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Introduction to general management Planning Organizing Leading Control Strategic management Project management

Upon completion of this presentation you should be able to: Reconfigure the concept of management Identify and discuss the roles managers play in the sector Identify and understand the competencies used in management Understand the relationship between
General Management Reform Functional Management Reform Strategic Management Reform Project Management Initiatives

Understand and apply the four fundamental management tasks Develop the general and functional / technical management parts of a position charter Understand the basic process of strategic planning Understand the basic elements of project management Identify and discuss the different types of management as applied in the Public Service Identify and discuss some contemporary management challenges facing managers in the Public Service

To Start
All of us are management practitioners Spend a large portion of time managing Enormous experience between us Important to do well but not easy

Focus on the BASICS of Publics and Sectors:

What is management like in the Public Sector?

The process of administering and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization
Achieving results through other people

Effective: pursue appropriate goals Efficient: using fewest resources Result of effective and efficient management: organizational success

Scope of Management
Functional managers
Supervise a functional unit Examples: finance, marketing, production Typically have expertise in the function

General managers
Responsible for more complex unit Usually oversee work of functional managers Broad range of competencies

Levels of management
Provide strategic direction for the organization. Monitor the external environment Supervise first-line managers. Link between top management and first-line managers. Translate strategy into action / operations. Supervise individuals who are directly responsible for producing the organizations product / service.

Operational employees

The Linking Concept

Managers serve to link the organization together (horizontally and vertically)
Five -directional management



Linking pins


Hierarchy of work
Top Management Middle Management
First-line management

Why is this a problem?


The Ideal





The Empirical

Managerial roles
Top managers spend their time as follows:
Interpersonal Roles Informational Roles
Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Figurehead Leader Liaison

59 % on scheduled meetings
Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator

22 % at their desks 10 % on unscheduled meetings 6 % on telephone calls 3 % on inspecting facilities

Henry Mintzbergs Managerial Roles

Basic tasks of management

Management work Applying effort through other people
Planning work Predetermining courses of action Organizing work Arranging and relating work Leading work Influencing jpeople to act Controlling work Assessing, regulating work and results

Which task is most important? (first among equals) Order between tasks?

Management Competencies for the 21st Century The strategist The great communicator The team player The technology / information master The problem solver The foreign ambassador The change maker The self-manager

If you aim at nothing you will hit every time Management work Applying effort through other people

Planning is the work managers do to determine objectives and a course of action

Planning work Predetermining courses of action

Forecasting Developing objectives

Developing plans
Developing policies and procedures

Forecasting is the work managers perform to predict and estimate future conditions and events and the needs and opportunities associated with them.
Depends on industry, environment, degree of uncertainty

Developing objectives
The work managers perform to determine the results to be achieved TOP
Mission And longTerm goals

Objectives LOWER Operational Should be measurable objectives and be accompanied Objectives at different by standards
levels Standard: established criterion of performance

Functional or departmental objectives

Derive from next higher level Provide guidance and unanimity Facilitate planning Inspire and motivate staff Provide a means of control Must be allocated (responsibility) Should be set consistently (vertical and horizontal) Must be accepted Standard: established criterion of performance

Objectives and time-frames

Long-term or strategic planning Medium-term or functional planning Short-term or tactical planning
Time-frames of different kinds of plans

Mission And longTerm goals

Functional or departmental objectives Operational objectives

Objectives at different levels

Developing plans
Distinguish between 2 types of plans:
Position plans Enterprise/organization plans

The plans are related

Position plans form the basis for organization plans

Integrated Planning

Position planning
Position planning consists of
Position charter (on-going) Action plans (time-limited)
Position Charter A formal statement of the overall continuing commitments, accountabilities and standards of a position Blueprint for a specific position

Key management tool

Position charter
Should be negotiated and requires 360 understanding and acceptance Forms the basis for performance management Should be revised/confirmed annually Standardized format useful Position charters should cascade down No overlaps or gaps

Position planning process

Key objective
Key standards

Commitment analysis

Work analysis

Critical objectives
Critical standards

Next higher level position charter and objectives

Programs Schedules Budgets

Specific objectives Specific standards

Need/gap analysis

Position charter
Commitment analysis: identification and examination of primary obligations and stakeholders Key objective: derived from commitment analysis concise description of purpose/mission of a particular position Key objective for unit same as that of the manager

Key standards: The vital signs of performance dashboard of key indicators of success Work analysis: Required to derive critical objectives from key objective Identify primary categories of work associated with position

Work analysis
Work associated with position

Management work Planning Organizing Leading Control

Technical work Marketing Finance Purchasing Engineering

Critical objectives
Develop a critical objective (C.O.) for each category of work State the objective as a direct continuing outcome of the work Develop standards for each C.O.: describe the condition that will exist when the objective has been met.

Action plans
Need / gap analysis: difference between desired and actual performance / condition Identify ad develop specific objectives and standards: measurable, time-limited Develop action plans: program steps, schedule, budget, (a project!) Prioritize; allocate resources, responsibility

Policies, procedures, rules

Form a standing plan Prevents reinventing the wheel and promotes consistency
Developing policies
Is the work managers perform to establish standing decisions that apply to recurring questions and problems of concern to the organization as a whole.

Developing procedures
Is the work managers perform to standardize the work that must be done uniformly.

Developing rules
Is the work managers perform to provide detailed and specific regulations for action

Structure follows strategy Management work
Applying effort through other people
Organizing is the work managers perform to arrange and relate the work to be done so it can be performed effectively by people

Organizing work

Developing organization structure Delegating Developing relationships

Arranging and relating work

Organization structure
Developing organization structure

Considerations: division of work, grouping of work, span of control, levels Types of structure: functional, product, matrix, network
Split groupings tend to force supervision to the next higher level

Is the work managers perform to identify and group the work to be done so that it can be accomplished effectively by people

Is the work managers perform to entrust responsibility and authority to others and to create accountability for results
Is the key word here




One of the most difficult aspects of management: believe others can also produce good work, not only you!

Delegation is the only way to multiply your own output

The delegation triangle

Responsibility is the obligation of an employee to perform assigned tasks, for the performance of which the incumbent must answer to a specified person, usually the superior. Accountability is the obligation to carry out delegated responsibility and authority in terms of established performance standards and accept credit or blame for work. Authority is the formal right of an employee to marshal the resources and make the decisions necessary to fulfill his or her responsibilities.

The state grants you the authority to drive a car and assigns you the responsibility for obeying traffic laws. You are then held accountable for your behavior while driving a car.

Can delegate responsibility and authority but not own accountability

How to delegate
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Know what you want to delegate Match the employee to the task Get understanding and acceptance Transfer authority and responsibility and create accountability Require completed work Provide training if required Establish adequate controls Provide a proper climate for delegating: trust, confidence

Excuses for not delegating I can do it better Employees are too busy Employees will become better skilled and will steal my job

My reputation is at stake
A mistake by an employee can be costly I give up power and control when delegating work It is too much work to delegate properly

Centralization and decentralization of authority are management philosophies of delegation: where decisions are made
Factors affecting (de)centralization: Cost attached to the decision
Advantages of decentralization Frees up top management Develops lower levels of management


Requirement for consistency

Organization culture/personalities Decisions made where info is available Availability of capable managers Fosters an achievement Control mechanisms atmosphere Environmental influences Size of organization: volume of decisions
Creates ownership for decisions at lower levels

Improves speed of decision making

Developing relationships
The work managers perform to establish the conditions necessary for the cooperative efforts of people Value chain: cooperative effort of creating value for the client Process design and work flow: tools Work groups, committees,

Management work
Applying effort through other people

Leading is the work managers perform to influence people to take effective action

Decision making Communicating Motivating (Selecting people) (Developing people)

Leading work
Influencing people to act

Leaders and Managers


Characteristics of natural leaders:

Managers Good Leaders Managers who are managers who are not not and managers leaders Characteristics of leaders Management
Focus on both people and work Specialize in management work Decentralization of authority Logical action Organize rationally Communicate effectively Control by exception

Promote personal interests Focus on work, not people Specialize in technical work Centralize decision making Act intuitively Organize around Leaders tend to evolve personalities from natural leadership to Communicate poorly Control by inspection management leadership

Decision making
The work managers perform to reach the conclusions and judgments necessary for people to act
Why are decisions difficult? Uncertain variables impacting on outcome Decision criterion/rationale unclear Complex/unknown preferences Lack of good alternative Complex structure/relationships Decision maker not clearly defined Lack of information Everything a manager does he does through decision making Peter Drucker

Decision making
A process for decision making: 1. State the apparent problem 2. Seek the facts (consult) 3. Identify the real problem 4. Develop alternative solutions 5. Weigh the alternatives 6. Select the best solution 7. Determine a course of action 8. Communicate and implement 9. Monitor and evaluate results
Rational decision making is based on

What you can do (alternatives)

Your state of information Your preferences

Must distinguish between good decisions and good luck.

By definition, risk-takers often fail. So do morons. In practice, it is difficult to sort them out Scott Adams, The Dilbert Principle

The work managers perform to create common understanding among people so that they can perform effectively Effective communication is critical for management success: key skill of a manager Process, forms, channels, of communications
Barriers to communication

Cross-cultural diversity
Information overload Gender differences

Trust and credibility

Imprecise language Time pressures

Motivating people
The work managers perform to inspire, encourage and impel people to take required action Higher levels Need-based model: motivation comes from within People act to satisfy real or imagined needs Lower levels

Work environment

Self-actualization Realizing ones full potential; creativity; self-development Esteem Self-esteem: use of ones skills, achievement, confidence, autonomy, independence. Reputation: status, recognition, appreciation by others

Affiliation Acceptance by others; association and communication with others; being part of a group
Security Protection against threats or unsafe working environment; fair treatment from management, job security; predictable work environment Physiological Good working conditions, basic wage/salary

MASLOW hierarchy of needs requiring fulfillment in the workplace

Motivating people
Motivating factors Achievement Recognition The work itself Responsibility Advancement Hygiene factors Company policy Administration Supervision Salary Working conditions Interpersonal relationships

No satisfaction Dissatisfaction

Satisfaction No dissatisfaction

Hertzbergs Two-factor model

Management work Applying effort through other people Controlling is the work managers perform to assess and regulate work in progress and to assess results secured

Developing performance standards Measuring performance Evaluating performance Correcting performance

Controlling work Assessing, regulating work and results

Controlling .
Measure difference between actual and desired performance and take corrective action Standards derive from planning: position charter and action plans Performance management system: individual and organization level Regular reporting (Pareto principle) Deviations should be made visible Self-control must be encouraged
Point of control The greatest potential for control exists at the point where the action takes place Self-control Self-control tends to be the most effective control Control by exception Should concentrate controlling effort on work not progressing according to plan

Strategic Management in the Public Sector

Part of general management Often focus only on strategic planning rather than strategic management (ethics)
Strategic management is defined as the set of decisions and actions that result in the formulation and implementation of plans designed to achieve an organizations objectives

Long-term high-level perspective

Formulate mission and social responsibility Assess external environment Perform internal analysis

Analyze strategic options and identify most desirable strategies Develop long-term objectives
Formulate shortterm objectives

Strategic management model

Select generic and grand strategies Develop functional tactics Create policies to empower action

Restructure, reengineer and refocus the organization Strategic control and continuous improvement

Project Management
Part of general management A project is a one-time activity with a welldefined set of desired results
Characteristics of projects -single definable purpose, end product or result specified in terms of cost, schedule and performance requirements -Cut across organizational lines -Uniqueness: never exactly repeated

-Unfamiliarity, uncertainty: risk

-Temporary activity: ad hoc organization -Process: project life cycle

Project Management
Key features of project management
The project manager The project team The project management system: integrative planning and control Usually imposed on top of normal organization

Systems and procedures