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Big Bang

All of us live on this beautiful Earth. All of us have our


own aspirations and dreams. We all have our own lives
to think of, our own problems to deal with and our own
highs and lows in life. But have we ever wondered how
the Universe was born? How were the stars and planets
like the Sun and Earth formed?
Then, isn’t it our duty that we try our best to know all
we can about the Universe. After all, without the Earth
or the Sun or the Universe, we wouldn’t be here.
Scientists around the world have spent 10 billion US$
to build a massive particle accelerator called the Large
Hadron Collider to learn about the Big Bang, the birth
scenario of our Universe approved by most scientists!
Big Bang
You may ask, why spend billions of dollars when the
same can be spent in tackling major problem earth is
facing today such as the Global warming and other
disruptions of Earth's weather systems and climate,
mass starvation and epidemics, environmental toxins
and waste build up, genetic engineering disasters, soil
degradation and erosion, water pollution, and so on.
But no amount of money can solve these problems of
the earth unless we attack the root cause of these
problems. And to find out just that we need look at
the Universe beyond the boundaries of the Earth, to
see, what is the origin of the universe & how it came
to existence. That would help provide direct or indirect
solution to many of these & other problems.
•Respected ladies and gentlemen, today, we are going
to do just that, explain to you all about how the
Universe was formed and the journey till now.
Big Bang
Big
Bang
The origin of time and space!!!
HOW – the Universe came into
existence?
Big Bang
The big bang is the cosmological
model of the Universe that states that
the universe has expanded from a
primordial hot and dense initial
condition at some finite time in the
past, and continues to expand to this
day.
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In 1912, Vesto Slipher
discovered that all the galaxies
were receding from the Earth.

In 1922, Alexander Friedmann,


proved from Einstein’s Theory of
Relativity that the Universe is
expanding.

In 1930, Georges Lemaître predicted


that since the Universe was
expanding as time passed, it must
have once been a single point
Big Bang
In 1912, Vesto Slipher discovered that all
the galaxies were receding from the Earth.

In 1922, Alexander Friedmann, proved


from Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
that the Universe is expanding.

In 1930, Georges Lemaître predicted that


since the Universe was expanding as time
passed, at one time it must have once
been a single point
of infinite mass!!!
Big Bang
In 1912, Vesto Slipher discovered that all
the galaxies were receding from the Earth.

In 1922, Alexander Friedmann, proved from


Einstein’s Theory of Relativity that the
Universe is expanding.

In 1930, Georges Lemaître predicted


that since the Universe was
expanding as time passed, at one
time it must have once been a single
point
of infinite mass!!!
Thus,
the Big Bang
Theory was
formed.
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Now,
let us try to understand
what
the Big Bang Theory
tells us…
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All the laws of Physics break down at
the Big Bang because physicists don’t
have a theory that deals with infinite
mass and density!!!

So, we can’t predict what happened


before the Big Bang or what happened
just
after the Big Bang
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But we can predict


everything which
happened right after
the Big Bang.
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The time after the Big Bang has
been divided into different
epochs.

In astronomy, an epoch is a
period in time that is selected
as a point of reference.
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The Planck Epoch


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Planck Epoch
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This period extends
from
0 Seconds
to
10-43 Second
after the Big Bang
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There are four fundamental forces


existing in the Universe today:
•Strong Nuclear Force
•Electromagnetic force
•Weak Nuclear Force
•Gravity
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During the Planck era, all the four fundamental
forces were unified due to the very hot temperature
at this time.
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The temperature
during this epoch was
a whopping

10 32

°Celsius
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The Grand Unification


Epoch
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Grand Unification
Epoch
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This period extends
from
10-43 Second
to
10-35 Second
after the Big Bang
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As the Universe cooled down, gravity slowly separated from the other
fundamental forces. The other three forces were unified as the
Electronuclear Force.
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During this
epoch: The force of gravity separated from
the other three fundamental forces
because the temperature had
dropped below the threshold
required for all the forces to act as
one.

At the end of this epoch, the strong


nuclear force separated from the
other fundamental forces.
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The Inflationary Epoch


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Inflationary
Epoch
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This period extends
from
10-35 Second
to
10-32 Second
after the Big Bang
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The inflationary epoch was
During this
epoch: the period in the evolution of
the early universe when, the
universe underwent an
extremely rapid exponential
expansion.

This expansion was extremely


rapid.
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The volume of the Universe during
this epoch increased

10 28
times
in less than 10-32
Seconds!!!
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The Electroweak Epoch


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Electroweak
Epoch
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This period extends
from
10-32 Second
to
10-12 Second
after the Big Bang
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During the Electroweak Epoch, the Weak
Nuclear Force separates from the
Electromagnetic Force to give us the four
fundamental forces we know today.
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We are all made of
small particles
called atoms.
Atoms are made
of even smaller
particles like
protons and
neutrons.
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These elementary
particles are made
of quarks.
And quarks are
made up of gluons.
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During the
Electroweak
epoch:Many basic particles like quarks
and gluons are formed during
this period.
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The Quark, Hadron and


Lepton Epoch
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This period extends
from
10-12 Second
to
3 Second
after the Big Bang
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First was the Quark Epoch.


During this epoch, quarks were
formed at a very fast rate.
The high temperatures (1013 °C)
meant that they did not
combine to form bigger
particles.
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Next was the Hadron Epoch.


During this epoch, quarks combined to
form Hadrons.
Hadrons are particles which have some
mass like protons and neutrons.
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Next was the Lepton Epoch.


In this epoch, the basic particles of
leptons were formed.
Leptons are particles which do not have
any mass like electrons.
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Big Bang Nucleosynthesis


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Nucleosynthesis
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This period extends
from
3 Seconds
to
300,000 Years
after the Big Bang
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During this
epoch:

As the Universe further cooled,


the hadrons (protons, neutrons)
and leptons (electrons)
combined to form atoms.
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Slowly, all the elements starting from
Hydrogen up to Iron were formed.
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The First Stars are formed


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This period starts
from
300,000 Years
after the Big Bang
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The first stars are


formed
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The first stars were formed.
Millions of stars came together to form
galaxies.
Galaxies came together to form
clusters and so on…
All this happened because of
gravity.
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And here we are today,

13.7 Billion Years


after the Big Bang
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Today,
Scientists are trying to
find out more about the
Big Bang through various
sources.
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One such source is the

Large Hadron Collider


(LHC)
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The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)


is a gigantic scientific
instrument near Geneva, where
it spans the border between
Switzerland and France about
100 m underground. 
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Inside the Large Hadron
Collider,
Two hadron beams made up of
protons will collide against each
other, both travelling at 99.99 %
of the speed of light.
That’s a total collision speed
of
Almost 600,000 km/sec
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By colliding them, scientists hope to


recreate conditions just after the Big
Bang.
In order to understand and see with
their own eyes solid proof about the
accuracy of the Big Bang theory.
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And in this process, the LHC has broken numerous
records.
•The largest machine in the world
• The fastest racetrack on the planet
• The largest refrigerator in the world
• The emptiest space in the Solar System
• The most powerful supercomputer system in
the world
• The hottest spots in the galaxy, but even
colder than outer space
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There are many theories as to what will
result from these collisions, but what's
for sure is that a brave new world of
physics will emerge from the new
accelerator, as knowledge in particle
physics goes on to describe the
workings of the Universe. For decades,
the Standard Model of particle physics
has served physicists well as a means of
understanding the fundamental laws of
Nature, but it does not tell the whole
story. Only experimental data using the
higher energies reached by the LHC can
push knowledge forward, challenging
those who seek confirmation of
established knowledge, and those who
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THE
END