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Fundamentals Fluid Coupling

What does variable speed mean ?


Change of speed of the working machine

Voith Variable Speed Drive


Motor
constant speed

working machine constant speed

variable speed

Speed range up to 20 000 rpm Power range up to 50 000 kW

Fttinger Principle
drive with constant speed
Driver (electric motor) Working machine

Fttinger Principle
hydro-dynamic system

Driver (electric motor)


Pump Turbine

Working machine

Fttinger Principle
hydro-dynamic system

Pump Turbine
Driver (electric motor)

Working machine

The Principle of Hydrodynamic Power Transmission


Oil Flow Primary Wheel Secondary Wheel

Fttinger principle

Movie
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Basic design of Couplings


Constant Filling Variable Filling

P = T = S =

Pump Turbine Scoop tube

Animation
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Scoop tube principle

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Torque curves
Typical load curves
1.Constant torque (e. g. positive displacement pumps and compressors) 2.Decreasing torque (e. g. boiler feed pumps operating at varying pressure) 3.Parabolic torque (resistance parabola, pumps without back pressure, fan)

Operating ranges: I, IV Starting range II Control range

4.Decreasing torque (e. g. Boiler


feed pumpsat fixed pressure operation)
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III Overload range

Torque curves
The operating range is limited by : Characteristic curve 100% scoop tube position with max. output speed Characteristic curve 0% scoop tube position with min. torque required

Smin= (1 - n2/n1) x 100 % Minimum slip n1 = Input speed n2 = Output speed

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System curve

Coupling curve

Drive speed
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Change in system

Speed reduction

Scoop tube regulation to origin speed


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Change in flow Speed change

Speed raise

Scoop tube regulation to higher speed


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Design and Operation Scoop tube


3 Scoop tube 4 Oil ring 5 Scoop tube position- 0% 6 Scoop tube position-100%

Scoop tube positions

Animation
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Integration of the Variable-Speed Turbo Coupling into a control circuit


Position control circuit

Components:
Position controller Actuator for continuous control Position feedback

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Integration of the Variable-Speed Turbo Coupling into a control circuit


Process control circuit

Components: Position controller Process controller

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Fields of application
Oil and Gas

- Crude-oil pumps - Injection pumps - Compressors

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Fields of application
Chemical Industry

- Compressors - Pumps - Centrifuges - Fans

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Fields of application
Steel and iron industry

- Compressors - Fans - Pumps

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Fields of application
Material Handling and Conveying

- Conveyor drives - Pipeline pumps - Fan drives - Pipeline compressors

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Fields of application

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Fields of application

Conveyor drives

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Fields of application

Coal Mills

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Fields of application

Fan Drives

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Fields of application

Pump Drives

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Slip losses within coupling PV


P2max
Power %
100

P1max P2max

P1max = P2max / (n2/n1)^3


P2 = P1max * (n2/n1)^3 s = 1-n2/n1

80

P1
60 40

P2 s

P1 = P2 / (1-s) Pv = P1 - P2

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Pvmax

Pv
80 100

0 0 20 40 60 66 2/3 * n1

Pvmax
n2/n1 * 100%

Power losses for working machines with parabolic torque characteristics


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Variable Speed Coupling, Hydraulic losses

Maximum

P2

P1
Plosses
2 n 3 1 Power losses for working machines with parabolic torque characteristics n2 n1 100%

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Oil Circuit Power Losses

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Pv

Applies only for parabolic output torque!

Motor

Pump

P1,M1,n1,w1

Pv

P2,M2,n2,w2

P=Power [kW], M=Torque [Nm], n=Speed [1/min], w=angular velocity [1/s]

The driven machine describes the characteristic output torque!!


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Pv

Applies only for parabolic output torque!


P2 = M2 * p * n2/30

P1 = M1 * p * n1/30

P2 = M2 * w2 P1 = M1 * w1 Pv = P1 P2 = M1 * w1 M2 * w2 M1 = M2 = M Pv = M * (w1 w2)

M2= k * w2^2 = M
Pv = k * w2^2 * (w1 w2) = k * w1 * w2^2 k * w2^3 Pv` = k * w1 * 2 * w2 k * 3 * w2^2 k * w1 * 2 * w2 = k * 3 * w2^2 2 * w1 = 3 * w2 w2 = 2/3 * w1 The maximum slip losses Pv are at 66% output speed (approx. 40% scoop tube position)
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Pvmax` = 0

The maximum slip losses Pv are at 66% output speed (approx. 40% scoop tube position) at parabolic output torque
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