuel into the cylinder. The feed pump sucks the fuel from the fuel tank and the fuel filter of course filtrates the fuel.

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

FUNCTIONS OF THE SYSTEM


The fuel injection system has four functions: 1. Feeding the fuel, 2. Adjusting the fuel quantity, 3. Adjusting injection timing and 4. Atomizing the fuel.

LUBRICATING SYSTEM
Function:- To reduce the heat caused by friction. All moving parts are lubricated. The lubricating system consists of:a) Oil sump. b) Oil pump . c) Relief valve. d) Oil filter. e) Lubricating oil.

LUBRICATING SYSTEM

COOLING SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS:1. To cool the engine, 2. To ensure that the working temperature of the engine is maintained within limits. TYPES:a) Air cooling. b) Water cooling.

AIR COOLING
Effective cooling surface area is increased by providing fins over the cylinder. Air is blown on the fins by a fan to cool the engine,

WATER-COOLING SYSTEM
A centrifugal water pump mounted on the engine and driven by a vee belt driven from the crankshaft. The water pump pulley has a provision for mounting the fan.

The water is drawn from the bottom of the tank by the water- circulating pump. The cooling water then passes through the engine jackets, absorbs the heat of the engine and gets hot. The hot water enters the top of the radiator and passes through the finned tubes to the bottom. An airflow provided by the fan cools the water by absorbing the heat as it passes through the tubes.

STARTING SYSTEM
This is TWO types: 1. Hand starting. 2. Electrical starting. HAND STARTING: 1.Move the speed control lever to the full speed position. 2.Check the stop/start lever in starting position.

HAND STARTING
3.Move the decompressor lever to the start position. 4.Using starting handle rotate the engine briskly. 5.When engine is running freely at sufficient speed, move the decompressor lever to the run position. During this operation, continue rotating the engine. 6. When the engine fires and is accelerating, withdraw the starting handle. Do not release hold of the handle before withdrawing it from the shaft.

ELECRTICAL STARTING

PROCEDURE OF ELECRTICAL STARTING


1. Move the speed control lever over the full speed position. 2. Check the engine stop/start lever in start position. 3. Move the de compressor lever to the RUN position. 4. Press the starter button until engine fires. 5. If the engine does not fire at once, allow it to come to rest before pressing the starter. NOTE: DONOT OPERATE THE STARTER WHILE THE ENGINE IS RUNNING.

RUNNING
Immediately after the engine starts, check the lubricating oil pressure. This should be between 35/45 lb/sq.in. Run the engine for a few minutes in order to warm up before applying the load. The load should be applied gradually whenever possible.

STOPPING
1. It is preferable to remove the load and allow the engine to run light for a short period. 2. Move and hold the engine stop/start lever in the stop position until the engine stops. (Warning): on no account must the de compressor lever be used to stop the engine as this may result in severe damage to the valve gear). 3. Clean down the engine whilst it is still warm.

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Daily - before starting 1.Check level of fuel in service tank. The tank should be full with clean fuel at the end of days of work. 2.Checl level of lubricating oil in sump. Top it if necessary. 3.Check level of water in radiator and top up if necessary, before stating the engine. 4.Clean the engine at the end of days work. If any leakages are there, should be attended immediately.

OCCASIONALLY
5.Lubricate the links and connections of all external controls. 6.check grease on any auxiliary equipment. 7.Check the tension of the driving belt for the water pump and radiator fan.

HOURLY MAINTAINCE
Every 50 hours of run: 8.Clean the oil bath air filter and top with oil to the marked level. Every 250 hours of run: 9.Inspect fuel filter element. Renew if necessary. 10.Renew lubricating oil filament. 11.Drain lubricating oil sump and refill with new oil. 12.Check the corrosion plugs (heater) and replace them if necessary.

Every 500 hours of run: 13. Inspect fuel filter element. Renew if necessary. 14. Clean lubricating oil filler gauze and crankcase breather. Every 1000 hours of run: 15.Remove injectors, clean injector filter and test spray. Replace without interference if spray is satisfactory. 16.Renew fuel filter elements.

EVERY 1500 HOURS OF RUN


17.If engine shows loss of power, remove cylinder and examine valves, grind in if necessary. Examine piston and check wear with recommended maximum wear allowances. 18.Inspect complete cooling system i.e. clean and flush cooling system and clean the vent hole in thermostat valve.

ENGINE OVERHAUL EVERY 3000 HOURS


19.Remove cylinder heads, examine the inlet and exhaust valves, decarbonize and grind in valves. 20.Withdraw and clean pistons, check that rings are free and the wear is within the recommended tolerance. 21.Check and adjust valve and fuel pump tappet clearances. 22.Examine large end bearings and check crankpins for ovality and scoring. 23.Clean exhaust port, pipes and silencer.

EVERY 6000 HOURS


24.Examine bearings and check crankshaft for ovality and scoring. 25.Flush out all fuel and lubricating oil pipes. 26.Remove and examine lubricating oil pump. 27.Renew connecting rod bolts.

PROBLEMS IN GENERAL
1. Air lock in fuel system: Air lock is nothing but entry of air into the fuel system whenever the fuel filters are opened for cleaning and for replacement or whenever the fuel tank gets empty or due to lose fuel delivery pipes connections. This air enters into the fuel injection pump.

PROCEDURE TO REMOVE AIR LOCK


a.First fill the diesel tank with diesel if fuel is found less. b. Unscrew the fuel feed pump and operate it till the pressure is built up. c. Screw out the air bleeding screws and operate the pump till the air from the filter bowls comes out. Then close the fuel bleeding screws and tighten the fuel feed pumps knob. d. Crank the engine and make sure that the air is bled out of FIP by opening the high pressure pipes near the injectors and tighten them when the air is totally bled out of the fuel system.

NOZZLE CHOKING
e. Clean the diesel at all joints and on pipes before starting. Start the DG set and run it for sometime to ensure that the fuel system is free from air.
2. Nozzle choking: a. Disconnect the nozzle from cylinder head. b. Turn the nozzle to opposite direction then hand crank the engine. Diesel should come out as spray otherwise nozzle is choked. c. Clean the nozzle by very thin pin, it will open.

DOS AND DONS

DOS
Dos Ensure proper cleaning of air cleaner and fuel filter. Before starting ensue that the fuel tank is full. Connect the load only when generator voltage regulation is normal. Before starting the DG open doors for proper ventilation. Run DG without load for few minutes before stopping. Carry out the daily and periodic maintenance. Make sure that load current is within limits.

Donts
Dont mix water with fuel. Dont mix different grades of grease. Dont pour diesel when running. Dont start the engine without checking the lubricating oil. Dont start the engine without opening fuel taps. Dont start the engine with load. First start the engine and allow it to gain full speed before putting the load on. Dont smoke in the DG room and also dont keep inflammable goods in DG room.

SPARES AND CONSUMABLES


1. Fuel filter - 2nos 2. Oil filter - 2nos 3. Fuel pipe - 2sets 4. Pressure pipe - 1no 5. Air cleaner - 1no 6. Nozzle - 2nos 7. Ring set - 1no 8. Fan belt - 2nos 9. Grease 10. Lubricating oil 11. Cotton waste.

TOOLS FOR MAINTENANCE


1.spanners (set & ring) 2.Cutting pliers 3.Nose pliers 4.screw driver 6" 5.screw driver 12" 6.Feeler gauge 7.Mallet 8. Box spanner set.

ALTERNATOR

INTRODUCTION
Alternator is an AC generator which works on principle of Electromagnetic induction. It says that whenever a conductor cuts the magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is always induced in it.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF AN ALTERNATOR

The operation of an AC generator (alternator) can be explained by a simple loop of wire placed between the poles of a permanent magnet and made to rotate. As the loop rotates, it passes through, or cuts, the magnetic lines of force, and a voltage is developed in it. In a practical generator, actually a series of large number of such loops contained in a rotor or an armature produces e.m.f. large enough to be practically useful.

Thus produced voltage is connected to the external circuit through slip rings and brushes. The slip ring rotate as the loop rotates and the brushes dont move but only stay in contact with the rings by sliding along their surface as they rotate.

GENERATING A SINE WAVE OUTPUT

So for one full rotation, the generated voltage corresponds to 360 electrical degrees. Thus for a simple two-pole generator, one cycle of the sine wave output is generated each time the loop makes one full rotation. The frequency of such a generator is the same as the speed of rotation of the loop. The magnitude of the peak voltage increases with increase in the rate of change of flux linkage of the coil.

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS

The types of alternators are configured upon relative motion between an electric conductor and magnetic field. The relative motion can be brought in three ways. By moving conductors through a stationary magnetic field, as in the rotating armature alternator. BY moving a magnetic field across stationary conductors as in the rotating field armature. By varying the intensity of the magnetic field surrounding stationary conductors as in the inductor alternator.

RELATION BETWEEN FREQUENCY, SPEED AND POLES IN AN ALTERNATOR


f =2N/60 Let P= total number of magnetic poles N=rotative speed of the rotor in r.p.m. F= frequency of generated e.m.f. in c/s. Since one cycle of e.m.f is produced when apair of poles passes past a conductor, the number of cycles of e.m.f. produced in one revolution of the rotor is equal to the number of pair of poles.

No. of cycles per revolution = P/2 No. of revolutions/ Sec =N/60 P N PN frequency = ---- X ----- = ----- c/s 2 60 60 PN or f = ------ c/s 120

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS
The types of alternators are configured upon relative motion between an electric conductor and magnetic field. The relative motion can be brought in three ways. 1. By moving conductors through a stationary magnetic field, as in the rotating armature alternator. 2. BY moving a magnetic field across stationary conductors as in the rotating field armature. 3. By varying the intensity of the magnetic field surrounding stationary conductors as in the inductor alternator.

PARTS OF ALTERNATOR

PARTS OF ALTERNATOR
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Shaft of Armature Slip rings Brush assembly. Pole Pieces Rectifier set Stator & Field coils Armature coils Terminal box

SHAFT
It is usually made of cast iron or cast steel and has a heavy central hub, a number of radial arms, and a heavy rim that forms the yoke of the magnet systems.

ARMATURE COILS
The copper conductor with high quality of insulation are wounded over the armature of several turns to produce sufficient quantity of electricity when it is rotating with in the electro magnetic field at a certain speed

SLIP RINGS
Two rings made from the copper are assembled on the armature, separated from the body of the armature with insulator and the ends of the conductors are connected on it.

BRUSH ASSEMBLY
It is made from carbon and remains attached with the slip ring with the carbon holder assembly to bring out the generated voltages at the out side of the armature.

POLE PIECES
The soft iron core has the soft iron pole pieces to give low reactance path to the magnetic flux.

RECTIFIER SET
The rectifiers unit is incorporated with the generator to rectify the generated output & to give supply to the self excited electromagnetic field of the stator. The unit has a full wave rectifier. The input of this bridge rectifier is given from the output of the generator through the adjustable field rheostat housed in the termination box to provide the excitation current to the field coil for sufficient field strength.

THE STATOR
It consists of an outer frame, the field pole, and field coil, which serve as electromagnet. The field coils are wounded on the pole pieces and they may be energized from an external DC source (separate excitation) or self-excitation, here field winding is excited by its own armature winding.

ROTOR
The rotating part of the alternator is the rotor, which is laminated and accommodates the generator winding in its slots on the outer surface. The windings are terminated on slip rings. When an external load is not connected to the slip rings, the windings will be as an open circuit and if an external load is connected it is said to be a closed circuit.

COIL GROUPS IN ARMATURE


The grouping of coils in an armature of alternator is to produce a.c output. The direction of the induced emf is upwards at right angle to the plane of the paper can be determined as right hand rule and is shown in fig by black dots.

MAINTENANCE
General: The alternator should be stopped and isolated from all supplies before carrying out any maintenance on electrical or rotating parts. It should be done as follows-

1) Cleaning: The generator and excitation unit should be periodically cleaned internally by blowing out with a jet of dry air and by wiping away any deposits of grease and carbon dust with a clean dry cloth .All nuts and screws should be checked to ensure that they are tight, especially the electrical connections.

2) Brushes: The brushes should be examined initially after every 100 hours of running to see that they are bedded properly and are also not sticking to their holders. The brushes should be checked for correct pressure and it should be between 200 to 250 g/cm2. (Refer to instruction manual) and should be replaced before they are worn out to the minimum permissible length.

3) Slip rings: Periodical inspection of slip rings and the spaces between the rings should be cleaned. If there is any sign of blackening on the surfaces of the rings, the brush pressure should be checked and readjusted .If badly blackened, the rings should be polished. If pronounced flats have developed the rings must be skimmed and polished and the brushes should be rebedded. Then clean the machine by a jet of dry air and polish before it is put back into service.

4) Bearings: Ball and roller bearings will run for long periods without any attention as the bearing housings are charged with right quality and quantity of grease. Additional grease is not required to be used until after each period of 2000 to 3000 hours of running. Lithium base grease conforming to grade 3 of IS:1002-1956 is recommended.

TROUBLE SHOOTING

No voltage from generator It may arise due to the following reasons: 1. Wrong field connection. 2. Open circuit in field winding 3. Loss of residual magnetism 4. Faulty rectifier. 5. Brushes not bedded properly. 6. Short-circuit or open circuit in armature winding.

Low or High voltage from generator on no load It may be due to: 1. Incorrect speed of prime mover. 2. Rectifier faulty. 3. Turns shorted in one of the field coils.

Voltage Regulation is unsatisfactory 1) Incorrect speed of the prime mover 2) Over load 3) Low power factor of the connected load.

Dos and Donts

Dos 1. Keep the machine clean and dry, the exposed parts have to be protected by applying paint or antirust coating. 2. The frame of the machine should be earthed. 3. Connect the load only when generator voltage regulation is normal. 4. Make sure that load current is within limits.

Dos
5. Ensure that proper Overload and short circuit protection system are installed. 6. Check any overheating of any parts during running. 7. Check for any unusual sound during running. 8. Carry out the daily and periodic maintenance

Donts
Donts 1) Dont install the machine where ventilation is poor. 2) Dont mount the machine in any other position other than horizontal one unless specifically approved. 3) Dont start the engine with load. First start the engine and allow it to gain full speed before putting the load on.

SPARES
Recommended spares are: 1. One set of brush. 2. One set of bearing. 3. One set of rectifier.