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Allium sativum - Garlic

Yee Mon Khine June 4th, 2009 BIOL 3911

Outline
Taxonomy
Morphology Origin and Distribution Ancient Garlic Supplements
Medicinal Effects

Folklores

Modern Chemical Components Forms of Remedies Culinary Use

Taxonomy
Division: Magnoliophyta Class Liliopsida Order: Liliales Family: Liliaceae (Alliaceae)

Genus: Allium
Species: A. sativum

Allium sativum L.
Commonly known as: Stinky Rose

Family Liliaceae (Alliaceae)


Formerly known as Liliaceae

Now -- a member of the Alliaceae (Onion family)

600 cultivated sub-varieties of garlic, perennial Hardneck Garlic cooler climate Fewer and larger cloves than softneck less wrapper Softneck Garlic near equator Most supermarket garlic (abundance of cloves)

Asexual Reproduction

Morphology
A root vegetable with the bulb growing underground

Edible bulb composed of


food-storage leaves 4-20 cloves in one bulb 30-60 cm tall Rigid stem

Long, flat monocot leaves


with wedge-shaped tip

Morphology
Flower is composed of 5-7 pale flowers(June to August) 20-30 bulbils (up to 1 cm in size) Flowers are sterile Bulbils do reproductive function Closely related to onions, shallots, leeks, and chives

Brief History of Origin


Origin -- Central Asia (China) 4000 B.C Ancient medical texts -- Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India Codex Ebers (Egyptian papyrus)

800 therapeutic formulas, 1550 B.C

22 Garlic Remedies

Chinese herbal medicines Seasoning and flavouring -- the Mediterranean region, Asia, Africa

Distribution
Grown Globally China (77%)

India (41%)
South Korea (2%) Russia (1.6%) United States (1.4%)

15,686,310 Tonnes, globally (2008)

Ancient Garlic Supplements


Medicinal Effects: Egypt, Greece, Rome,

China, Japan, India, Europe, and in


Biblical

Folklores

Ancient Garlic Supplements


Medicinal Effects Daily diet for strength Egyptian pyramid labourers Greece Athletes performance enhancing in The First Olympic Games Roman Troops and Sailors

Chinese and Japanese food preservatives


Biblical texts: Jewish slaves in Egypt Food for poor people and labourer

Ancient Garlic Supplements


Medicinal Effects
Traditional Medicine (folk remedies)
Respiratory diseases/ Infections Skin protection (Leprosy) Cardiovascular diseases Digestion, Common Cold The Plague Male Potency

Raw Garlic Vs. Cooked Garlic

Ancient Garlic Supplements


Folklores
Garlic cloves In the tomb of King Tutankhamen, Egypt

-- In the palace of Knossos in Crete

Ancient Garlic Supplements


Folklores
Ancient Greece
Ward off vampires, evil eyes, demons, and witches Greek midwives Later common in Europe

Feeding to animals

Garlic Dreams

Ancient Garlic Supplements


Folklores Evil Spirits
Dioscordes -- garlic as a holy herb Used in purification ceremonies in the temples of that time

stimulate and warm the body and to increase one's


desires Christian Myth
When Satan left the Garden of Eden, garlic arose in his left footprint and onion in the right

Garlic Effects
Antibiotic action Hypoglycemic effect Antitumor

Antioxidant properties
Antithrombotic properties Cardiovascular effects Theraputic potential for anti-aging

Chemical Components
Enzymes Volatile Oil (0.1 0.36%) Sulfur (at least 33 compounds)

Proteins and Amino Acids


Carbohydrates (26-30%) Lipids, Minerals, Vitamins, Saponins

Chemical Components
Alliin ---(Allinase enzyme)---> Allicin Allicin

Volatile Oil
odor component with an anti-bacterial action, 6-12 cloves of garlic per day Selenium Component of an antioxidant enzyme, anti-

carcinogenic effects

Chemical Components
Allinase

Volatile Oil Alliin Allicin (major component) Ajoene

Allicin (C6H10OS2) Antioxidant properties Lipid-lowering effect

Serum lipids, phospholipids, and


cholesterol 56% decrease in lipid, 5 g of garlic bulbs/day for a week High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

Chemical Components
Selenium-enriched garlic antioxidant enzyme, glutathione S-transferase activity the Phase II detoxification of xenobiotics Glutathione-S-transferase catalyzes the conjugation of carcinogen with glutathione mercapturic acid derivative.

Exceeding intake amount poor health


Reproductive failures

Chemical Components
Organo-sulfur compounds (OSCS) S-propylcysteine-sulfoxide (PCSO) S-methylcysteine-sulfoxide (MCSO) lowering

blood cholestrol and atherosclerosis


Other thiosulfinates (RS2OR)

Chemical Components
Ajoene antithrombotic (anti-clotting) properties, and anti fungal effects

Dially disulfide components of the distilled oil of garlic Found in Allium family

Metabolic Effects
Cardiovascular System
Anticoagulant, Blood thinner

Antibacterial

Antibiotic
Anti-carcinogenic effects Stimulates immune system Hypoglycemic Promotes sweating

Metabolic Effects
Some Negative Impacts Large amounts of raw garlic can cause skin irritation and abdominal discomfort

High-blood pressure patients and garlic


consumption Patients about to undergo surgery are recommended against taking garlic. The blood thinning effects could cause severe bleeding.

Garlic odor permeate the breath and skin

Forms of Remedies
Garlic Fresh Cloves (internally or externally)
Raw Garlic is more affective than cooked garlic

Kyolic Garlic Supplements


Aged Garlic Extract No Allicin, but thioallyl compounds Healthy cholesterol levels,

circulation, immune functions,


liver function and Nerves

Garlic Capsules are 95% less potent than Kyolic.

Forms of Remedies
Garlicin (Odourless garlic intake)

High Allicin yield


Lower serum cholesterol and help maintain circulatory efficiency Garlic syrup for coughs Garlic pearls for resistance to infections Garlic capsules for bronchitis Tablets for high blood pressure and bronchitis

Needs to be refrigerated in order to preserve garlic oil.

Forms of Remedies
Long term persistent use for atherosclerosis, prophylaxis, arterial (small) vascular diseases Fresh herb, 4 g (1 clove) minced bulb daily

Infusion, 4 g in 150 ml of hot water


Fluid Extract, 4 ml AGE Garlic Extract, 300-800 mg (x3 per day)

Nutritional Components

Culinary Use
Flavouring and medicinal

References
Blumenthal, M., Brinckmann, J., and Wollschlaeger, B. (2003). Garlic. The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. (p. 153-159) Texas: American Botanical Council

Donald, W. (2007) Garlic. Dictionary of Plant Lore. (p 161-163) Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Academic Press
Ebadi, M. (2001). Onion and Garlic. Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine. (p. 537-555), New York: CRC Press Rivlin, R. S., Supplement: Recent Advances on the Nutritional Effects Associated with the Use of Garlic as a Supplement. The Journal of Nutrition. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/131/3/951S?maxtoshow=&HITS=&hits=&RESULTFO RMAT=1&andorexacttitle=and&fulltext=supplement%3A+recent+advances+garlic+rivlin& andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype =HWCIT The world's healthiest foods. (2009) Garlics Nutritional Profile. Retrieved June 04, 2009, from http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=60#nutritionalprofile

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