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What are Antibiotics?

• Chemical substances

• Kill or suppress growth of bacteria

• Natural, Synthetic, Semi-synthetic


Antibiotic Activity
Bacteriostatic
• Inhibit growth and multiplication of bacteria

Bactericidal
• Cause death of bacteria
Antibiotic Spectrum
• Range of pathogens against which
Antibiotics are active

Broad spectrum
• G+ve and G-ve both

Narrow spectrum
• G+ve or G-ve
Properties of an ideal Antibiotic
Drug
• Powerful action against bacteria
• Selective toxicity
• Well distributed in the body
• No effect on host immune system
• Cost effective
• Easily available
Mode of action
• Inhibit cell wall synthesis
• Inhibit Protein synthesis
• Inhibit cytoplasmic function
• Affect Nucleic acid metabolism and
synthesis
Groups, Action & Primary Spectrum
of Important Antibiotics
Drugs Family Static Cidal G+ve G-ve Action

Ampicillin Penicillin - + + + Inhibit


Carbenicillin - + - + Cell wall
synthesis
Cloxacillin - + + -
Methicillin - + + -
Nafcillin - + + -
Penicillin-G - + + -
CEPHALOSPORINS

Drugs Family Static Cidal G+ve G-ve Action

Cephalexin Cephalo- - + + + Inhibit


sporins
Cell wall
Cephaloridine - + + + synthesis

Cephalothin - + + +

Chloramphenicol + - + +
AMINOGLYCOSIDES

Drugs Family Static Cidal G+ve G-ve Action

Gentamycin Amino- - + - + Inhibit


Glyco-
sides Protein
Kanamycin - + + +
Synthesis
Neomycin - + + +

Streptomycin - + + +
MACROLIDES

Drugs Family Static Cidal G+ve G-ve Action

Macrolide
Erythromycin + - + - Inhibit
Protien
Oleandomycin + - + - Synthesis

Tylosin + - + +
Tetracyclins And Quinolones
Drugs Family Static Cidal G+ve G-ve Action

Tetracyclins Tetracyclins Inhibit


+ - + +
Protein
Synthesis

Quinolones Inhibit
Nalidixic + - - +
Enzyme
Acids Functions
SULPHONAMIDES

Drugs Family Static Cidal G+ve G-ve Action

Sulphona- Inhibit
Sulphadiazine + - + +
mides
Cytoplasmic
Function
Sulphamerazine + - + +

Sulphadimethoxine + - + +
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Amoxi-vet (Inhibit Cell wall synthesis)
Company ICI Pakistan
Composition Amoxicillin-----150 mg/ml
Spectrum Broad Spectrum
Route S/c or I/m
Packing 50 ml and 100 ml vials
Animal-----Weight(kg)-----Dose vol.
Dosage
Cattle ----- 450 ----- 20 ml
Sheep ----- 65 ----- 3 ml
Dogs ----- 20 ----- 1 ml
Cats ----- 5 ----- 0.25 ml
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Colimoxin Inj. (Inhibit Cell wall synthesis)

Company Selmore Pharmaceuticals


Composition Amoxicillin ........ 100 mg/ml
Spectrum Broad Spectrum
Route S/c or I/m
Packing 50 ml and 100 ml vials
Dosage 1ml per 10kg body weight of animal
for 3 days.
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Genton (Inhibit Protein Synthesis)
Company ICI Pakistan
Composition Gentamycin Sulphate BP----------100 mg/ml

Spectrum Narrow (Against G-ve Only)


Route I/m or Slow I/v
Packing Bottle of 50 ml and 100 ml
Cattle ------ 4 ml / 100 kg b/w
Dosage Horses----- 4 ml / 100 kg b/w
Sheep and goat ----- 3 ml / 70 kg b/w
Dogs, cats ----- 0.25 ml / 5 kg b/w
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Gentasel-10 Inj. (Inhibit Protein Synthesis)

Company Selmore Pharmaceuticals


Composition Gentamicin Sulphate 159mg equivalent to
gentamicin 100mg/ml
Spectrum Narrow (Against G-ve Only)
Route I/m
Packing 50ml and 100 ml vials
Dosage Cattle: 5ml/100kg b/w
Sheep/Goat: 2.5ml/50kg b/w
Dog/Cat: 0.1ml/2kg b/w
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Tryton (Interferes with cytoplasmic functions)
Company ICI Pakistan
Composition Trimethoprim BP ----- 80 mg/ml
Sulphadiazine BP ----- 400 mg/ml
Spectrum Broad Spectrum
Route I/m or Slow I/v
Packing Bottle of 10 ml and 50 ml
Dosage 1 ml / 32 kg b/w
Cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and horses
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Tribactral Fort suspension
(Interferes with cytoplasmic functions)

Company Selmore Pharmaceuticals


Composition Trimethoprim BP ----- 80 mg/ml
Sulphadiazine BP ----- 400 mg/ml
Spectrum Broad Spectrum
Route In drinking water orally
Packing 100 ml and 250 ml Bottles
1ml per 4.5 liters of drinking water daily for 5 days.
Dosage
Antibiotics Available In
Market
Product Oxy-5 Inj. (Inhibit Protein Synthesis)

Company Selmore Pharmaceuticals


Composition Oxytetracycline .......... 5.495 g/ml

Spectrum Broad Spectrum


Route I/m
Packing 50 ml vials
Dosage Cow/Buffalo/Sheep/Goat
4-5ml per 50Kg body weight of animal for 3-5 days.