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Project Work done from (1st OCTOBER,2012 -30TH JUNE,2013) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Ms.

Sudipta Dey Professor Department of Biotechnology Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata

Made by:Sumanta Kar Minaxi Baheti Mudit Jajodia

What is m-Cresol and its purpose of use in our experiment? m-Cresol is a derivative of m-Cresol and is a compound regarded as a priority pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) . Industries such as pulp and paper mills, textile mills, coal gasification units, herbicides and fungicides industry, etc., are mainly responsible for discharging mcresol in their aqueous effluents .

The principle of Adsorption and Desorption is explained through the diagram below:

Materials Required in carrying out the process: m-Cresol. 4-Aminoantipyrene. Liquour Ammonia. Potassium Ferricyanide. Spectrophotometer. Shaker-set at different speed. Different solutions. pH paper. Activated charcoal. Spectrophotometer.

Potassium Ferricyanide.

4-Aminoantipyrene.

Activated charcoal.

1)Reagents: (i)4-Aminoantipyrene=0.4gm in 20ml of water(20%). (ii)Ammonium hydroxide=1.0ml in 49.0ml of water. (iii)Potassium ferricyanide=1.6gm in 20ml of water(8%). (iv)Stock solution=0.2gm of m-Cresol in 100ml of water. 2)Solutions: (i) Glycine-HCl buffer:Stock solution A:0.2 M solution of Glycine(15.01 gm in 1000ml). B:0.2 M HCl. 50ml of A+X ml of B;diluted total 200ml. X 24.2 pH 2.6

(ii)Basic solution(NaOH solution): Stock solution was prepared using 2gm of NaOH pellets in 100gm of water. (iii)Acidic solution(HCl solution): Stock solution was prepared using 0.8ml of HCl mixed with 99.2ml of water.

To plot the standard curve for m-Cresol,the following datas were obtained:
Sl no. Concn. of m-Cresol Vol. of m-Cresol Vol. of water O.D.

1
2 3 4 5
1.2
1

5ppm
10ppm 20ppm 30ppm 40ppm

0.00ml
0.25ml 0.50ml 0.75ml 1.00ml

50.0ml
49.75ml 49.50ml 49.25ml 49.00ml

0
0.24 0.37 0.74 1.30

Assay of m-Cresol

O.D.0.8 (490n m) 0.6


0.4
0.2

0 0 5 10

15

Concentration of 20 m-Cresol(ppm)

25

30

35

40

45

ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS:
0.3gm of charcoal at 48rpm
Concn. 300ppm 500ppm 600ppm 700ppm OD at 15 0.48 0.65 0.58 0.84 OD at 30 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.78 OD at 45 0.61 0.73 OD at 60 0.58 0.73

0.3gm of charcoal at 76rpm


Concn. 300ppm 500ppm 600ppm 700ppm OD at15 0.00 0.08 0.16 0.54 0.18 0.19 OD at 30 0.09 0.15 OD at 45 0.00 0.06 OD at 60 -

0.6gm of charcoal at 48rpm


Concn. 300ppm 500ppm 600ppm 700ppm OD at15 0.11 0.78 0.22 0.88 OD at 30 0.31-0.30=0.01 0.32 0.36-0.30=0.06 0.66 0.25 0.33 0.15 0.09 0.22 0.04 OD at 45 OD at 60

0.6gm of charcoal at 76rpm


Concn. 300ppm 500ppm 600ppm OD at15 0.00 0.05 0.04 0.00 OD at 30 0.00 OD at 45 0.00 OD at 60 -

700ppm

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

These studies were conducted by varying the concentration of charcoal-by 0.3gm and 0.6gm and the speed of the shaker by-48rpm and 76rpm

Standard curve for Desorption study: Concn. 10ppm 20ppm Water 99.5ml 99.0ml Stock 0.5ml 1.0ml O.D. value 0.05 0.11

30ppm
40ppm 50ppm
0.35

98.5ml
98.0ml 97.5ml

1.5ml
2.0ml 2.5ml
Desorption of m-Cresol

0.20
0.26 0.32

0.3
0.25 0.2

D. 80 m)

0.15
0.1 0.05

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

DESORPTION CHARACTERISTICS:Study Of desorption using acidic solution ( HCl solution) at pH=1.5 and charcoal taken was 0.3gm at 76rpm.

Concentration 300ppm 500ppm 600ppm 700ppm

O.D. at 1hour 0.075 0.224 0.373 0.068

O.D.value after 24hrs 0.094 0.245 0.391 0.129

Study of desorption using NaOH solution at pH=10 and charcoal taken was 0.3gm at 76rpm Concentration 300ppm 500ppm 600ppm O.D after 1hour 0.742 0.566 0.885 O.D. at 24hrs 0.451 0.772 0.973

700ppm

0.914

0.552

Study of % adsorption against the concentration of charcoal:


96 95.5 95

94.5 %adsorption 94
93.5 93 92.5 92 91.5

300

500 600 Concentration of m-Cresol(ppm)

700

0.3gm of charcoal at 48rpm

0.3gm of charcoal at 76rpm

0.6gm of charcoal at 48rpm

0.6gm charcoal at 76rpm

Desorption Study:
after 1 hr 12 10 8 %desorption 6 4 2 0

.after 24 hrs.

after1 hr

.after 24 hrs.

45
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Concentraion of m-cresol, ppm

%desorption

Concentration of m-cresol,ppm

300

500

600

700

300

500

600

700

Acidic condition

Basic condition

Langmuir isotherm model:


qe=qoKLCe 1+KLCe Where , qo and Kl = Langmuir parameters related to maximum adsorption capacity and free energy of adsorption, respectively. C =equilibrium concentration in the aqueous solution and x =equilibrium adsorption capacity of adsorbent. The linearized form of Langmuir equation can be written as, 1/x=1/ q0+(1/qoKL).1/C

Varying the rpm(48rpm and 76rpm) at constant amount of charcoal(0.6gm)

Study of Change in concentration of m-Cresol with respect to time:0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 48 rpm at 300ppm concentration of m-cresol:

0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 48 rpm at 500ppm concentration of m-cresol:


m-Cresol concentration,ppm
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 time,min 50 60 70 80
0.3 gm 0.6 gm

0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 48 rpm at 600ppm concentration of m-cresol:


30

m-cresol concentration,ppm

25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 time,min 0.3 gm 0.6 gm

0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 48 rpm at 700ppm concentration of m-cresol:

40

m-cresol concentration,ppm

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 time,min 60 80
0.3 gm 0.6 gm

0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 76 rpm at 300ppm concentration of m-cresol:


16

m-cresol concentration,ppm

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 1 time,min 1.5 2 2.5 0.3 gm 0.6 gm

0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 76 rpm at 500ppm concentration of m-cresol:

16

m-cresol concentration,ppm

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 1 time,min 1.5 2 2.5 0.3 gm 0.6 gm

0.3gm and 0.6gm at 76 rpm at 600ppm concentration of m-cresol:


70

m-cresol concentration,ppm

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 time,min 0.3 gm 0.6 gm

0.3 gm and 0.6gm at 48 rpm at 700ppm concentration of m-cresol:


70

m-cresol concentration,ppm

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 time,min 0.6 gm 0.3 gm

Study of %adsorption with respect to time:


Concentration of m-Cresol is 300ppm and 0.3gm of charcoal is taken:
48 rpm 76 rpm

120 100 %adsorption 80 60 40

20
0 0 10 20 time,min 30 40 50

Concentration of m-Cresol is 500ppm and 0.3gm of charcoal is taken:


120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 time,min 30 40 50 48 rpm 76 rpm

Concentration of m-Cresol is 600ppm and 0.3gm of charcoal is taken:


120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 time,min 48rpm 76rpm

Concentration of m-Cresol is 700ppm and 0.3gm of charcoal is taken:


120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 time,min
48rpm 76rpm

Concentration of m-Cresol is 300ppm and 0.6gm of charcoal is taken:


120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 time,min 30 40 50 48 rpm 76 rpm

Concentration of m-Cresol is 500ppm and 0.6gm of charcoal is taken:

120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 time,min 60 80 48rpm 76rpm

Concentration of m-Cresol is 600ppm and 0.6gm of charcoal is taken:


120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 time,min 30 40 50 48rpm 76rpm

Concentration of m-Cresol is 700ppm and 0.6gm of charcoal is taken:


120 100

%adsorption

80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 time,min 60 80 48rpm 76rpm

Study of reaction kinetics: 0.3 gm at 48 rpm


0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 y = 0.0045x + 0.0003 R2 = 1 y = 0.0052x + 0.0001 R2 = 1 y = 0.006x + 0.0018 R2 = 0.9987
300 PPM 500 PPM 600 PPM 700 PPM Linear (300 PPM)

t/q

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 10 20 30 t 40 50 60 70 y = 0.005x + 0.0277 R2 = 0.7101

Linear (500 PPM) Linear (600 PPM) Linear (700 PPM)

0.3gm at 76 rpm
0.7 0.6 0.5 y = 0.01x + 0.0028 R2 = 0.9998
600

t/q

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 t 60 80 y = 0.0101x + 0.0048 R2 = 0.9997

700 Linear (600) Linear (700)

0.6 gm at 48 rpm:
1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 t 50 60 70 80 y = 0.0201x + 0.0013 R2 = 0.9999 y = 0.0202x + 0.0003 R2 = 1 y = 0.0189x + 0.0554 R2 = 0.9463 y = 0.0201x + 0.0169 R2 = 0.9993
300 500 600 700 Linear (300) Linear (500) Linear (600) Linear (700)

t/q

The following conclusions can be drawn from the present work, The kinetics studies confirmed that m-Cresol-GAC adsorption system can be described by pseudo- secondorder kinetics model. Over all analysis of equilibrium model analysis indicates the fitness of Langmuir isotherm model to mCresol-GAC adsorption system, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of m-Cresol on the surface of GAC. m-Cresol adsorption capacity of GAC was found to be decreasing with increase in temperature suggesting that the adsorption process was exothermic in nature, which was further supported by the negative values of change in enthalpy. Equilibrium model analysis indicates the fitness of Freundlich isotherm model to m-Cresol-WHAC adsorption system, suggesting a multilayer adsorption of m-Cresol on the surface of WHAC. m-Cresol adsorption capacity of WHAC was found to be decreasing with increase in temperature suggesting that the adsorption process was exothermic in nature, which was further supported by the negative values of change in enthalpy. Other conclusions drawn: With the decreasing of the charcoal concentration and less speed,less is the recovery. With the decreasing of the charcoal concentration and more speed,more is the recovery. With the increasing of the charcoal concentration and less speed,less is the recovery. With the increasing of the charcoal concentration and more speed,more is the recovery. Desorption is very less at acidic pH activity.

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