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SOIL EROSION

G.INDUMATHI, M.TECH(E.E&M)-I YEAR

CONTENTS SOIL AND ITS COMPONENTS SOIL EROSION AND ITS CAUSES TYPES OF EROSION IMPACTS .

. • Soil is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic components and living organisms and is the main resource for food production.SOIL –Precious gift of Nature • It is formed by the weathering of rocks and it covers the surface of the Earth.

SOIL EROSION  Soil erosion refers to all physical processes that detach the particles. transport and deposit on land surface.  Much of the erosion is due to instability of land mass due to gravity and the balance is directly lost due to excessive moisture or water in the earth mass. .

NATURAL EROSION. Overgrazing. involves in Soil forming and distribution and maintains Earth surface in uniform level. Economic Developmental activities .CAUSES OF SOIL EROSION GEOLOGICAL EROSION-It is a long time process.Volcanic eruption. flood ANIMAL AND HUMAN ACTIVITIESDeforestation.

. melted snow(Glacial Erosion). floods.  It depends on the nature of soil.TYPES OF NATURAL EROSION WATER EROSION:  The separation and transport of soil through Rain.  Siltation-transport of soils to short distances. slope of the land. Surface creep-Large soil particles transported at ground level with high velocity of wind. WIND EROSION:  The fine loose soil particles are blown from the surface of the land and transported by the winds. Suspensiontiny particles carried high and remain suspended. velocity of water.

WIND EROSION .

Rill erosion 4. Sheet erosion .TYPES OF WATER EROSION 1.Rain drop or Splash erosion 3. Gully erosion 2.

SHEET EROSION -The thin film of water over the entire field moving down-slope. RILL EROSION-The Collection of sheet erosion water into channels called Rills. GULLY EROSION-The increase in size of rills forms large gully or a channel. once the rate of falling rain is faster than infiltration.RAIN DROP EROSION: The impact of the raindrop breaks apart the soil . . runoff takes place.

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 The sediment carries agricultural chemicals which pollutes streams and lakes-death of aquatic organisms  Reduction in Storage capacity of rivers. streams. .IMPACTS OF SOIL EROSION  On-site effect: The loss of productivity by the loss of valuable top soil  Off-site effect : the siltation of rivers and streams.

 Contamination of drinking water by the Pesticide residues. .  Loss and degradation of habitat from clearing grasslands and forests and draining wetland.